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  • 1

    USAID POWER THE FUTURE REGIONAL PROGRAM

    JANUARY 20-21, 2020

    BISHKEK, KYRGYZSTAN

    SOLAR PV & WIND.

    SYSTEMS ENGINEERING & DEVELOPMENT

  • APPROACH & METHODOLOGY

    • Cumulative & interlaced knowledge acquisition

    • Application and results oriented knowledge delivery

    • Project development cycle

    • Integration of additional knowledge required by market

    • Continuous cumulative exercises and practical examples

    • Practical application of tools

    • Engineering decision making

    • Fully interactive classroom

    • Team building

    • Workgroups and presentations

    • Peer to peer review of results

    • Integration of holistic knowledge

  • GRID

    OFF GRID

    MINIGRID

  • MINI GRIDS VS GRIDS. INTRODUCTION

    =

    ~

    ~

    Mini Grid

    “Full” Grid

    ~

    =

  • MINI GRIDS VS GRIDS. INTRODUCTION

    =

    ~

    ~ =

    =

    =

    ~

    ~ =

    =

    – Mesh Interconnected Clustered

    – Mini Grid.

    – Interconnections are below 66 kV to

    avoid the cost of substations.

    – All generation and all consumption is

    shared over the whole integrated grid

    providing a self balanced operation.

  • MINI GRIDS / CLUSTERS WITH DER ARCHITECTURE

    1. Solar PV Plant

    2. Inverter Grid Forming

    3. Inverter/Charger & Controller

    4. Storage

    5. Diesel genset as backup.

    6. Wind generation and/or others.

  • TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

    1

    2

    3 4

    5

    6

    7 8

    9

    10

    11

    1. Solar PV Field

    2. Inverter.

    3. Storage Bank

    4. Genset

    5. Wind Turbine

    12

    13

    6. Consumer/s & Metering

    7. Transformer (Up/Down)

    8. Grid (Transmission/Distribution)

    9. Protections (DC)

    10. Protections (AC)

    11. Protections (HV) & Metering

    12. Telecommunications

    13. Remote Management (SCADA)

  • SOLAR /

    WIND

    GENERATION

  • SOLAR PV. SOLAR GENERATION SIDE

    A solar panel is a combination of multiple smaller panels, called Cells or Wafers, each of them is

    formed by various layers of different semiconducting materials, which trap the electrons as they hit

    the surface and convert them into electricity, which is delivered by the cells’s back layer. The cells

    or wafers are connected in series (to add up volts) and the series into parallels (to add up amps).

    On commercial projects, the warranties and bankability prevails over technical characteristics.

  • SOLAR PV. SOLAR GENERATION SIDE. MARKET AVAILABLE

    PANEL TECHNOLOGIES.

    c-SI or Crystalline

    Type

    1. Mono Crystalline

    2. Poly Crystalline.c-SI Mono c-SI Poly CdTe

    Advantages

    Good efficiency with

    clear sky.

    Low degradation

    mismatch.

    Good efficiency with turbid

    sky.

    Long cleaning cycles.

    Steady market availability.

    Same panel cost as c-SI Poly.

    Best efficiency in turbid skies

    and/in hot weather.

    Disadvantages

    Uneven market

    availability.

    Shorter cleaning

    intervals.

    Industry average degradation

    mismatch.

    Uneven market availability.

    Delicate logistics.

    Higher Total project costs.

    High degradation mismatch.

    Shorter cleaning intervals.

    Notes

    Performance below

    optimal in typical

    equatorial turbid sky

    The balance between Total

    Project’s cost vs Performance

    vs OM costs vs

    standardization and availability,

    makes this to be

    recommended technology.

    Even having the best

    performance for the local

    environment these are over-

    weighted by the shortcomings

    Thin Film Type

    1. Cadmium Telluride

    2. Other non-commercial

    Crystalline technology dominates the world industry with more than 150 GW of manufacturing capacity. Poly type is the most widely available.

    There is only 1 big manufacturer of CdTe and has very limited supply capacity, most of it devoted to self-developed large utility scale projects of

    more than 100 MWp.

  • SOLAR PV. SOLAR GENERATION SIDE. STRINGS & TABLES

    Strings are organized in “tables” and tables into “arrays”.

    Cables between panels shall never jump between tables.

