Small Animal Toxicology Essentials (Poppenga/Small Animal Toxicology Essentials) || Toxicology Information Resources

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<ul><li><p>21</p><p> 3 Toxicology Information Resources INTRODUCTION In the past several years, the amount of toxicology infor-mation has grown tremendously, as has the ability to access this information, whether through peer - reviewed publications, textbooks, or computer - based resources. The primary challenge is determining which sources provide the most up - to - date, accurate, and reliable information. Additionally, diagnostic laboratories and poison control centers can provide invaluable information when dealing with a toxicological problem. This chapter provides an overview of toxicology information resources that are available to assist in dealing with toxicology questions. </p><p> EVALUATION OF RESOURCES When choosing a toxicology information resource, it is important that the veterinary technician be aware of any potential issues regarding quality or bias of the informa-tion. In general, peer - reviewed resources (e.g., veterinary journals) that outline the methods by which conclusions are reached are more reliable than non peer - reviewed resources (lay journals, nonfi ction literature, the Internet) which tend to summarize data, often adding personal opinion to, or in place of, scientifi c theory or facts. Even peer - reviewed resources may show some bias, because the research may have been sponsored by a corporation or group with a particular agenda. It is wise to check the institutions from which the author(s) came to determine whether there might be some confl ict of interest. That is not to imply that all research funded by industry or other interest groups is suspect; the reader should keep an open mind while reading the material critically. </p><p> Computer - based resources, such as bibliography searches (e.g., Medline, offered by the National Institutes of Health) can be extremely valuable and reliable, whereas personal or corporate web pages may be fraught with inac-curate, outdated, biased, or outright damaging informa-tion, depending on the agenda of the page owner. Because anyone can post a well - designed website full of misinfor-mation, close scrutiny of the source of the information is imperative. In general, sites sponsored by reputable gov-ernmental, educational, and institutional agencies will contain information that is up - to - date, is accurate, and tends to provide balanced views, even on controversial subjects. Sites that engage in polarized, emotional, or dog-matic discourse should be read with skepticism; in these cases, attempting to verify the statements made on these sites through other independent resources is highly recommended. </p><p> Items to consider in evaluating the information avail-able on websites include</p><p> The author s credentials and institutional affi liations The date the material was posted The clarity and comprehensiveness of the information </p><p>provided The relevance of hyperlinks to other sites The inclusion of clear references, preferably peer - </p><p>reviewed </p><p> Internet rumors are reports with little to no basis in fact, often with outrageously exaggerated claims, and they have the unfortunate tendency to become widely disseminated, usually via email, in a very short period of time. Not surpris-</p><p>Small Animal Toxicology Essentials, First Edition. Edited by Robert H. Poppenga, Sharon Gwaltney-Brant. 2011 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Published 2011 by John Wiley and Sons, Inc.</p><p> Sharon Gwaltney - Brant </p></li><li><p>22 Section 1 / Fundamentals of Veterinary Clinical Toxicology</p><p>abbreviated information due to limited space, some infor-mation may be outdated by the time the text is published, and newer discoveries must await the publication of newer editions. Table 3.2 provides a short list of some currently available toxicology textbooks applicable to small animal veterinary medicine. </p><p> Computer Databases and Internet Sites A large number of computer databases exist that can provide quick access to a wide variety of toxicology infor-mation. Some of these are more geared toward human toxicology, but there often will be some animal informa-tion included. At the very least they can give the reader a rough estimate of potential for toxicity based on how haz-ardous some products are for humans. Proprietary data-bases such as Poisindex or Tomes (both by Micromedex) are available by subscription and would be of minimal availability to those working in veterinary practice. However, Poisindex is used by all U.S. poison control centers, so the information would be available through a regional poison control center. </p><p>ingly, many of these rumors involve poisonings of humans or pets, often by seemingly innocuous agents, such as sham-poos, household cleaners, and the like. An example of an Internet rumor that has had wide dissemination (and several