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Managing Your Project: Planning & TimeIntroductory Project Management Module

Reproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004

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Acknowledgment of SupportThe material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant No. DUE-0089079: Implementing the BESTEAMS model of team development across the curriculum. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Additional support was provided by the A. James Clark School of Engineering, the Mechanical Engineering department at the University of Maryland, College Park, and Morgan State University, the United States Naval Academy, and Howard University.

Reproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004

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Project Management Learning ObjectivesDevelop a working knowledge of basic project planning and scheduling skills Learn how to use several basic tools

Work breakdown structures Resource allocation Gantt charts

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Appreciating Project ManagementStudies report that nearly half of all projects initiated are not completed Engineering projects are multifaceted they consist of complex interdependent tasks

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What is a Project?A project has a single objective that must be accomplished through the completion of tasks that are unique and interrelated Projects are completed through the deployment of resources Projects have scopes, schedules, and costs and are accomplished within specific deadlines, budgets, and according to specificationReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 5

In the beginning, we know we can manage our projects, but before long.

Time

Money

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Project Planning ActivityIdentify a class project to use as we move through this lessonWhat is your project name? What is the main goal of your teams project?

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Phases of Project Management Define the projects scope Develop the projects plan Implement the plan & control the process Close out the project

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Develop the Projects Plan3Break Down Project Tasks (WBS)

Time Estimation & Dependencies

Review & adjust

Determine Resource Needs

Develop Gantt ChartReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 9

What is a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)?A hierarchical representation of activities It starts with the major project areas to be accomplished It breaks the project areas into actionable pieces of work, segmenting elements into appropriate sublevelsReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 10

WBS Activity LevelsLevel 1 Identify major objective areas or categories Level 2 Begin to divide the areas into subtasks Level 3 Continue to break down the subtasks into actionable items The lowest level associated with a branch in the hierarchy is referred to as a work package # of levels depends onproject complexityReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 11

WBS: Crane Example Level 1 Activities1. Design support columns 2. Analyze fasteners 3. Design trolley hoist 4. Design beams and crane span 5. Produce final report

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WBS: Crane Example (contd)1.

Design support columns (Level 1)1.1 Select final material (Level 2) 1.1.1 Design for compression (Level 3) 1.1.2 Design for buckling (Level 3) 1.1.3 Calculate deformation (Level 3)

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WBS: Crane Example (contd)6. Produce the final report 6.1 Write text 6.2 Produce drawings 6.3 Exhibit simple calculations 7. Perform analysis of class model craneReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 14

How much detail do you need?1,3Does the WBS contain enough detail to evaluate progress?Do you have clear accountability for each work package? Are there start & end events? Can you easily estimate time & cost? Is there a clearly defined deliverable?

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Project Planning ActivityCreate a work breakdown structure for your project

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Time DurationManaging a project requires awareness of two time frames1.

2.

The amount of effort a task will take (in time), e.g., 3 hours to write a report The calendar span over which the activity will occur, e.g., the report will be done within a weekReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 17

Time EstimationIf feasible, have person responsible make the estimate Should take into account the resources needed for the activity Do not overestimate to account for everything that can go wrong Keep in mind the concept of selffulfilling prophecyReproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 18

Uncertainty in Time EstimatesSome activities will take longer and others will go faster than expected

Sources of uncertainty:Varying knowledge and skills Individual difference in approaching work Mistakes or misunderstandings Unexpected events (!!)

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Project Planning ActivityFor each work package, estimate the time duration in days Determine then determine the time duration of each higher level activity

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Identifying Resources1,3To accomplish each activity identified in the WBS requires the use of resources:

Personnel (who, how many, their skills) Space (meeting location, lab facilities) Equipment (rent, own, purchase, how long needed) Money (budget limitations)

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Assigning ResourcesAssign resources to the appropriate tasks (personnel, space, equipment, money) Be realistic no one can be in two places at one time

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Project Planning ActivityWhat are the resources needed for each task in the WBS?

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DependenciesDependencies are the relationships between activities Finish to Start example

APredecessor Task: A Successor Task: B

B

Examples of other dependency types: -start to finish -start to start -finish to finish

Arrow head indicates dependency relationship: Task B cannot begin until Task A is complete

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Project Planning ActivityNumber all tasks in your WBS Identify the dependencies between each task Notice at what level you are identifying the dependency. How does the dependency affect higher or lower level activities?Reproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 25

The Gantt Chart: A Visual Scheduling ToolGraphically represents WBS information Shows dependencies between tasks, time duration, personnel, and other resource allocations Tracks progress towards project completion

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Building a Gantt Chart - AxesList all tasks and milestones from the WBS along the vertical axis List time frame along the horizontal axisTasks:Design support columns Select final material Design

Time Frame: day 1 day 2 day 3Reproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 27

Building a Gantt Chart Chart DependenciesDepict dependencies between activities using arrows For example: Design for compression cannot begin until materials are chosenDesign support columns Select final material Design for compression Design for buckling Calculate deformation Submit selection

Time Frame:

day 1 day 2 day 3 day 4 day 5 day 6Reproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 28

Project Planning ActivityBased on the WBS (tasks, durations, and dependencies), create a Gantt Chart

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Next Step: Implement the PlanAfter the plan is complete, everyone should know who is responsible for each activity and when each task must be complete to ensure project success

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Responsibility MatrixCreates accountability by assigning each task to a personTask Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3Reproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004

Joe

Mary x

Renee

x x31

Project Planning SummaryCreate WBS to identify activities Estimate time durations Identify resource needs Note dependencies between tasks Schedule activities using a Gantt chart Review plan until you reach agreement Put plan into action!Reproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 32

Managing Your Project: Planning & TimeReferences1. 2.

3.

Van Aken, S. (2001) University Leadership Development, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA Gido, J., & Clements, J.P. (1999). Successful project management. South-Western College Publishing. 3. Weiss, J.W., and Wysocki, R.K. (1992) 5-Phase Project Management: A Practical Planning and Implementation Guide. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.Reproduced with permission from BESTEAMS 2004 33

Managing Your Projects: TimeWhat does it take to create something bigger than yourself?

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Learning ObjectivesUnderstand the need for tracking personal time management Conceptualize the difference between managing commitments and managing time

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What characterizes a p