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SRI MUTHUKUMARAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYME 2453 PROJECT WORK

PROJECT MEMBERS :

S.PAUL RAJA 212611114059S.PRABHU 212611114060P.PREM KUMAR 212611114066V.RANJITH 212611114072

PLC CONTROLLED AUTOMATIC SOLAR TRACKING SYSTEM PROJECT GUIDE : Prof. K.BALAKANNAN Mechanical Engineering Department SMIT CONTENTS

LITERATURE SURVEYOBJECTIVETRACKING METHODPOSITIONING OF SOLAR PANELCOMPONENTSDESIGNWORKINGFAULT IDENTIFICATIONPLC PROGRAM SIMULATION USING SOFTWARETRACKING TIME CALCULATIONANALYSISCOST ANALYSISADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONPHOTOGRAPHYRESULTS AND CONCLUSIONREFERENCELITERATURE SURVEYINTRODUCTION In our daily life, the need of energy increases each and every day. The source of electricity is commonly from motor generators that is generate from the source of coal or other element of fuel. Another new way in this era is by using solar energy. The solar energy convert solar irradiation to power that can be used in common appliance.The purpose of automatic solar tracking system (solar tracker)is to follow the sun from dawn , throughout the day , till evening and again from dawn next day. The process goes on, when there are clouds in the sky; it tracks the sun once it gets out of it.

TopicAuthorObservedAn efficient low cost solar tracker using microcontrollerMeghana sharma,IOSR journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, volume 9 issue 4 ver.In microcontroller once we write a program it cannot be rewritable but in PLC it is possibleA simple neural network solar tracker for optimizing conversion efficiency in off-grid solar generatorM.A.Panait and T.TudoracheIn this the efficiency of the solar tracker is studied using the neural networkPassive solar tracking systemAsst.prof.NarendrasinhJ.Parmar,Ankit. N.Parmar, Vinod .S.GautamPassive solar tracking System is inconvenient to use and difficult to handle.so we are using active solar tracking systemSUMMARY OF ARTICLETopicAuthorObservedThe Cost Effectiveness Of Solar TrackingZachary Bever, Andrew best Jr, Dr.Vasundra Varadan, M.Brandon Buscher.In dual axial tracking method the solar panel is rotating in North to South and East to West direction. But in North to south direction only 5-8% of energy is produced. But in East to West direction it contributes 35-42% of energy.Design Of a Low Cost Solar Tracking Photo Voltaic Module and Wind Turbine Combination SystemS.Lakeou, E.Ososanya, B.O.Latigo, W.Mahmoud.To make the solar source efficient, the solar panel is placed in an angle according to the location. For Chennai, Tamil Nadu the angle is 13 south. This is because the suns path changes according to the month wise also.Solar Energy-Principles of Thermal Collection and StorageS.P.SukhatmeThe solar energy convert solar irradiation to power that can be used in common appliance.CONCLUSION

From the above survey we concluded that,The efficient way of solar tracking is achieved by active solar tracking method other than passive method.Using sensors in tracking is not efficient in all weather conditions.On using microcontroller as controlling system it has an disadvantage that the fault identification in program or in system is a difficult process. So we decided to use PLC for the process.We also observed that efficient way of tracking needs correct positioning of solar panel. It changes according to the location and latitude. Because of this positioning single axis tracking is enough for getting efficient results.Finally from above all we are going to concentrate our project view towards tracking of suns path and fault identification features.

OBJECTIVE: In our daily life , the need of energy increases each and everyday. The source of electricity is commonly from motor generators that is generate from the source of coal or other element of fuel. Another new way in this era is by using solar energy .

The solar energy system converts solar irradiation to power that can be used in common appliance.

The purpose of automatic solar tracking system(solar tracker)is to follow the sun from dawn , throughout the day , till evening and again from dawn next day.

Our main objective is to achieve the solar tracking by use of PLC and fault identification features.Our way of tracking method is active tracking method.

In active tracking controller circuit, sensors, timers and motors are used for tracking.

