Smu Assignment Semester 1 Complete

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smu assignment 2011

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<p>Assignment Set- 1</p> <p>Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1</p> <p>MB0038 Management Process and Organization Behavior Q.1 Write a note on the managerial roles and skills? ANS: According to Mintzberg (1973), managerial roles are as follows: 1. Informational roles 2. Decisional roles 3. Interpersonal roles</p> <p>1. Informational roles: This involves the role of assimilating and disseminating information as and when required. Following are the main sub-roles, which managers often perform: a. Monitor collecting information from organizations, both from inside and outside of the organization b. Disseminator communicating information to organizational members c. Spokesperson representing the organization to outsiders 2. Decisional roles: It involves decision making. Again, this role can be subdivided in to the following: a. Entrepreneur initiating new ideas to improve organizational performance b. Disturbance handlers taking corrective action to cope with adverse situation c. Resource allocators allocating human, physical, and monetary resources d. Negotiator negotiating with trade unions, or any other stakeholders</p> <p>3. Inter`personal roles: This role involves activities with people working in the organization. This is supportive role for informational and decisional roles. Interpersonal roles can be categorized under three sub-headings: a. Figurehead Ceremonial and symbolic role b. Leadership leading organization in terms of recruiting, motivating etc. c. Liaison liasoning with external bodies and public relations activities.</p> <p>Management Skills: Katz (1974) has identified three essential management skills: technical, human, and conceptual.</p> <p>Technical skills: The ability is to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. All jobs require some specialized expertise, and many people develop their technical skills on the job. Vocational and on-the-job training programs can be used to develop this type of skill. Human Skill: This is the ability to work with, understand and motivate other people (both individually and a group). This requires sensitivity towards others issues and concerns. People, who are proficient in technical skill, but not with interpersonal skills, may face difficulty to manage their subordinates. To acquire the Human Skill, it is pertinent to recognize the feelings and sentiments of others, ability to motivate others even in adverse situation, and communicate own feelings to others in a positive and inspiring way. Conceptual Skill: This is an ability to critically analyze, diagnose a situation and forward a feasible solution. It requires creative thinking, generating options and choosing the best available option.</p> <p>Q.2 Explain the social learning theory in details? ANS: One of the most influential learning theories, the Social Learning Theory (SLT), was formulated by Albert Bandura. It encompasses concepts of traditional learning theory and the operant conditioning of B.F. Skinner. However, the theory strongly implies that there are types of learning wherein direct reinforcement is not the causal mechanism; rather, the so called social element can result to the development of new learning among individuals. Social Learning Theory has been useful in explaining how people can learn new things and develop new behaviors by observing other people. It is to assume, therefore, that Social Learning Theory is concerned on observational learning process among people.</p> <p>A. Basic Concepts 1. Observational LearningThe Social Learning Theory says that people can learn by watching other people perform the behavior. Observational learning explains the nature of children to learn behaviors by watching the behavior of the people around them, and eventually, imitating them. With the Bobo Doll experiment(s), Bandura included an adult who is tasked to act aggressively toward a Bobo Doll while the children observe him. Later, Bandura let the children play inside a room with the Bobo Doll. He affirmed that these children imitated the aggressive behavior toward the doll, which they had observed earlier. After his studies, Bandura was able to determine 3 basic models of observational learning, which include:</p> <p>a. A Live Model, which includes an actual person performing a behavior. b. A Verbal Instruction Model, which involves telling of details and descriptions of a behavior. c. A Symbolic Model, which includes either a real or fictional character demonstrating the behavior via movies, books, television, radio, online media and other media sources. 2. The state of mind (mental states) is crucial to learning.In this concept, Bandura stated that not only external reinforcement or factors can affect learning and behavior. There is also what he called intrinsic reinforcement, which is in a form of internal reward or a better feeling after performing the behavior (e.g. sense of accomplishment, confidence, satisfaction, etc.) 3. Learning does not mean that there will be a change in the behavior of an individual.</p> <p>B. Modeling Process The Modeling Process developed by Bandura helps us understand that not all observed behaviors could be learned effectively, nor learning can necessarily result to behavioral changes. The modeling process includes the following steps in order for us to determine whether social learning is successful or not:</p> <p>Step 1: Attention Social Cognitive Theory implies that you must pay attention for you to learn. If you want to learn from the behavior of the model (the person that demonstrates the behavior), then you should eliminate anything that catches your attention other than him. Also, the more interesting the model is, the more likely you are to pay full attention to him and learn.</p> <p>Step 2: Retention Retention of the newly learned behavior is necessary. Without it, learning of the behavior would not be established, and you might need to get back to observing the model again since you were not able to store information about the behavior.</p> <p>Step 3: Reproduction When you are successful in paying attention and retaining relevant information, this step requires you to demonstrate the behavior. In this phase, practice of the behavior by repeatedly doing it is important for improvement. Step 4: Motivation Feeling motivated to repeat the behavior is what you need in order to keep on performing it. This is where reinforcement and punishment come in. You can be rewarded by demonstrating the behavior properly, and punished by displaying it inappropriately</p> <p>Q.3 Explain the Big 5 model of personality?</p> <p>Ans : The big five model of personality is designed to bring out behaviors an individual expresses in his dealings with people as well as in their response to changes in circumstances as well as the environment. Generally, these five factors of personality are used to come up with a description of the human personality. In this text, I explain Tishas findings as well as look at how the predictions could be used to come up with a prediction of her success as a manager.