    There are many possible configurations of tables, according to how many panels are in vertical order,

    normally it varies between 1 and 4.

    The panels can be oriented either in vertical position or horizontal position, as by where their long side is

    oriented.

    Here are some examples of tables: Strings must follow the

    table

    Strings can be routed on

    the table to reduce

    cable to reach the

    combiner of inverter.

    Multiple strings can be

    routed on the table in

    different shapes to

    reduce cable to reach

    the combiner of

    inverter.

  • WIND

    GENERATION

  • WIND. GENERATION SIDE

    A Wind turbine is an electromechanical generation unit, where an inductive (spinning) generator is

    actuated by the effect of the wind against the blades of the rotor. Depending on the technology of

    the spinning generator. Today, the small units with less than 300 kW are no longer considered

    financially viable and the usual platform starts with 2 WM. The domestic types (< 50 kW) either

    generate DC or AC in freespin and must be associated with a battery bank due to the extreme

    variability of their output and their lack of controls.

  • WIND. GENERATION SIDE

  • WIND. GENERATION SIDE

    Micro Turbines Utility Scale

    0 to 10 kW 800 kW to 12 MWALMOST EMPTY

    No mainstream products in the

    market

    10 kW to 800 kW

    Do It Yourself

    approach.

    Available even in

    department stores.

    Manufacturers

    Vertical Integration.

    Financial product

    approach.

  • WIND. GENERATION SIDE. MARKET AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES.

    Horizontal type

    1. Domestic or

    Utility

    2. DC or AC Output

    Horizontal Vertical

    Advantages

    High availability.

    Proven design.

    Available in any scale.

    More units per area.

    No mechanical stress.

    Very low noise.

    Disadvantages

    Difficult OM.

    High mechanical stress.

    Complex foundations & EPC.

    Only available for domestic scale.

    More expensive.

    Limited market availability.

    Notes

    Utility scale presents a high inertia,

    allowing for smooth grid

    integration.

    The balance between cost and power has

    limited his development towards utility

    scale type.

    Vertical type:

    1. Domestic Application

    2. DC or AC Output

    Horizontal technology dominates the market in all sizes. Verticals are mostly considered for aesthetical reasons.

  • Platform Average Power Civil Works Turbine Total cost Cost per

    kW

    Endurance E-3120 55 kW 176,400 327,600 504,000 9,164

    Enercon E53/48/44 800 kW 686,000 1,274,000 1,960,000 2,450

    EWT DW61 900 kW 735,000 1,365,000 2,100,000 2,333

    GE 1.5sle 1.5 MW 1,421,000 2,639,000 4,060,000 2,707

    Enercon E82 2 – 3 MW 1,519,000 2,821,000 4,340,000 2,170

    WIND. GENERATION SIDE. MARKET AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES

  • WIND. GENERATION SIDE. PLANT LAYOUT

    T 1 T 2 T 3 T 4

    > Diam x 10

    T 5 T 5

    > Diam x 10

  • GENERATION SIDE. INVERTERS

    The inverter processes the DC energy received

    the PV Field to deliver usable AC energy

  • GENERATION SIDE. INVERTERS They convert DC power into AC power.There are various types:

    • On Grid or Grid tied.They synchronize his output to the voltage and frequency of the hosting grid.

    • Grid dependent.

    • Anti-islanding protection prevails. No grid, no power.

    • Grid forming.

    • Anti-islanding can be cancelled or programmed. No grid, power output if desired.VRTH capabilities.

    • Off Grid or Isolated.They serve facilities not connected to the grid.They are not grid compatible.

    • DC to AC.

    • They create a standard power AC power in pure sinewave. Storage should be added.

    • Inverter-Charger or DC to AC to DC.

    • They can have multiple DC and AC inputs and include the battery charger function.

    • DC to DC.

    • They create a stable DC output from various DC sources to supply an Off Grid or Grid Ties

    inverter. The main application is large storage with multiple large DC generation sources and

    multiple storage banks of different technologies.

    • Hybrids.

    • Multiple DC and multiple AC inputs, like an Inverter-Charger, but with smart power management

    capabilities. Output can be Off grid or Grid tie, but not both.

  • PROTECTIONS

  • GENERATION SIDE. PROTECTIONS - DC.

    - Fuses, ultra-rapi

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