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Social Movements in Canada: . The Women’s Movement and the Environmental Movement. In groups, brainstorm what traits, words, qualities, actions, jobs you associate with “masculine” and with “feminine” Send one group member to write your group’s words on the board. Feminism. “First Wave” - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Social Movements in Canada:

Social Movements in Canada: The Womens Movement and the Environmental MovementIn groups, brainstorm what traits, words, qualities, actions, jobs you associate with masculine and with feminine

Send one group member to write your groups words on the board

FeminismFirst WaveEarly 1900sRight to voteWhite, usually middle-upper class

Equality in basic legal rightsSecond- Wave FeminismMainstream feministsWork within the systemChange laws by getting media attentionRadical feministsMen wont willingly give up power and privilegeMore aggressive protest tacticsSome negative public perception: man-hatingSecond-Wave Feminism(Womens Liberation)Still mostly white, mostly middle to upper classPost-war suburbia: expectations to work and keep a perfect homeStandards of beauty and dressLimited range of jobs: pink ghetto Legal for employers to discriminate against them in work and wages

51963- Betty FriedanThe Feminine MystiqueThe Problem That Has No Name:The problem lay buried, unspoken, for many years in the minds of American women. It was a strange stirring, a sense of dissatisfaction, a yearning that women suffered in the middle of the twentieth century in the United States.Each suburban wife struggles with it alone. As she made the beds, shopped for groceries, matched slipcover material, ate peanut butter sandwiches with her children, chauffeured Cub Scouts and Brownies, lay beside her husband at night- she was afraid to ask even of herself the silent question-- 'Is this all?

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bra-burning resisting gendered standards of beauty and dress Ms. America protest71967: Royal Commission on the Status of WomenWomen should have the right to choose to work outside of the home, and receive paid maternity leaveSociety should take some responsibility for children: day careThe government should act to help stop discrimination against women

Victories Reproductive rights (contraception, abortion)Choice in if and when to start a family career, education Womens crisis shelters, more protection from domestic violence. (Women still disproportionately affected, often economically dependent).1976 paid maternity leave, 1977 equal pay equal work 1982: Charter of Rights and FreedomsIncludes a clause prohibiting gender discrimination

Mixed ResultsMore inclusion of women in and access to school subjects, university degrees, and jobs that were dominated by men and considered not for girls.However, women are still under-represented in many professions and in politics.Wage gap is reduced but not eliminated (88% today)

PatriarchyPatriarchy: Form of social organization where males are the primary authority figures: poltical leadership, control of property (financial power), moral authority. Males as dominate, superior gender females as subordinate, inferior. Masculinity more valued than femininity. Males as head of family unit. Property and title inherited by male lineage. Structural: embedded in social, legal, political, economic organization and institutions

Third Wave : 1990s todayWomen of colourQueer womenWorking-class womenInclusion of more nationalities and culturesGender roles and stereotypes, mediaPost-feminism?

Environmentalism1962: Rachel Carlson, Silent SpringPesticides impact on animals, complex eco-systems

Calls for government to control, reduce industrial pollution:Clean air, clean water, protecting animals and treesBusiness and government initially resistant

Earthrise Apollo 8 1968the most influential environmental photograph ever taken

Growing public concern: first image of Earth from space: planet is finite, beautifulFederal government and many provinces pass laws limiting environmental damage; national parks and wildlife preservation Initially only industrial focus gradually toward homes and individual actions: pesticides on lawns and gardens, cleaning products, efficiency of automobiles

1970: B.C.: Greenpeace Alaska nuclear test

Freeing wild horses from horse-slaughter and federal horse facilities, setting fire to buildings in US;Colorado ski resort (to stop from expanding resort into area of wild lynx)22Radical Earth First!, Earth Liberation Front Direct Action: civil disobedience, criminal acts

Eco-terrorism?System Change, not Climate Change- eco-socialismEnvironment as an externalityRegulation = businesses internalize the cost

externalityis the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefitGovt, people pay costs of pollution, health impact23Environmental Movement:1: Extensive development and extraction of natural resources after WWII. Less awareness of ecological consequences. Population growth resulted in rapid construction and expansion of cities. Cities became dirty and polluted.Urban planning of housing (suburbia) designed in a way that was not environmentally friendly.Dependence on automobiles and fossil fuels entrenched in 1950s.

Tommy Douglas2: As a child, had to have his leg amputated. A doctor agreed to do it for free. This experience sparked his concerns about everyone having access to health care regardless of class. As a teen he witnessed a violent protest where a police officer killed a protestor. This contributed to his interest in protecting fundamental freedoms and his creation of the Bill of Rights.His activism began during the Depression in response to the devastating poverty. It was during the Depression that he joined the CCF.Womens Movement/Feminism4: Successes: established reproductive freedoms, less legal barriers to divorce, some increase in womens wages and access to male-dominated professions.Wage gap has not been completely closed and has stagnated in the last 20 years. Still under-represented in politics and many professions.Third Wave feminism in 1990s: focus on inclusion of women of colour, queer and working-class women.