skills worksheet critical .2010-04-22 · covered in the chapter. ... air, noise, and light...

Download Skills Worksheet Critical .2010-04-22 · covered in the chapter. ... AIR, NOISE, AND LIGHT POLLUTION

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  • Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

    Holt Environmental Science 3 Air


    In the space provided, write the letter of the pair of terms or phrases that best com-plete the analogy. An analogy is a relationship between two pairs of words or phraseswritten as a : b :: c : d. The symbol : is read is to, and the symbol :: is read as.

    Name Class Date

    Critical ThinkingSkills Worksheet

    ______ 1. scrubber : smokestack ::a. ZEV : smogb. catalytic converter :

    tailpipec. VOCs : gasoline pumpsd. car seats : vinyl chloride

    ______ 2. particulate matter : primarypollutant ::a. asbestos : radonb. ground-level ozone :

    secondary pollutantc. sulfur dioxide : fossil fuelsd. VOC : smog

    ______ 3. temperature inversion :smog ::a. sick-building syndrome :

    indoor air pollutionb. ZEV : emissionsc. catalytic converter :

    emissionsd. carpets : formaldehyde

    ______ 4. radon : lung cancer ::a. ozone : VOCsb. ventilation : indoor

    pollutionc. asbestos : fire retardantd. noise pollution :

    hearing loss

    ______ 5. shielding : light pollution ::a. mold: indoor pollutionb. scrubber : noise pollutionc. SO2 : acid precipitationd. ZEV : air pollution

    ______ 6. acid precipitation : Canada-U.S. Air Quality Agreement ::

    a. sick building syndrome :ZEV

    b. air pollution : Clean Air Actc. ventilation : sick-building

    syndromed. sea-coal : medieval air


    ______ 7. bronchitis : emphysema ::a. fossil fuel : nuclear power b. ZEV : VOCc. pneumonia : lung cancerd. lumens : light pollution

    ______ 8. 10 dB : 40 dB ::a. pH 2 : pH 5b. pH 7 : pH 5.6c. 40 dB : 50 dBd. pH 1 : pH 10

    ______ 9. acid precipitation : sulfur ox-ides, nitrogen oxides, water ::a. air pollution : dust,

    pollen, sporesb. ozone : vehicle emissions,

    sunlight, oxygenc. VOCs : smogd. light pollution : sodium


    ______10. vehicles, industry : outdoorair pollution ::a. nitrogen, oxygen :

    volcanoesb. farming, fires :

    constructionc. ear protection : noise

    pollutiond. plastics, building materi-

    als : indoor air pollution

  • Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

    Holt Environmental Science 4 Air

    Name Class Date

    Critical Thinking continued


    Read the following passage, and answer the questions that follow.

    Lake Sulfox is having some problems with its fish population.Commercial fishermen are claiming that their catches havedeclined, and they are blaming the decline on the supposed acidification of the lake by a local coal-fired power plant. TheLake Sulfox Advisory Board has the following data on file. Highersulfate levels in the lake mean greater acidity. Assume that thesize of the fish harvest is a good indicator of the size of the fish population.

    11. What is the apparent relationship between the size of the fish harvest and thesulfate levels in the lake?

    12. Do the data prove that acidification of the lake by sulfates is responsible forthe decline in the lakes fish population? Provide at least two reasons tosupport your viewpoint.

    Annual Fish Harvest (metric tons)1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

    7500 6924 6322 5412 5503 5113

    Mean Sulfate Levels (ppm)1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

    41.07 51.34 54.89 57.46 58.76 59.65

  • Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

    Holt Environmental Science 5 Air

    Name Class Date

    Critical Thinking continued


    Agree or disagree with the following statements, and support your answers.

    13. It is lifestyle choices, such as smoking tobacco, rather than air pollution thatcauses the large number of respiratory diseases found in todays society.

    14. Mass transit in cities could go a long way to reduce urban air pollution.

    15. Air pollution is an international problem that can only be solved throughglobal treaties.

    16. Noise pollution does not lead to long-term health effects on the human body.

  • Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

    Holt Environmental Science 6 Air

    Name Class Date

    Critical Thinking continued


    The statements below challenge you to refine your understanding of conceptscovered in the chapter. Think carefully, and answer the questions that follow.

    17. A company plans to correct sick-building syndrome in its headquarters. Thecompany will remove moldy carpeting, install brand-new carpeting, and sealup all cracks in the building in order to keep out new mold and fungus spores.The air ducts will be left alone because they have worked fine for yearswithout any cleaning. Suggest any ways that the company should change itsplans, and explain the reason for each change.

