social drug research airi-alina allaste alina@iiss.ee

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  • Slide 1
  • Social Drug Research Airi-Alina Allaste alina@iiss.ee
  • Slide 2
  • Different aspects of the drug phenomenon Healthproblem drug use, HIV/AIDS Socialpoverty, housing, education, social vulnerability Securitypublic nuisance, drug-related crime, drugs and driving, public life, quality of life, open drug scenes Economynarco-economies, pharmaceutical companies International internationalisation demand (drug tourism) supply (production, distribution) Good enemy easy to blame when something is wrong in society
  • Slide 3
  • Drug policy models 0 tolerance policy drugs are not accepted in society and everything has to be done to fight against it (USA, Sweden) Harm reduction policy drugs are not welcome in society but unfortunately they are here and everything has to be done to reduce harm related to drugs (Most of the countries in EU).
  • Slide 4
  • Drug Phenomenon From political perspective distinction - demand side and supply side Demand - explanations for drug use from user perspectives Youth cultures where drug use is accepted Marginalisation and poverty as an explanation of drug use Related topics - mobility (cf. EU enlargement), drug tourism Supply explanations why drugs are available Traffic Production Distribution and / or consumer states Military conflicts ~ terrorist organizations ~ arms traffic and drug production
  • Slide 5
  • The drug policy Trend: from zero tolerance policy to harm reduction policy (except Sweden) Demand reduction: highest priority on prevention, relating to health, education, research and training activities + combat social exclusion Supply reduction: priority to the control of chemical precursors, the prevention and the fight against money laundering, to the effective cooperation between police, customs and judicial authorities
  • Slide 6
  • Different perspectives of analysing drug use Different disciplines Epidemiology - spread of drug use compared to disease (surveys, statistics) Criminology and criminal law drug use as illegal act Psychology and psychiatry drug use explained from personality perspective (escape from psychological problems) Philosophy drug use and addiction as epistemological phenomenon History - drug use as social phenomenon from historical perspective
  • Slide 7
  • Social drug research Sociology and social anthropology from 60-70-s drug use as subcultural phenomenon Drug use became widespread social phenomenon (counter cultures) Different approaches from medical doctors (not only as an addiction) Cultural studies from 90-s - use of substances as part of personal choice and individual behaviour; explanation takes into consideration the drug user's standpoint Certain standpoints according to disciplines tendencies not rules (Zinberg)
  • Slide 8
  • Howard Becker Outsiders (1963) Becoming a marihuana user (1954) based on 50 interviews First time used the concept of a recreational drug user (before that only abusers) Social learning within subculture essential for drug use Learning technic Learning to perceive effects Learning to enjoy effects
  • Slide 9
  • Marihuana use and social control Career of a marihuana user beginner, occasional user, regular user Controls Through limiting access to drug Necessity of keeping non-users discovering the user Definition of act as immoral
  • Slide 10
  • Supply - need for special contacts through cannabis-users subculture different level (beginners and occasional users get the drug from others; regular users buy big quantities) Secrecy related to level of use and supply (living with parents occasional users) Morality regular users develop group ideology which justifies cannabis use
  • Slide 11
  • Ideological supports to becoming and remaining heroin addict (Felding 1968) Stand-up cat - adventurous macho (I am not getting addicted!) Pleasure from heroin versus degree of commitment to group (with Stand-up cat ideology) Change in values no more macho culture, better to be crafty and smart New competences - defend themselves; provide resources that insure drug supply
  • Slide 12
  • The Drugtakers (Young 1971) Contrasted values. Play FormalSubterranian planning futurespontainety obeing rulesego-expressivity routinenew experience work as virtuedisdain to work Play Self-contained; cathartic, ego-expressive (Giddens 1964) Voluntary; stepping out from real life; contains its own meaning (Huizinga 1969)
  • Slide 13
  • Motivation for drug use To add productivity Coffee, cigarettes, amphetamine (soldiers, students) To relax after work Social drinking, prescribed barbiturates Purely hedonistic ends problem drinking; marihuana; heroin; (other drugs)
