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Solanaceous Crops. Family: Solanaceae Warm Season Perennials Naturally self pollinating Tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) Pepper ( Capsicum annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense ) Other Solanceous crops: Potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) Eggplant ( Solanum melongena ) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Solanaceous CropsFamily: Solanaceae Warm Season PerennialsNaturally self pollinatingTomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)Pepper (Capsicum annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense)Other Solanceous crops:Potato (Solanum tuberosum)Eggplant (Solanum melongena)Tomatillio (Physalis ixocarpa)

  • TomatoCenter of Origin:Andes Mts.

    Eastern Black Nightshade

    Jimson Weed

  • TomatoLycopersicon esculentum var. esculentum(not: Lycopersicon lycopersicum)Arguably the most important vegetable cropAcreage, production, valueTypes:Fresh MarketSaladBeefstakeCherryGreenhouseTypically hand harvestedProcessingPear or Roma shape (old processing varieties are round)High solids content (>6%)Typically machine harvested

  • Tomato IndustryFresh Market:27% of total US acreage, 62% of valueGrown Year-RoundSpring & Summer: Through-out the USSpring: California & Southern USSummer: Georgia & NorthWinter: Mostly FloridaProcessing Tomato:73% of total US acreage, 38% of valueCalifornia (94% of acreage)

    Tomato: Perfect Flower (Hermaphrodite)Stigma enclosed within anther tube

  • Plant Growth & DevelopmentVine Types:DeterminateShoots terminate in flower cluster1 or 2 leaves between flower clustersMore concentrated yieldSemi-determinateIn between determinate & indeterminateIndeterminateShoots continue to grow with no terminal flower clusters3 to 4 leaves between flower clustersYield tends to be spread out over growing seasonNeed Support

    Blossom-end Rot: Physiological disorder caused by calcium deficiency

    Cracking caused by excess moistureCatfacing: distorted fruitat blossom end resultingin scar tissue forming

    Stinkbug damaged fruitStinkbug feeding

    Spider mite damaged fruit

    Tomato fruitworm feeding

    Colorado Potato BeetleFleabeetle Damage

  • GREEN - Stage 1 Green means that the surface of the tomato is completely green in color. The shade of green may vary from light to dark. BREAKER - Stage 2 Breakers means there is a definite break in color from green, to tannish-yellow, pink or red on not more than 10% of the surface. TURNING - Stage 3Turning means that more than 10% but not more than 30% of the surface, in the aggregate, shows a definite change in color from green to tannish-yellow, pink, red or a combination thereof.

    PINK - Stage 4Pink means that more than 30% but not more than 60% of the surface, in the aggregate, shows pink or red in color.LIGHT RED - Stage 5Light red means that more than 60% of the surface, in the aggregate, shows pinkish-red or red, provided that not more than 90% of the surface is red.

    RED - Stage 6Red means that more than 90% of the surface, in the aggregate, is red.

    Jointed vs. Jointless Fruit

    Multiple Varietiesof Tomato

  • Post Harvest - TomatoOptimum Storage TemperatureMature Green: 57-61oF3 WeeksPink: 50oF1 WeekRed Ripe: Room TemperatureUp to a weekLast longer at 35oF (up to 3 weeks), but I wouldnt want to eat it!All Tomatoes are chilling sensitive at temperatures below 50FOptimum Relative Humidity: 90 to 95%Sensitive to ethylene

  • PepperCapsicum annuum (annual growing plant)Most commercially important peppers belong to this speciesCapsicum chinense (from China misnomer)Habanero pepperCapsicum frutescens (bushy or shrubby plant growth)Tabasco pepperCapsicum pubescens (hairy-like)Distinct form; will not readily cross with other Capsicum speciesRocoto peppers

  • PepperNot related to black pepper (Piper nigrum)But thats how it got its nameCenter of Origin:Pungent types: South America (Southern Brazil to Bolivia)Non-pungent types: Central America to Southern MexicoWarm season, self-pollinated, perennial

  • PepperTypes:Bell groupMost are non-pungentIncludes Pimientos as sub-groupAnaheim groupMost are mild pungent, but some are non-pungentIncludes Ancho & PaprikaJalapeo groupPungent (new varieties are mild-pungent)Cherry groupPungent or non-pungentWax groupYellow mature color; Pungent or non-pungentTabasco groupVery pungent; most are processedHabanero groupMost pungent commercial pepper

