Slides Introductory Project Management Final

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Managing Your Project: Planning & TimeIntroductory Project Management ModuleReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 20041Acknowledgment of SupportThe material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant No. DUE-0089079: Implementing the BESTEAMS model of team development across the curriculum. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Additional support was provided by the A. James Clark School of Engineering, the Mechanical Engineering department at the University of Maryland, College Park, and Morgan State University, the United States Naval Academy, and Howard University.Reproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 20042Project Management Learning ObjectivesDevelop a working knowledge of basic project planning and scheduling skills Learn how to use several basic tools Work breakdown structures Resource allocation Gantt chartsReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 20043Appreciating Project ManagementStudies report that nearly half of all projects initiated are not completed Engineering projects are multifaceted they consist of complex interdependent tasksReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 20044What is a Project?A project has a single objective that must be accomplished through the completion of tasks that are unique and interrelated Projects are completed through the deployment of resources Projects have scopes, schedules, and costs and are accomplished within specific deadlines, budgets, and according to specificationReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 5In the beginning, we know we can manage our projects, but before long.TimeMoneyReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 20046Project Planning ActivityIdentify a class project to use as we move through this lessonWhat is your project name? What is the main goal of your teams project?Reproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 20047Phases of Project Management Define the projects scope Develop the projects plan Implement the plan & control the process Close out the projectReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 20048Develop the Projects Plan3Break Down Project Tasks (WBS)Time Estimation & DependenciesReview & adjustDetermine Resource NeedsDevelop Gantt ChartReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 9What is a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)?A hierarchical representation of activities It starts with the major project areas to be accomplished It breaks the project areas into actionable pieces of work, segmenting elements into appropriate sublevelsReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 10WBS Activity LevelsLevel 1 Identify major objective areas or categories Level 2 Begin to divide the areas into subtasks Level 3 Continue to break down the subtasks into actionable items The lowest level associated with a branch in the hierarchy is referred to as a work package # of levels depends onproject complexityReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 11WBS: Crane Example Level 1 Activities1. Design support columns 2. Analyze fasteners 3. Design trolley hoist 4. Design beams and crane span 5. Produce final reportReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 200412WBS: Crane Example (contd)1.Design support columns (Level 1)1.1 Select final material (Level 2) 1.1.1 Design for compression (Level 3) 1.1.2 Design for buckling (Level 3) 1.1.3 Calculate deformation (Level 3)Reproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 200413WBS: Crane Example (contd)6. Produce the final report 6.1 Write text 6.2 Produce drawings 6.3 Exhibit simple calculations 7. Perform analysis of class model craneReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 14How much detail do you need?1,3Does the WBS contain enough detail to evaluate progress?Do you have clear accountability for each work package? Are there start & end events? Can you easily estimate time & cost? Is there a clearly defined deliverable?Reproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 15Project Planning ActivityCreate a work breakdown structure for your projectReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 200416Time DurationManaging a project requires awareness of two time frames1.2.The amount of effort a task will take (in time), e.g., 3 hours to write a report The calendar span over which the activity will occur, e.g., the report will be done within a weekReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 17Time EstimationIf feasible, have person responsible make the estimate Should take into account the resources needed for the activity Do not overestimate to account for everything that can go wrong Keep in mind the concept of selffulfilling prophecyReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 18Uncertainty in Time EstimatesSome activities will take longer and others will go faster than expectedSources of uncertainty:Varying knowledge and skills Individual difference in approaching work Mistakes or misunderstandings Unexpected events (!!)Reproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 200419Project Planning ActivityFor each work package, estimate the time duration in days Determine then determine the time duration of each higher level activityReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 200420Identifying Resources1,3To accomplish each activity identified in the WBS requires the use of resources: Personnel (who, how many, their skills) Space (meeting location, lab facilities) Equipment (rent, own, purchase, how long needed) Money (budget limitations)Reproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 200421Assigning ResourcesAssign resources to the appropriate tasks (personnel, space, equipment, money) Be realistic no one can be in two places at one timeReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 200422Project Planning ActivityWhat are the resources needed for each task in