  • Slide 14
  • Drug using is accepted when it contributes to productivity (through stimulating or relaxing) Hedonistic reasons condemned in modern capitalist society Become desirable for groups wh o have limited opportunities to participate in consumer society do not value the opportunities of consumer society
  • Slide 15
  • Vietnam veterans 3 years after Vietnam (Robbins et. al. 1979) High % of heroin use among soldiers in Vietnam (54%) After 3 years 12% of previous addicts still used heroin War as favourable context of drug use Pharmacological influence of heroin was not powerful enough to keep men addicted afterwards
  • Slide 16
  • Drugs, set and setting (Zinberg 1984) Three variables which influence drug-taking behaviour Drug Set Setting The setting is divided into two aspects Rituals - the stylized, prescribed patterns surrounding the use of drug Social sanctions - norms regarding whether and how particular drug should be used
  • Slide 17
  • Recreational Drug Use Cambridge International Dictionary of English: Recreational - (a way of) enjoying yourself when you are not working Limited to leisure time only Does not disturb everyday activities, working or learning Does not cause evident physical harm The user has no compulsory need to consume drugs
  • Slide 18
  • Problem Drug Use Problem drug use refers to injecting drug use or long-duration/regular use of opiates, cocaine and/or amphetamines(EMCDDA) Negatively affects persons everyday activities Problems with criminals or law enforcement agencies Losing control/ becoming addicted
  • Slide 19
  • Normalization of drug use Accommodation of behavioural norms, which were considered deviant before, among the larger group of society Normalisation thesis Drugs availability: the commodification of drugs and globalization of their supply, means that by 18 years of age most young people have been in situations where they could buy or try drugs Drug experimentation: there has been a sustained rise in drug experimentation such that 5060 per cent of young people have experimented with drug use on at least one occasion by the age of 18. Previously existing gender and social class differences in drug experimentation are being eroded
  • Slide 20
  • Drug use: there has been a sustained rise in the number of young people using drugs regularly and employing costbenefit assessments of the risks and pleasures in making their choices Being drug-wise: young people exchange drug experiences and stories regardless of whether they use drugs or not. Abstainers begin to accommodate the drug use of others as long as it is sensible, recreational use Future intentions: there is an open-mindedness about future drug use even among young adults who went through adolescence without taking illicit drugs
  • Slide 21
  • Cultural accommodation of the illicit: normalization signifies the accommodation of activities previously considered deviant by young people themselves into mainstream cultural arrangements. This desubculturalizes drug use and allows the recreational use of less physically addictive drugs within a range of busy study, work and leisure agendas
  • Slide 22
  • Topics of seminars Problem drug (heroin) use Punch, M. (2005) Problem Drug Use and the Political economy of urban restructuring Duerte et. Al. (2003) Tragic beauties: heroin images and heroin users Presenter Janna Jrvinen Recreational drug use Salasuo, M. & Seppla, P (2004) Drug use within Finnish club-culture as mark of distinction Presenter Robin Lybek Moffat, B. et al. (2009) A gateway to nature. Teenagers narratives on smoking marijuana outdoors. Risk perception Hunt, G. et al. (2007) Drug Use and meanings of risk and pleasure Presenter Filippa Haglund Rodner, S.(2006) Practicing Risk control in socially disapproved area Drugs and gender Hutton, F (2004) Up for it, mad for it. Payne, J. (2007) Women Drug users in North Cumbria
  • Slide 23
  • Drugs and ethnicity Room, R. (2005) Multicultural context and alcohol and drug use as symbolic behaviour Presenter Henning Silber Miller-Day, M& Barnett, J. (2004) I am not a druggy Drugs in Eastern Europe Pilkington, H (2007) Beyond peer pressure Miovski, M. (2007) Changing patterns of drug use in Czech Dealing with drugs Pearson, G & Hobbs, D (2003) King Pin? Jacinto, C et al (2008) I am not a real dealer! Harm reduction and drug treatment McKeganey, N (2006) The lure and the loss of harm reduction in UK drug policy and practice Tammi, T (2005) Diffusion of Public Health Views on Drug policy: the case of needle exchange in Finland
  • Slide 24
  • Guidelines for presentation Central focus/research problem of the article Short overview of the article Critic of t