solid waste incineration technologies, impacts and perspectives

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University level short course on MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) Incineration Technologies and Impacts (in English)

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SOLID WASTE INCINERATIONTechnologies, Impacts and Perspectives

Professor of Environmental Engineering Science University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal antunes@dao.ua.pt

F. ANTUNES PEREIRA

Curso de Verano La problemtica del ambiente urbano UniversidaddeCastillaeLen SEGOVIA,10-13Septiembre,2002.

What is Incineration? Technical definition is a bit complicated (see EU Incineration Directive 2000/76/CE)! For the common citizen it is the burning of MSW (municipal solid) waste in dedicated furnaces.

What distinguishes MSWI from other waste treatment processes? Reduce the weight (by 70%) and volume (by 90%) of original waste: ash Stabilize the waste: toxicity, patogenicity Divert waste from landfill sites Recover (produces) energy: heat + electricity

Why is incineration currently so important ? ! The new EU Landfill Directive (1999/31/CE) imposing a 75% decrease of waste (relative to 1995) going to landfills, until the year 2015. The 3 RRRs rule (reduce, reuse, recycle) is not being fully implemented. The need of EU governments to comply with the new 6EAP (Environmental Action Programme): decouple resource use from economic growth through significantly improved resource efficiency.

What is a typical MSW composition in the EU? 30% are inorganic: can be recycled 70% are organic: can bee incinerated or biologicaly degraded Many treatment combinations are then possible

What are the most used management options, then?Landfilling (60%) and incineration (20%) in average are the commonest

What are the numbers of incinerator plants in the EU ?295 sites in EU (>30 000 t/y) Trend to increase lately

What are the incinerator plants sizes in the EU ?Average incinerator size in the EU: 177 000 t/y (this means 20 t/h, or 500 t/d). Average size of MSWI plants has increased since the 1980s.

What are the costs of incinerator plants in the EU ? Treatment costs vary from 20 to 160 /t EU average is about 75 /t, and The prices have been increasing

Now: it is about time to say what is the scope of this presentation...!W STE A

Incinerator

IM A T P C S

1 T n ech ologies Im acts p 2 E ission m s con ol tr 3 L egislation 4 Policies 6 Socio econ ical om S g itin 7 F tu u re tren ds Hm u an H ealth E viron en n m tal 5

But...Before going on it is relevant to emphazise that incineration generates two important toxic emissions:

Combustion gases Solid residues (ash) ...Therefore they need pre-treatment before disposal...

Topic 1-Technology: how does an incinerator work?What are the main components, streams and pollutants?...

Topic 1-Technology: how does an incinerator work?The same, but a bit more funny !!!...

Topic 1-Technology: how does an incinerator work?Now, more serious stuff...!

Topic 1-Technology: how does an incinerator work?Types of furnace (combustion chamber): grates

Topic 1-Technology: how does an incinerator work?Types of furnace (combustion chamber): fluid beds

Topic 1-Technology: how does an incinerator work?Types of furnace (combustion chamber): rotary drum

Topic 1-Technology: how does an incinerator work?Types of furnace (combustion chamber): vitrification hearth

Topic 1-Technology: how does an incinerator work?Useful plants: producing matrials for recycling!...

Topic 1-Technology: how does an incinerator work?Useful plants: producing heat and electricity !...

Topic 1-Technology: how does an incinerator work?...just what you can do with heat alone...

Topic 2-Emissions controlThese are the main emissions...

OOOOPS!...

Topic 2-Emissions controlWhat are the main emissions?

OK now !...

Topic 2-Emissions controlThe culprits in the waste!...

Topic 2-Emissions controlWhat can be done?... UPSTREAM Waste pre-sort: remove the culprits !... INSIDE FURNACE Increase combustion efficiency using good control and monitoring DOWNSTREAM Use end-of-pipe technology

Topic 2-Emissions controlImproving combustion through monitoring and control

Topic 2-Emissions controlTreating the flue gases...

Topic 2-Emissions controlTreating the flue gases...

Topic 2-Emissions controlTreating the flue gases...

Topic 2-Emissions controlTreating the fly-ash and APCRs...

Topic 2-Emissions controlTreating the flue gases...

Topic 3-LegislationHow is ordinary people protected by governments legislation?...

Waste incineration is regulated by EU Directive 2000/76/EC Critic: regulation based on available technology, not on human health data Example of emission limits: see next slide...

