Skeletal system Your bones manufacture blood cells. Our bones are held by our muscles The smallest bones are in our ears.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Skeletal system Your bones manufacture blood cells. Our bones are held by our muscles The smallest bones are in our ears </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Muscular system Muscles are bundles of cells and fibers. We have 600 major muscles. We have 240 muscles that have specific jobs </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> TMJ </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Structure of Bone </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Anatomy of a Long Bone Diaphysis Medullary Cavity Nutrient Art &amp; Vein 2 Epiphyses Epiphyseal Plates Epiphyseal Art &amp; Vein Periosteum Outer: Dense irregular CT Inner: Osteoblasts, osteoclasts Does not cover epiphyses Attaches to bone matrix via collagen fibers Endosteum Osteoblasts, osteoclasts Covers trabeculae, lines medullary cavity </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Synovial Joint pg 215 </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Bursae &amp; Tendon Sheaths Bursae: flat, fibrous sac w/synovial membrane lining Tendon Sheaths: elongated bursae that wraps around tendons 3 Factors in Joint Stability: Muscle Tone Ligaments Fit of Articular Surface pg 219 </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Joint Shapes Hinge: cylindrical end of 1 bone fits into trough shape of other angular movement-1 plane (eg) elbow, ankle, interphalangal Plane: articular surface in flat plane Short gliding movement (eg) intertarsal, articular processes of vertebrae pg 224 </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Joint Shapes Condyloid: egg-shape articular surface + oval concavity side-to-side, back+forth movement (eg) metacarpophalangeal (knuckle) Pivot: round end fits into ring of bone + ligament rotation on long axis (eg) prox. radius/ulna, atlas/dens pg 225 </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Anterior Skull frontal bone supraorbi tal foramen zygomatic bone maxilla ry bone alveolar fossa infraorbit al foramen glabella mental foramen mandible mandibul ar symphysis </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Anterior Skull nasal bone perpendicularplate middle nasal concha vomer bone superior orbital fissure inferior nasal concha bone concha bone </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Paranasal Sinuses frontal sinus ethmoid sinus maxilary sinus sphenoid sinus </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Cranium frontal bone parietal bone occipital bone lambdoidal suture suture sagittal suture coronal suture </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Ventral Skull palatine process palatine bone vomer bone mastoid process styloid process external occipital protuberance sphenoid bone temporal bone occipital bone </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Occipital bone occipitalcondyle jugularforamen carotidcanal foramen magnum </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Lateral Skull lacrimalbone temporalbone squamosalsuture mandibular condyle In mandibular fossa (TMJ joint) external acoustic meatus </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> angle coronoi d process zygomatic arch mastoid process styloid process sphenoidbone body ramus mandible Lateral Skull sutura l bone </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> crista galli cribriborm plate intenal acoustic meatus greater wing lesser wing optic canal sella turcica jugular foramen Internal Skull </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Hyoid bone temmporalmandibularjoint externalacousticmeatus Hyoid + </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> ________________ ________Sagittal </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Coronal Lambdoid Squamous </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Overview of Skull Geography Facial bones form the anterior aspect The cranial bones enclose the brain </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Vault The cranial vault or calvaria forms the superior, lateral, and posterior aspects of skull The cranial base forming the inferior aspect of skull </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Cranial Base Cranial base forms the skulls inferior aspect Three prominent ridges divide the base into fossae The brain rests on these cranial fossae completely enclosed by the cranial vault The brain occupies the cranial cavity </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Cranium The 8 cranial bones include; 2 parietal, 2 temporal frontal, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid Cranium is self- bracing allowing the bones to be thin, yet strong </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Occipital bone Forms most of the posterior wall and base of skull Articulates with parietal &amp; temporal Joins w/ sphenoid in the cranial floor Forms internal walls of posterior cranial fossa </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Occipital bone - Int. landmarks Hypoglossal canal, Posterior cranial fossa </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Temporal Bone Forms the infero- lateral aspects of the skull Parts of the cranial floor Divided into four regions; squamous tympanic, mastoid, and petrous-(int) </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Temporal Bone The internal petrous region contributes to the cranial base The petrous region and the sphenoid bone form the middle cranial fossa </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Temporal Bone - landmarks Zygomatic process Meets the zygomatic bone Forms the cheek Mandibular fossa Receives condyle