resurrections over the years) is the 2004 rumor that Swiffer WetJet cleaning solution poses a hazard to dogs because it contains an ingredient that is one molecule away from antifreeze and has caused liver failure in dogs and deaths in cats. The ingredient in question, propylene glycol n - propyl ether, is of low toxicity especially at the concentra-tions present in cleaning agents (it is present in a large number of common household cleaners) and it will not cause liver injury. The rumor has been discredited by a variety of sources, but it still crops up every now and then (Oehme and Hare 2009 ). In general, a good rule of thumb is to treat unsolicited warnings received via email or fax with skepticism until further research can be done to verify their authenticity. The Urban Legends References Page ( www.snopes.com ) is a good fi rst stop in the search for the truth of a particular story. This website has compiled and researched thousands of rumors, Internet or otherwise, and rates them on their veracity as true, false, or undetermined. </p><p> TYPES OF RESOURCES Peer - Reviewed Journals Peer - reviewed journals provide detailed accounts of recent studies being done in a variety of specialized areas. They have the advantage of providing the most up - to - date infor-mation as well as describing the study in detail, allowing the reader to assess the conclusions drawn from the work. One disadvantage to this type of resource is that the infor-mation is new and may be revised over time based on the results of subsequent studies or scientifi c review. </p><p> There are no veterinary toxicology journals currently being published; however, animal toxicology information may be found in a variety of human toxicology journals as well as select veterinary journals. See Table 3.1 for a listing of some journals that publish clinically relevant toxicology articles. </p><p> Textbooks In the past several years, the number of available veteri-nary toxicology texts and toxicology - related chapters in veterinary medical texts has expanded greatly. In general, these resources focus on the most commonly encountered toxicology issues, making them useful and convenient for those in clinical practice who lack the time to do detailed searches on individual topics. Textbooks are an economi-cal and effective means of having toxicology information readily available. On the downside, texts may present </p><p> Table 3.1. Journals with veterinary toxicology articles </p><p> American Journal of Veterinary Research Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research Canadian Veterinary Journal Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association Journal of the American Association of Veterinary </p><p>Laboratory Diagnosticians Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association Journal of Medical Toxicology Journal of Small Animal Practice Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine North American Veterinary Conference Clinician s Brief Preventive Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Clinics of North America, Small Animal </p><p>Practice; Exotic Animal Practice Veterinary and Human Toxicology (discontinued 2005) Veterinary Journal Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Pathology Veterinary Quarterly Veterinary Record </p></li><li><p> Chapter 3 / Toxicology Information Resources 23</p><p> Table 3.2. Veterinary toxicology textbooks </p><p> Title, Author/Editor, Year Publisher </p><p> Blackwell s Five - Minute Veterinary Consult Clinical Companion: Small Animal Toxicology, Osweiler, Hovda, Brutlag and Lee, 2011. </p><p> Wiley - Blackwell </p><p> Clinical Veterinary Toxicology, Plumlee, 2003 </p><p> Mosby </p><p> Field Guide to Common Animal Poisons, Murphy, 1996 </p><p> Iowa State Press </p><p> Handbook of Small Animal Toxicology and Poisonings, Gfeller, 2003 </p><p> Mosby </p><p> Handbook of Toxic Plants of North America, Burrows and Tyrl, 2006 </p><p> Blackwell </p><p> Natural Toxicants in Feeds, Forages and Poisonous Plants, Cheeke, 1998 </p><p> Interstate Publishers </p><p> Small Animal Toxicology, Peterson and Talcott, 2006 </p><p> Saunders </p><p> Toxicology (National Veterinary Medical Series), Osweiler, 1996 </p><p> Williams &amp; Wilkins </p><p> Toxic Plants of North America, Burrows &amp; Tyrl, 2001 </p><p> Iowa State Press </p><p> Veterinary Toxicology, Gupta, 2007 Academic Press Veterinary Toxicology, Roder, 2001 Butterworth -</p><p> Heinemann </p><p> Other accurate and up - to - date databases are accessible via the Internet, and many of these are provided for low to no cost. Other websites maintained by government agencies, academia, and organizations can provide a wealth of toxicology information, and most are available at no cost to the web surfer. As stated earlier, the veracity of the information available on websites can be in ques-tion, so some degree of healthy skepticism is merited when browsing information on websites maintained by individu-als or organizations that