social and political aspects of media pluralism and media freedom / measuring media pluralism across...

Download Social and Political Aspects of Media Pluralism and Media Freedom / Measuring Media Pluralism across Social & Political Contexts

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Alina Dobreva / Andrea Calderaro


  • 1.Social and Political Aspects of Media Pluralism and MediaFreedomAlina Dobreva, PhD

2. Communication and DemocracyFrom Aristotleto McLuhan 3. Normative expectations of citizens & mediaRationality-activist model of citizenshipConstant high level of awareness and being informedConstant high level of engagement and involvementProactive in both forming and expressing their political willRational citizensHow to do it?Free media and interpersonal communication:Facilitates the flow of information about public events to citizensExposes politicians and governments to public scrutinyElucidates choices during electionsUrges people to participate in the political processLeads to exposure to and exchange of different views (increasedpolitical knowledge, understanding, and toleranceLeads to better social orientation and therefore, informedpolitical choiceLegitimate democracy 4. Freedom of expression Media freedomPressfreedom 5. Media freedom and democracy Mediaproducing DemocracyfreedomMedia Democracyproducing freedom Democracy Mediafreedom 6. Market concentrationMedia freedomMedia pluralism 7. Normative functions of media freedom &pluralismMedia freedom Media pluralism OpportunityOutcome for all groups (1) to provide a platform for reflecting the plurality of voices self-expression without misrepresentation (2) to provide citizens with by various, easily accessible access to information (not tosources, presenting wide variety truth)of viewpoints (3) to foster agonistic public between all groups in a society debate and deliberation (Czepek; McConnell & Becker) 8. Approaches towards media freedom &pluralismApproach Risks of limitations Normative rationale simplification, turning intoReasoning and motivation inapplicable &wishful political slogans, value statementsAnalytical tool perceiving media freedom andDepth and thoroughness pluralism as absolute values and not means to an endRegulatory instrument simplification of benchmarks;Applicabilityinflexible, unified formula; practicality compromises 9. Definition of media freedom & pluralismprecondition sMedia freedom Media pluralism Independence from government,Independence from disproportionate authorities control & intervention; noprivate control and influence of 1/few governmental monopoly on economic, social and/or political informationpower(s) framed within the media-government based upon the tolerance and relationsinclusiveness in politics and societyEuropean understanding: freedom to; proactively related to ensuring representation;positive right, i.e., rights and freedoms to do thingsAmerican understanding: freedom from; liberal-market approach of small state 10. Media freedomOwner of the freedom: ordinary citizens, journalists or editors/media owners?Current de-professionalisation of journalists tbdFreedom at the level of media source or freedom at the level of the individualjournalist depending on the particular media system and its emphasis oninternal/external pluralismEmphasis on violations versus proactive overall viewMinimal definitions of democracy Social, political context &facilitatingFocus on the presence or absence oflegislationcertain indicative problems, e.g., the Focus on overall performance, higherkilling of journalists standards of democratic functioning Reflecting closer the standards, ideals and specificities of the EU Outlining problematical areas and politically justifying intervention on EU level (guarantor and facilitator of media freedom & pluralism in the Union) 11. Media pluralismVariety, diversity and the plurality of media supply:Ownership, media outlets, sources of information and range of contents, guaranteed by market rulesand regulationsPublic sphere, general public and/or audienceActual consumption cannot be regulated, but easy access to pluralistic information should beguaranteedLed by factors beyond commercial viability and profitability Provided by free, independent and autonomous mediaMedia freedom as pre-requisite to media pluralismPolitical and economic independenceResults in access and choice of opinions & representations, which reflect the citizens of thestate in questionThe result however, depends on social and political factors beyond media as well 12. Measuring Media Pluralism across Social & PoliticalContextsAndrea Calderaro, PhDCentre for Media Pluralism and Media Freedom 13. Measuring Media Pluralism International Institutions (CoE, 2008 & UNESCO 2007) Non Governmental Organizations (Ofcom 2012) Academic Research (Valcke et al. 2009) There is no agreement about how to measure Media Pluralism 14. Challenges Identifying the indicators: media-ownership concentration, media market competition, content diversity, freedom of journalists Framing a comparative research design Selection a research strategies: Quantitative/Qualitative methodologies 15. Comparing- to identify national peculiarities- to explore the unequal behaviour of our observedphenomenon- as a component of a larger transnational system 16. Standardizing Vs ContextualizingQuantitative Vs QualitativeBenefits Focusing on the same national indicators Standardize research tools Collection of neutral empirical data Which can easily understood in different contexts 17. Independent Study on Indicators for MediaPluralism in the Member States Toward a Risk-Based Report Valcke, KU Leuven - 20093 level of analysis Legal Indicators Socio-Demographic Indicators Economic Indicators 18. Quantitative ApproachCriticism The lens that we use to observe and collect data in onecontext, does not imply that is is equal valid in an othercontexts (Adcock & Collier, 2001) By pursuing a neutral data, we risk to lose informationwhich is essential to understand the national context(Peschar 1984) 19. Standardizing Vs Contextualizing Quantitative Vs QualitativeQualitative methodologies Ethnographic approaches Interviews Observatory participation Produce explanation,instead of dry pictures of facts 20. ConcludingStandardization/QuantitativeContextualizing/QualitativeBenefitsBenefitsIt generates neutral and easily More powerful tool to develop acomparable data deep knowledge of localLimitscontexts, in order to understandlocal Media PluralismIt risks to loose information onLimitsnational peculiarities, which It makes a transnationalmight be the goal of the research comparison more difficult 21. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!