solar irradiance: total and spectral and its possible variations
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Solar irradiance: total and spectral andits possible variations
M. P. Thekaekara
The present status of our knowledge of the total and spectral irradiance of the sun is briefly reviewed. Thecurrently accepted NASA/ASTM standard values of the solar constant and the extraterrestrial solar spec-tral irradiance are presented. The uncertainties in these values are relatively high. Data on the variabili-ty of the solar constant are conflicting and inconclusive. The variability of solar spectral irradiance. is al-most totally unknown and unexplored. Some alleged sun-weather relationships are cited in support of theneed of knowing more precisely the variations in total and spectral solar irradiance. An overview of thesolar monitoring program of NASA is presented, with special emphasis on the Solar Energy Monitor inSpace (SEMIS) experiment which has been proposed for several of the spacecraft missions. It is a combi-nation of a solar constant detector and a prism monochromator.
1. IntroductionThe solar constant and the solar spectral distribu-
tion have been the topic of extensive investigationsfor a long period of time, and many different valueshave been proposed. At the turn of the century,Hann's Handbook of Meteorology published withoutpreference three values of the solar constant: Pouil-let's 1230 Wm-2, Angstrom's 2717 Wm-2 , and Lan-gley's 2051 Wm- 2 . That was indeed a very widespread of values. The long series of measurementsmade by Abbot resulted in values close to 1350Wm-2 . Subsequent to Abott's work and prior to themore recent measurements made from high altitudeplatforms, two values that were widely accepted wereJohnson's 1396 Wm 2 and Nicolet's 1380 Wm-2 .11. NASA/ASTM Standard of Total and Spectral SolarIrradiance
A listing of the values proposed as a result of mea-surements made from research aircraft, balloons, andspacecraft is given in Fig. 1. They are grouped ac-cording to the three radiation scales to which theyare referred: the International Pyrheliometric Scaleof 1956, the Absolute Electrical Units Scale, and theThermodynamic Kelvin Temperature Scale. Each ofthese values is the result of a long series of measure-ments. The horizontal lines indicate the degree ofuncertainty claimed by each author.
The author is with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Green-belt, Maryland 20771.
Received 2 September 1975.
Out of these measurements from high altitudeplatforms resulted a revised value of the solar con-stant, 1353 Wm-2. This has been accepted as thedesign criteria for NASA space vehicles1 and as theengineering standard of the American Society ofTesting and Materials (ASTM).2 The NASA/ASTMstandard includes also a solar spectral irradiancecurve which is shown in Fig. 2. The table of spectralirradiance values is given in Ref. 3. This is basedmainly on measurements made by the GSFC CV 990team who used five large spectral irradiance instru-ments of different types.4 The spectral curve ob-tained from the GSFC data was modified slightly inthe 0.3-0.7-gm range with the aid of the filter radi-ometer data obtained by the Eppley-JPL team andthus was defined the NASA/ASTM spectral irra-diance standard.
A closer look at the currently accepted values ofthe total and spectral irradiance of the sun outsidethe atmosphere shows that these values are by nomeans final, and considerably more work needs to bedone. The value 1353 Wm-2 is significantly lowerthan those of Johnson and Nicolet, but rather closeto those proposed more recently by Labs and Neck-el,5 Makarova and Kharitonov,6 and Stair and Ellis.7And it is also close to the earlier Smithsonian value ofAbbot. But one observes that it is based on ninevalues which range between 1338 Wm-2 and 1368Wm-2 , and the two extreme values are those that, ac-cording to the respective authors, claim least uncer-tainty.
The NASA/ASTM value of the solar constant hasa stated uncertainty of 21 Wm- 2 or 1.5%, which israther large for an important constant of geophysicsand astronomy, when we consider that most other
April 1976 / Vol. 15, No. 4 / APPLIED OPTICS 915
IPS 56 LENINGRAD 135314DENVER 13386EPPLEY-JPL 136023A 6618 134326A 7635 134940
AEUS JPL TCFMGSFC CONEJPL ACR
1353 201358 24
TKTS HY-CAL 1352 22
STANDARD VALUE 135321
1300 1320 1340 1360 1380 1400
1300 1320 1340 1360 1380 1400W. -2
Fig. 1. Values of solar constant derived from high altitudemeasurements.