    18. The wind blows across Country A and into Country B. Country A has electricpower plants that burn fossil fuels, and lakes with a pH of 5.1. Country B haspower plants run by moving water (hydroelectric), and lakes with a pH of 4.2. Explain how this can be. What could the two countries do to correct the situation?

    19. Manufacturing is often blamed for producing air pollution. However, according to economic theory, it is neither technologically feasible nor economically efficient to completely eliminate pollution. What do you think?Explain your reasoning.

  • Concept ReviewMATCHING MULTIPLE CHOICE1. b 11. b2. d 12. c3. c 13. d4. a 14. d5. e 15. a6. g 16. d7. i 17. b8. f 18. c9. j 19. b

    10. h 20. a

    Critical Thinking ANALOGIES1. b 6. b2. b 7. c3. a 8. a4. d 9. b5. d 10. d

    INTERPRETING OBSERVATIONS11. The higher the sulfate levels in the

    lake, the lower the size of the fish harvest.

    12. No, the tests do not prove that acidification is causing the decline ofthe fish population for two reasons.First, there is no proof that sulfate levels affect fish populations. Second,there is no way to know that the fishharvest would not have declined without the addition of sulfates to thelake. In other words, without moredata it is impossible to know if the fish harvest was already declining, presumably for other reasons.

    AGREE OR DISAGREE13. Answers may vary. Sample answer:

    Disagree. While lifestyle choices dolead to serious respiratory diseases,environmental factors such as air pollution costs Americans around tensof billions of dollars a year in healthcare costs.

    14. Answers may vary. Sample answer:Agree. Mass transportation would help to decrease the amount of automobiles used, leading to adecrease in the amount of carbondioxide released. Carbon dioxidereleased by motorized vehicles is oneof the largest primary sources of airpollution in the world.

    15. Answers may vary. Sample answer:Agree. The atmosphere is in constantcirculation. That means that pollutionreleased into the air over one countrywill eventually move over anothercountry. Therefore, countries shouldwork together to solve global air pollution concerns.

    16. Answers may vary. Sample answer:Disagree. Noise pollution can lead topermanent deafness and high bloodpressure, which can cause seriousdamage to the cardiovascular system.Furthermore, noise pollution leads tostress, which has been linked to manychronic diseases.

    REFINING CONCEPTS17. Accept any reasonable response.

    Sample answer: Instead of new car-peting, they should install a hard-sur-faced floor that can be cleaned easily;new carpeting may encourage thegrowth of new mold, plus it may giveoff indoor air pollutants such asformaldehyde. They must clean the airducts because those may be thesource of mold and fungus spores,and they must check that the air ductsare bringing in outside air. Theyshould take care of the air ducts firstto make sure that ventilation duringrenovations is adequate. In addition,sealing up all the cracks in the build-ing may aggravate the air-quality problem.


    Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

    Holt Environmental Science 93 Air

  • 18. Accept any reasonable response.Sample answer: The power plants inCountry A give off oxides of sulfurand nitrogen that combine with waterin the air to make acid precipitation.The wind carries the acid precipita-tion over the border away fromCountry A, and it falls into CountryB, where it acidifies the lake water.The two countries could reach anagreement for Country A to installscrubbers in the power plants, ortake other measures to reduce emis-sions.

    19. Accept any reasonable response.Sample answers: Agree. It would beimpossible to maintain our societywithout any pollution. Many businesseswould fail, and many people wouldlose their jobs if businesses werebanned from producing any pollution.Even non-industrialized societies produce pollution in the form ofsmoke from fires. It makes more sensefor our society to work toward drastically reducing pollution ratherthan completely eliminating it.

    Active ReadingSECTION: WHAT CAUSES AIRPOLLUTION?1. d2. d3. a4. c5. a6. chemical compounds that form toxic

    fumes7. Harmful; they pollute the air.8. They burn fossil fuels, which releases

    huge amounts of sulfur dioxide andnitrogen oxides into the air.

    9. oil refineries, chemical manufacturingplants, furniture refinishers, and auto-mobile repair shops

    10. two-thirds of all sulfur dioxide andmore than one-third of all nitrogenoxides that pollute the air

    11. use fewer products that contain VOCs

    SECTION: AIR, NOISE, AND LIGHTPOLLUTION1. c2. d3. b4. a5. long, thin fibers that are valued for

    their strength and resistance to heat6. a potentially fatal disease that arises

    from exposure to asbestos7. 28. 19. 5

    10. 311. 612. 413. Asbestos is a good insulator and fire

    retardant.14. Expos


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