the WBS?Reproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 200423DependenciesDependencies are the relationships between activities Finish to Start exampleAPredecessor Task: A Successor Task: BBExamples of other dependency types: -start to finish -start to start -finish to finishArrow head indicates dependency relationship: Task B cannot begin until Task A is completeReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 200424Project Planning ActivityNumber all tasks in your WBS Identify the dependencies between each task Notice at what level you are identifying the dependency. How does the dependency affect higher or lower level activities?Reproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 25The Gantt Chart: A Visual Scheduling ToolGraphically represents WBS information Shows dependencies between tasks, time duration, personnel, and other resource allocations Tracks progress towards project completionReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 200426Building a Gantt Chart - AxesList all tasks and milestones from the WBS along the vertical axis List time frame along the horizontal axisTasks:Design support columns Select final material DesignTime Frame: day 1 day 2 day 3Reproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 27Building a Gantt Chart Chart DependenciesDepict dependencies between activities using arrows For example: Design for compression cannot begin until materials are chosenDesign support columns Select final material Design for compression Design for buckling Calculate deformation Submit selectionTime Frame:day 1 day 2 day 3 day 4 day 5 day 6Reproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 28Project Planning ActivityBased on the WBS (tasks, durations, and dependencies), create a Gantt ChartReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 200429Next Step: Implement the PlanAfter the plan is complete, everyone should know who is responsible for each activity and when each task must be complete to ensure project successReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 200430Responsibility MatrixCreates accountability by assigning each task to a personTask Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3Reproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004JoeMary xReneex x31Project Planning SummaryCreate WBS to identify activities Estimate time durations Identify resource needs Note dependencies between tasks Schedule activities using a Gantt chart Review plan until you reach agreement Put plan into action!Reproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 32Managing Your Project: Planning & TimeReferences1. 2.3.Van Aken, S. (2001) University Leadership Development, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA Gido, J., & Clements, J.P. (1999). Successful project management. South-Western College Publishing. 3. Weiss, J.W., and Wysocki, R.K. (1992) 5-Phase Project Management: A Practical Planning and Implementation Guide. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.Reproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 33Managing Your Projects: TimeWhat does it take to create something bigger than yourself?Reproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 200434Learning ObjectivesUnderstand the need for tracking personal time management Conceptualize the difference between managing commitments and managing timeReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 200435What characterizes a project?Comprised of orchestrated activities performed by people to bring something into existence that would not occur naturally Possesses creation and causation Calls people to actionReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 200436How We Think Projects EvolveA tio Go lSt rt Ti eReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 200437When Reality DemonstratesActi n altart TimeReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 38Methods to Track TimeTime management books or schedulers PDAs A piece of paper to write things down Memory What problems do you have in the area of time management? What do you want to get out of this conversation on time management?Reproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 39History of TimeHow was time measured?Began with light and dark Evolved to Solar and Lunar calendars Humans developed mechanical clocksReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 200440Nature of TimeQ: Is time like a sail boat or a motor boat? A: Its more like a sail boat in a shifting wind --Tennis example --Vacation ExampleReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 200441What Do You Manage?You do not manage time You manage your commitmentsReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 200442Managing Commitments1. 2. 3.Determine time Specify place Identify the appropriate resourcesReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 200443Structures for Time ManagementWhere is the last place you should put your commitments?In your memory How many things can you keep in your memory? What do you remember when you are upset? How long does it take to get upset in your normal day?Why? Need some structure outside of your memory in which commitments can existReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 44Commitment Management ExerciseList ALL of the commitments you have for the next week. (Look in all areas of your life)What to track? to-dos/meetings/calls Projects/themesNow put everything into a schedule with time/place/resourcesReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 45Open Item ListDate What Who Resources Date DueReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 200446Weekly ScheduleSun Mon7AM 9AM 11AM 1PM 3PM 5PM 7PMReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 47Tue WedThFrSatPlanningTime Windows short-term medium-term long-termEach Window has a different level of clarity and detail Missing any one of these alters how you act Working within these windows will influence engineering project teamsReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 48