SOLAR CONSTANT 1353 Wm-2
1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6WAVELENGTH (,m)
Fig. 2. The NASA/ASTM standard curve of extraterrestrial solarspectral irradiance.
constants like the velocity of light, Planck's constant,or electron charge are quoted to an accuracy of a fewparts in a million. The uncertainty in the spectral ir-radiance is considerably greater than in the solar con-stant itself and varies with the wavelength range. Inthe visible and near ir the GSFC experimenters useddifferent instruments which did not yield identicalspectral curves. There were greater differences be-tween the GSFC data and the Eppley-JPL filterdata. Equally disturbing, if not more so, are the dif-ferences between the NASA/ASTM CURVE curveand those published earlier, those of F. S. Johnson,Labs, Neckel, and others.Ill. Solar Variability and its Effects: InconclusiveEvidence
In many applications of the solar irradiance values,both total and spectral, a question of major concernis the variability of these values. The changes in thesolar irradiance in the uv below 0.3 m and in the mi-crowave range between 2 cm and 10 m have been wellestablished. As for the solar constant itself the vari-ability is over a smaller range, probably 1% or 2% orperhaps less; but the data available in literature donot permit any firm conclusions. A precision consid-erably better than what is possible for absolute accu-racy is required to determine the variability of thetotal and spectral irradiance of the sun. Measure-ments made from sea level and even from mountaintops and research aircraft do not have the requiredaccuracy and precision because of the highly variableatmospheric attenuation and the errors inherent inextrapolation to zero air mass.
The most extensive data on the solar constant arethose collected by Abbot and his co-workers at theSmithsonian Institution. They cover a period of over50 yr. There have been numerous attempts at an
Table I. Major Contributions to Analysis of Smithsonian Data for CorrelationBetween Solar Constant E and Sunspot Number N
Refer-Data period Year ence Main conclusions of the authors
Angstr6m 1915-17 1922 8 E is max. for 100 < N < 160.E increases by 2.4% for N 0-80.
Abbot, et al. 1920-39 1942 9 E does not vary with N.E varies by 1% with faculae area.
Aldrich 1923-44 1945 10 E is maximum for N near 20.Greatest variation of E was 0.4% in 1923-33.Aldrich and Hoover 1922-52 1952 11 E has small irregular variations, less than 2%.Largest increase during 1946-50 when N was high.
Aldrich and Hoover 1944-52 1954 12 E increases by 0.8% as N increases from 0 to 175.Allen 1915-52 1958 13 Variations in E do not exceed 0.1%.Sterne and Dieter 1923-58 1958 14 There are no periodicities in N common to data from two
stations: Table Mountain and Montezuema.Abbot 1923-58 1958 15 N has many periodicities with submultiples of 273 months.
N changes up to 4% with large sunspots and magnetic storms.Angstr6m 1923-55 1970 16 Variations in N are less than 0.2%.Kondratyev and 1928-32 1970 17 There is indubitable correlation between N and faculae area.
Nikolsky 1943-52 There are synchronous variations up to 0.8% at three stations.
916 APPLIED OPTICS / Vol. 15, No. 4 / April 1976
I I I
analysis of these data to determine whether the solarconstant varies with the sunspot number, the mag-netic field, or any other observable feature of the sun.The sunspots have the well known 11-yr cycle. Inaddition there are several other cycles, those of solarrotation, the solar magnetic field, the magnetic sectorboundaries, the longer periodicities of 90 yr andmore. There are also the sporadic and unpredictableevents that last for periods from a few minutes toseveral days.
A few major contributions to the analysis of theSmithsonian data for correlation between the sun-spot number N and the solar constant E are given inTable I. The Table lists the authors, the period ofthe Smithsonian data that they considered, the yearof publication, the serial number of the publication inthe list of references at the end of this paper, and themain conclusions that the authors have derived.This summary statement of the main conclusionsdoes not do full justice to the wealth of informationcontained in the respective publications. It is ob-vious that different authors examining the same datacome to entirely different conclusions.
Three studies that are independent of the Smith-sonian data should also be cited. Bossolasco et al.'8made an analysis of ground based measurements atfour stations, Uccle (Belgium), Jerusalem (Israel),Krippenstein, and Sonnblick (Austria), over the1956-1960 period and concluded that E has a pro-nounced maximum for No 160 and that it decreasesby 15-17% as N increases to 250 or 300. This is anupper extreme for suggested variations in the solarconstant. Kondratyev attributes this finding to in-creased atmospheric absorption;'7 there is a closecorrelation between the nine dates of observations ofBossolasco et al. with N > 250 and the dates of theU. S. nuclear tests of the 1956-1958 period. Fromthe Leningrad balloon data Kondratyev and Nikol-sky17 conclude that E is maximum for 80 < N < 100and that there is a decrease of N of 2-2.5% for higherand lower N values. They also find that Angstrom'sanalysis made in 1922 had yielded a curve of E vs Nof much the same