</p> <p>The big five model of personality</p> <p>Openness to experience This factor acts to distinguish conventional individuals from those who are in one way or the other imaginative. Traits linked to individuals who are open to experience include intellectual curiosity, sensitivity to beauty as well as responsiveness to art. According to Cattell, H.E.P et al. (2007), such people are very creative and they are very likely to be more accommodating to beliefs considered unconventional. Such people are hence more likely to be accommodating to the views of others in the organizational setting and they are more likely to encourage innovation at the workplace. Tishas high score shows that she will be more straightforward and more likely see the simple aspects of complex situations.</p> <p>Conscientiousness This factor shows an individuals ability and drive to achieve goals and strive for achievement. It also indicates that an individual has self discipline and prefers planned behavior as opposed to spontaneous behavior. Grucza et al. (2007) notes that individuals who score highly in conscientiousness have a good impulse control and tend to be goal oriented. Tishas very high performance in Conscientiousness shows that she is organized and very attentive to detail. In an organizational setting, Tisha would be more likely to strive to ensure that organizational goals and objectives are met.</p> <p>Extraversion This factor consists of emotions that can be said to be positive as well as an industrious personality and ability to relate well with others. Cattell, H.E.P et al. (2007) notes that extraverts enjoy other peoples company and tend to be very active in group efforts. Tishas high score in extraversion indicates that in the work setting as a manager, she would tend to encourage team work. She will also dominate board and other meetings and have a high chance of pushing her proposals and suggestions forward.</p> <p>Agreeableness This factor is characterized by compassion and cooperation towards others as opposed to antagonism tendencies. Cattell, H.E.P et al. (2007) notes that such</p> <p>individuals are easy to get along with and are more likely to be very accommodating to the views of others. Tishas moderately high score on this factor shows that though she will be accommodate others view, she will expect her views also to be taken into consideration. She is likely to trust her subordinates more.</p> <p>Neuroticism This factor involves a high likelihood to get angry and have other negative emotions like anxiety. In most cases, this characteristic is linked to emotional instability. Individuals scoring low on neuroticism will experience bouts of mood swings triggered by frustrations by minor issues at the workplace (Grucza et al. 2007). Tishas low score on this factor shows she will be more likely to cope with problems as a manager and she will tend to be calmer while handling difficult situations.</p> <p>Q.4 What are the different factors influencing perception?</p> <p>Ans : Perception is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and action in response to these stimuli. Through the perceptual process, we gain information about properties and elements of the environment that are critical to our survival.</p> <p>A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception These factors can reside: i) In the perceiver</p> <p>ii) In the Object or target being perceived or iii) In the context of the situation in which the perception is made. 1. Characteristics of the Perceiver: Several characteristics of the perceiver can affect perception. When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she stands for, that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver. The major characteristics of the perceiver influencing perception are: a) Attitudes: The perciver's attitudes affect perception. For example, Mr. X is interviewing candidates for a very important position in his organization - a position that requires negotiating contracts with suppliers, most of whom are male. Mr. X may feel that women are not capable of holding their own in tough negotiations. This attitude with doubtless affect his perceptions of the female candidates he interviews. b) Moods: Moods can have a strong influence on the way we perceive someone. We think differently when we are happy than we do when we are depressed. In addition, we remember information that is consistent with our mood state better than information that is inconsistent with our mood state. When in a positive mood, we form more positive impressions of other. When in a negative mood, we tend to evaluate others unfavourably. c) Motives: Unsatisfied needs or motives stimulate individuals and may exert a strong influence on their perceptions. For example, in an organizational context, a boss who is insecure perceives a sub ordinate's efforts to do an outstanding job as a threat to his or her own position. Personal insecurity can be translated into the perception that others are out to "get my job", regardless of the intention of the subordinates.</p> <p>d) Self - Concept: Another factor that can affect social perception is the perceivers self-concept. An individual with a positive self-concept tends to notice positive attributes in another person. In contrast, a negative self-concept can lead a perceiver to pick out negative traits in another person. Greater understanding of self allows us to have more accurate perceptions of others.</p> <p>e) Interest: The focus of our attention appears to be influenced by our interests. Because our individual interests differ considerably, what one person notices in a situation can differ from what other perceive. For example, the supervisor who has just been reprimanded by his boss for coming late is more likely to notice his colleagues coming late tomorrow than he did last week. f) Cognitive structure: Cognitive structure, an individual's pattern of thinking, also affects perception. Some people have a tendency to perceive physical traits, such as height, weight, and appearance, more readily. Cognitive complexity allows a person to perceive multiple characteristics of another person rather than attending to just a few traits. g) Expectations: Finally, expectations can distort your perceptions in that you will see what you expect to see. The research findings of the study conducted by Sheldon S Zalking and Timothy W Costello on some specific characteristics of the perceiver reveal i) Knowing oneself makes it easier to see others accurately. ii) One's own characteristics affect the characteristics one is likely to see in other. iii) People who accept themselves are more likely to be able to see favourable aspects of other people. iv) Accuracy in perceiving others is not a single skill. These four characteristics greatly influence how a person perceives other int he</p> <p>environmental situation.</p> <p>2) Characteristics of the Target : Characteristics in the target that is being observed can affect what is perceived. Physical appearance pals a big role in our perception of others. Extremely attractive or unattractive individuals are more likely to be noticed in a group than ordinary looking individuals. Motions, sound, size and other attributes of a target shape the way we see it. Verbal Communication from targets also affects our perception of them. Nonverbal communication conveys a great deal of information about the target. The perceiver deciphers eye contact, facial expressions, body movements, and posture all in a attempt to form an impression of the target.</p> <p>3) Characteristics of the Situation: The situation in which the interaction between the perceiver and the target takes place, has an influence on the perceiver's impression of the target. The strength of the situational cues also affects social perception. Some situations provide strong cues as to appropriate behaviour. In thi...</p>