may have underlying agendas (e.g., selling a product). Table 3.3 includes some websites providing reliable toxicology information. </p><p> Poison Control Centers There are approximately 66 poison centers in the United States that provide 24 - hour/7 - day assistance to the public and health care providers in cases of human exposures to potentially toxic agents (McNally et al. 2006 ). These centers are generally staffed by nurses and pharmacists, many with specialized training in toxicology (Specialists in Poison Information or SPIs), and are funded through tax dollars. Most are members of the American Association of </p><p>Poison Control Centers, an organization that oversees the education and training of poison control specialists and provides public education by promoting awareness of the importance of poison prevention. Individuals can reach their regional poison control center by calling 1 - 800 - 222 - 1222 from anywhere in the United States; callers using land lines (not cell phones) will automatically be routed to the appropriate poison control center for their region. </p><p> Human poison control centers can be of assistance to veterinary staff in helping to identify unknown human medications through their database of imprint codes. Although some centers permit their staff to manage animal cases, most lack the information and fi nancial resources to be primary resources for veterinary patients. Extrapolation of information from the human poison database to animals can sometimes result in erroneous treatment recommenda-tions and is not generally recommended. </p><p> The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) was the fi rst animal oriented poison control center in the United States. The Center provides 24 - hour/7 - day assis-tance and is staffed by 30 veterinarians, 15 of whom have achieved specialty - board certifi cation in general and/or vet-erinary toxicology. In addition to their extensive experience in dealing with animal toxicology emergencies, the veteri-nary staff at the APCC has access to a database that incor-porates over 30 years of cases of animal poisonings to assist them in managing animal toxicoses. The APCC is a member of the American Association of Poison Control Centers and works with human poison control centers, governmental agencies, zoos, and other organizations to provide accurate and up - to - date information on newly discovered hazards to animals. The ASPCA - APCC can be contacted by telephone at 1 - 888 - 426 - 4435; in most cases a per - case consultation fee will apply, but there is no cost if the product involved is covered by the manufacturer through the Animal Product Safety Service division of the APCC. </p><p> Pet Poison Helpline is another 24 - hour/7 - day animal poison control center in North America. This poison control center is staffed by a large group of veterinarians who are board certifi ed in veterinary toxicology (ABVT), internal medicine (ACVIM) and emergency and critical care (ACVECC) with the added benefi t of having experts in human toxicology (PharmDs). Pet Poison Helpline is operated by SafetyCall International, the world s largest industry poison control center providing poison control services to consumers of veterinary and human pharma-ceuticals, household goods, pesticides, personal care prod-ucts, agricultural products and dietary supplements; it is also affi liated with the University of Minnesota. Pet Poison </p></li><li><p>24</p><p> Table 3.3. Internet websites with toxicology information </p><p> Name URL Description </p><p> General Search Engines Utilize a variety of indexing programs to search and return websites based on keywords. </p><p> AllTheWeb www.alltheweb.com Alta Vista www.altavista.com Ask.com www.ask.com Bing www.bing.com Dogpile www.dogpile.com Goodsearch www.goodsearch.com Google www.google.com Hotbot www.hotbot.com Lycos www.lycos.com MetaCrawler www.metacrawler.com WebCrawler www.webcrawler.com Yahoo www.yahoo.com </p><p> Toxicology Information American Academy of Clinical </p><p>Toxicology (AACT) www.clintox.org Multidisciplinary organization uniting </p><p>scientists and clinicians in the advancement of research, education, prevention and treatment of diseases caused by chemicals, drugs, and toxins </p><p> American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) </p><p> www.aapcc.org Provides oversight and coordination of U.S. poison control centers </p><p> American Board of Veterinary Toxicologists (ABVT) </p><p> www.abvt.org/public/index.html </p><p> Certifying body for veterinary toxicologists </p><p> American Board of Toxicologists (ABT) </p><p> www.abtox.org Certifying board for general toxicology </p><p> Agency for Toxic Substances &amp; Disease Registry (ATSDR) </p><p> www.atsdr.cdc.gov </p><p> Health agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS) providing public health information on science related to toxic substances </p><p> Nat...</p></li></ul>

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