This method of tracking is efficient than other methods in all weather conditions.TRACKING METHODPOSITIONING OF SOLAR PANEL :

To make the solar source efficient , the solar panel is placed in an angle according to the location. For Chennai , Tamil Nadu the angle is 13 south. This is because the suns path changes according to the month wise also. The other idea is also to avoid the dual axis tracking.COMPONENTSSolar panel (12V,10watts)

Frame and base

PLC

DC Geared motor

Pillow block

SMPS

Push button and switches

PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONROLLERA Programmable logic controller is an industrial computer control system that continuously monitors the state of input devices and makes decisions based upon a custom program to control the state of output devices INPUTCENTRAL PROCESSING UNITOUTPUTPURPOSE OF USING PLC Microcontrollers are programmed one typically they cannot be reprogrammed if microcontrollers are controlled by read only memory(ROM) only rather than random access memory(RAM), but in PLC reprogramming is possible. PILLOW BLOCKA pillow block is also known as a Plummer block is a pedestal used to provide support for rotating shaft with the help of compatible bearings and various accessories . Pillow block is suitable for mounting our shaft in the tracking system

DC GEARED MOTOR A gear motor is a specific type of electrical motor is designed to produce high torque while maintaining low horse power or low speed motor output. Common commercial application of a geared motor include commercial jacks , cranes and many other applications A gear motor can be either AC or DC electric motor. In our project we are using DC electric motor because it having high holding torque. Our required condition is high torque and low speed.The specification of the motor is 10rpm,12V,DC motor , torque is 25kgcm.

DESIGN

123456Geared DC motorSolar panelShaftPillow blockPLC circuit Frame and base

FRONT VIEWTOP VIEWSIDE VIEW (LEFT)SIDE VIEW (RIGHT)WORKING: Sunlight has two components , the direct beam that carries about 90% of the solar energy and the diffuse sunlight that carries the remainder. The diffuse portion is the blue sky on a clear day. As the majority of the energy is in the direct beam , maximizing collection requires the sunlight to fall straight onto the panels as long as possible. This is where the tracker comes. The tracker is basically a mechanical device consisting of a DC motor and moves according to the command from the controller in response to the suns direction. The controller used is programmable logic controller(PLC).The tracking is done by programmed time-delayed movement of panel throughout the day. The delay is set in PLC. FAULT IDENTIFICATION While rotating the panel ,if some error occur means the buzzer will give warning signal.

Fault in motor during operation can be identified , during the fault we will be alerted with the buzzer sound.

After rectifying the faults the whole system can be reset by means of reset button.

PLC PROGRAM SIMULATION USING SOFTWRE:Motor forward rotation

Motor reverse rotation

Buzzer and indication lamp outputTracking time calculation:In daily cycle,No. of tracking position per day = 5T0 = Forward rotation timeT1=Interval timeT4=reverse rotation timePosition of timings:1st position = 6.00 a.m.2nd position = 9.00 a.m.3rd position = 12.00 p.m.4th position = 3.00 p.m.5th position = 6.00 p.m.Time interval between positions:1. Total time of tracking = 12 hours2. No. of positions = 5 Interval between positions(T1) = 12/5 = 2.40 mins Forward rotation time = 2 milliseconds Reverse rotation time = 35 milliseconds

ANALYSIS:CONTACT FORCE ANALYSIS

CONTACT STRESS ANALYSIS

STATIC ANALYSIS OF FRAME STRUCTURE

MODAL DISPLACEMENT ANALYSIS

MODAL STRESS ANALYSISCOST ANALYSIS:COMPONENTSCOST( RUPEES )Solar panel 770 Frame and base 1200DC Geared motor1250Electronic components2200PLC kit (Omron Zen PLC)10000Total15240ADVANTAGES: Solar trackers generate more electricity than their stationary counterparts due to an increased direct exposure to solar rays.There are many different kinds of solar tracker , such as single-axis and dual-axis trackers ,which can help you find the perfect fit for your unique jobsite. Installation size , local weather ,degree of latitude and electrical requirements are all important considerations that can influence the type of solar tracker.Solar tracker generate more electricity in roughly the same amount of space needed for fixed tilt systems , making them ideal optimizing land usage APPLICATION: Automatic solar tracking system can be used in all form of system which uses solar panels for power generation, by means that effective utilization of solar energy can be obtained.

PHOTOGRAPHYRESULTS AND CONCLUSION:In this project, the setup was fabricated and the results were obtained for the various conditions (viz. stationery and tracking) using Multimeter. The open circuit voltage of the solar panel array is 12V and the obtained average output during tracking is around 11V. It found that it is efficient when compared with stationary solar pa