  • Pepper IndustryBell PeppersMost common form in US ~2/3 of total US productionAnaheim peppers~15% of total US productionPimiento peppers~5% of total US productionJalapeo peppers~4% of total US productionOthers considered specialty types

  • Scoville UnitsNamed after Wilbur ScovilleMethod to measure the heat level of a chile pepperA dilution-taste procedure:Scoville blended pure ground chilies with a sugar-water solution and a panel of testers then sipped the concoctions, in increasingly diluted concentrations, until they reached the point at which the liquid no longer burned the mouthA number was then assigned to each pepper based on how much it needed to be diluted before you could taste no heat (parts of sugar water to parts of pepper)

    Scoville Units Chile Pepper Heat Range Sweet Bell0 Pepperoncini100 ~ 500 Poblano1,000 ~ 2,000 Ancho1,000 ~ 2,000 Anaheim500 ~ 2,500 Jalapeno2,500 ~ 8,000 Chipolte5,000 ~ 8,000 Hot Wax5,000 ~ 10,000 Serrano8,000 ~ 22,000 Tabasco30,000 ~ 50,000 Cayenne30,000 ~ 50,000 Piquin40,000 ~ 58,000 Thai50,000 ~ 100,000 Carolina Cayenne100,000 ~ 125,000 Habanero100,000 ~ 325,000 Red Savina Habanero350,000 ~ 577,000 Pure Capsaicin 15-16,000,000

  • Bell PeppersLarge, blocky & bluntGreen immature, can be red, yellow, orange, brown or purple when matureNutrient content usually greater in mature (colored) fruitUses: Mostly fresh (salads, cooking ingredients), but also mild salsa

  • Pablano PeppersPablano (Fresh) & Ancho (Dried)Most popular pepper in MexicoHeat Index: Mild to MediumScoville Units: 2,500-3,000UsesFresh: Chili RellenoDried: Sauces & Powders

  • Jalapeo PeppersRound, cylindrical, tapering shapeGreen immature, mature usually red, but can be yellow or orange.Heat Index: 2,500 - 5,000 Scoville UnitsUses: Salsa, preserves, multiple dishesChipotle: Dried, smoked, red JalapeoName comes from Jalapa, Mexico

  • Serrano PeppersRound, cylindrical, tapering shape, smaller than JalapeoGreen immature, mature usually can be red, yellow, orange or brownHeat Index: 10,000 - 25,000 Scoville UnitsUses: Salsa, preserves, multiple dishesName comes from foothills of Puebla, Mexico

    Tabasco pepperC. frutescens

  • Tabasco PeppersSmall, round, cylindrical shapeLight green immature, maturing to yellow, then orange and finally redHeat Index: 30,000 - 50,000 Scoville UnitsUses: Tabasco SauceA soldier fighting in the Mexican War in the mid-1800's returned to Louisiana with some seeds from the Mexican state of Tabasco

    Different forms of C. chinensis

  • Habanero PeppersLantern-shaped, round or oblong, with a pointed apexGreen maturing to yellow-orange, orange or bright redHottest commercially available pepperScoville units: 100,000 300,000Uses: Sauces, salsas, preserves

    Capsicum pubescens Rocoto typeWill not readily cross with other speciesNote large black seeds

    Major disease problem: Bacteria, especially on fruit

  • Harvest & Postharvest HandlingFresh market types always hand harvestedIncreased yield, thin skin susceptible to bruisingSometimes treated with hot water/chlorine bath to control bacterial rotOften sprayed with wax coating to reduce moisture loss during storageProcessing types can be machine harvestedOptimum storage: 45-50oF, 90-95% Relative Humidity (subject to chilling injury < 45oF)Sensitive to ethylene sometimes used to change color of mature green peppers

  • Peppers & CapsaicinCapsaicin is not water solubleDrinking water will spread capsaicin (same goes for beer)Recommended first-aid:Drink milk or eat dairy productsCapsaicin will penetrate skinThe intense burning sensation one experiences when eating hot peppers can trigger the body into releasing morphine-like endorphins, often resulting in mild euphoria