Topic 3-LegislationHow is ordinary people protected by governments legislation?...Example of gas emissions limits:Poluente Partculas totais (mg.m-3) TOC (mg.m-3) HCl (mg.m-3) HF (mg.m-3) SO2 (mg.m-3) NOx (mg.m-3) Cd + Tl (mg.m-3) Hg (mg.m-3) Sb + As + Pb + Cr + Co + Cu + Mn + Ni + V (mg.m-3) Dioxinas e furanos (ng.m-3) CO (mg.m-3) Temp. (C) Mdia 24 h 10 10 10 1 50 200 Mdia 30 min (100%) 30 20 60 4 200 400 0.05 0.05 0.5 100 850 Mdia Mdia Frequncia de 30 min 6-8 h amostragem (97%) 10 Contnuo 10 Contnuo 10 Contnuo 2 Contnuo 50 Contnuo 200 Contnuo 0.1 2 vezes por ano 0.1 2 vezes por ano 1 2 vezes por ano 0.1 50 150 2 vezes por ano Contnuo Contnuo

Topic 3-LegislationHow is ordinary people protected by governments legislation?...Example of wastewater emissions limits:Poluente Slidos suspensos totais (mg.l-1) Hg (mg.l-1) Cd (mg.l-1) Tl (mg.l-1) As (mg.l-1) Pb (mg.l-1) Cr (mg.l-1) Cu (mg.l-1) Ni (mg.l-1) Zn (mg.l-1) Dioxinas e Furanos Valor limite expresso em concentrao mssica para amostras no-filtradas 30 (95%) 45 (100%) 0,03 0,05 0,05 0,15 0,2 0,5 0,5 0,5 1,5 0,3

Topic 4-PoliciesWhat is EU policy regarding waste and incineration?...

The EU hierarchy of waste management

The recommended Principles:

1. Proximity 2. Precautionary 3. Sustainability 4. Self-suffiency

Topic 4-PoliciesWhat is EU policy regarding waste and incineration?...

...The Sustainability principle: 1. Environmental compatibility 2. Economic effectiveness 3. Social acceptance

Topic 4-PoliciesWhat is EU policy regarding waste and incineration?... ...and the IRWM-Integrated Resource and Waste Management

Topic 5-Incineration impactsHow can we assess the impacts?...

How the emitted pollutants disperse in the environment:

Topic 5-Incineration impactsHow can we assess the impacts?...TOOLS!

Tools for impacts assessment: Epidemiological studies Risk assessment Emissions monitoring Use of biomarkers

Topic 5-Incineration impactsWhat are the impacts?...ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

Noise (waste transport; plant operation) Aesthetic Land degradation Global warming (CO2, N2O, CH4...) Acidification (HCL, HF, NOx...) Smog (NOx+hydrocarbons)

Topic 5-Incineration impactsWhat are the the impacts?...HUMAN HEALTH

Respiratory and cardiac: -PM -acid gases -metals Cancer: -metals (Cr, Cd, As), -dioxins Neurophysiological: metals (Pb, Hg) Reproductive: dioxins

Topic 5-Incineration impactsWhat are the the impacts?...SOCIO-ECONOMIC

Economic: taxes; jobs; infrastructures (transports, commerce, industry...) Physological: stigma (why me?; NIMBY); stress/depression; fairness Social: change of social fabric; environmental justice; social unrest (different perception values-knowledgegap, distrust, bad risk communication, no public involvement

Topic 6-Planning and siting an incineratorBasic principles:

Never forget the sustainability principle: Environmental compatibility (Nature, ecossystems, arquitectonic patrimony) Economic viability (industry, jobs, productivity) Social acceptance (risk communication, public involvement)

Topic 6-Planning and siting an incineratorScientificc TOOLS

Use quantitative scientific tools: GIS (Geographic Information Systems) Operation Research methods: Linear and Dynamic Programming, Multicriteria decision tools (AHP-Analytitic Hierarquic Process...)

Topic 6-Planning and siting an incineratorApplication to a ficticious case Siting a MSW incinerator in Geneva (Sw):1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Definethemulti-criteriadecisionanalysismethodology Mapoftheregionservedbytheplant Populationdensity Yearlyvolumeofwasteproducedinallofthecommunes Identifyadmissiblezonesfortheplantlocation(industrial,morethan 2halots,publiclyowned);theyareCheneviers,BoisdeBay,Z.I. Meyza,Velodrome,andLesRupiers Identifythemainroadsfromeachcommunecentertoeachofthe admissiblesites,andcalculatetheoptimum(shortestdistance)using theSimplexMethod(cont)

Topic 6-Planning and siting an incineratorApplication to a ficticious case(Cont)

7

Calculatethenuisancecorridorforeachoptimizedroute(a100m bufferzoneforeachsideoftheroad,representingthenoisebuffer zone;seeFigure8.8)anda1Kmnuisancecircle(representingthe visualandnoiseimpactaroundeachadmissiblesite);thecumulative representationisshowninFigure8.9);foreachcasethenumberof affectedpeopleiscalculated,bysuperimposing withthepopulation map,Figure8.3

8 UseaGaussianatmosphericpollutiondispersionmodeltocalculate thestackplumeintersectionwiththeground,givingtheNOx concentrationprofilesattheground(Figure8.10),andcalculatethe numberofpeopleaffected

Topic 6-Planning and siting an incineratorApplication to a ficticious case9UsetheAHPmethodtodeterminewhichofthe5admissiblesitesis lessaffectedbytheincineratorplant;thisisshowninFigure8.11), whereZ.I.Meysahasthehighestscoreandisthereforethedefinite choiceforsitingtheincineratorplant.

Topic 6-Planning and siting an incineratorApplication to a ficticious case: the Geneva case1 -Definethemulti-criteriadecisionanalysismethodology

Topic 6-Planning and siting an incineratorApplication to a ficticious case: the Geneva case2 -Mapoft