of mandible </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Temporal bones - landmarks Stylomastoid foramen exit for facial nerve Carotid canal entrance for the carotid artery which supplies blood to cerebral hemispheres </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Sphenoid bone Bone spanning the width of middle cranial fossa Articulates as central wedge of all cranial bones Consists of central body and three processes; greater and lesser wings and pterygoid process (pos. view) </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Sphenoid - landmarks Sella turcica (enclosure for pituitary gland) Optic foramina (passage of optic nerves) Superior orbital fissure (Nerves III, IV, V enter orbit) Foramen rotundum &amp; ovale (Cranial Nerve V to face) Foramen spinosum (Middle meningeal artery) </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Ethmoid bone Forms most of the area between the nasal cavity &amp; orbits of eyes Lies between nasal bones &amp; sphenoid Complex shape gives rise to nasal septum, sinuses and cribiform plate </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Ethmoid bone - landmarks Cribiform plates Forms roof of nasal cavity Olfactory formina Olfactory nerves enter brain Crista galli Attachment of the dura mater which secures brain in cavity </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Facial bones Consists of 14 bones w/ only mandible and vomer unpaired Others include maxillae, lacrimals, nasals, zygomatics, inferior nasal conchae, and palatines (not pictured) </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Mandible Forms the lower jaw Largest, strongest bone of the face It has a body and two upwardly projecting sections called rami Houses lower dentition </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Mandible - landmarks Mandibular angle Mandibular notch Coronoid process Mandibular condyle Alveolar margin Mandible formina Mental formina Ramus of mandible </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Maxillary bone Forms upper jaw and central portion of facial skeleton Fused medially Articulates with all facial bones except mandible Upper dentition Forms 2/3 of hard palate of the mouth Maxillarybone Zygomaticprocess </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Maxillary bones - landmarks Alveolar margin Upper dentition Frontal process Forms lateral aspects of nose Zygomatic process Articulates with zygomatic bone Maxillary sinuses (Fig. 7.11) </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Palatine bones The horizontal plates forms the posterior portion of hard palate Vertical plate forms part of the posterolateral wall of nasal cavity and a small portion of orbit </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Palatine bones - landmarks Horizontal plate Posterior section of hard palate Vertical plate Part of the posteriolateral walls of nasal cavity Orbital surface Part of inferior medial aspect of orbit </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Vomer Forms part of the nasal septum Discussed with the nasal cavity </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Vomer - landmarks Plow shape Divides nasal septum into right and left parts </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Inferior Nasal Conchae - Landmark The Inferior nasal conchae is just one of three in the nasal cavity Superior and middle concha are on the Ethmoid bone </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> The Orbits </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Paranasal sinuses Note positioning around nasal cavity </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Paranasal sinuses Sphenoid sinus Frontal sinus Ethmoid sinus Maxillary sinuses </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> Hyoid bone Body Neck muscle attachment Greater horn Neck muscle attachment Lesser horn </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> TMJ </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> TMJ Capsule </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> TMJ Motions </li> <li> Slide 59 </li> <li> Slide 60 </li> <li> Characteristics - Ligaments Ligaments hold the vertebral column in an upright position The broad Anterior Longitudinal Ligament prevents hyperextension and is quite strong The cord like Posterior Longitudinal Ligament prevents hyperflexion and is relatively weak </li> <li> Slide 61 </li> <li> Characteristics - Ligaments Ligaments also connect specific vertebra and support disc position Supraspinos ligament Ligamentum flavum Interspinous ligament </li> <li> Slide 62 </li> <li> Intervertebral Discs Intervertebral discs are cushion like pads interposed between vertebra The discs provide elasticity and compressibility Compression flattens discs Discs are thickest in the cervical and lumbar to provide flexibility </li> <li> Slide 63 </li> <li> Characteristics - discs Annulus fibrosus surrounds the outer margin Collagen fibers Nucleus pulposus is the semi fluid substance which shifts under body weight &amp; pressure Herniation of disc Herniation of disk </li> <li> Slide 64 </li> <li> General structure of vertebrae Common pattern Body or centrum Vertebral arch lamina pedicle Vertebral foramen Spinous process Muscles attach Transverse process Muscles attach </li> <li> Slide 65 </li> <li> General structure of vertebrae Interlocking pattern Superior and inferior processes interlock The inferior from above and the superior from the vertebrae below form a movable joint The movement contributes to spinal rotation Superior Articular Process </li> <li> Slide 66 </li> <li> General structure Pedicles have notches on their superior and inferior borders Lateral openings are called intervertebral foramen Spinal nerves from spinal cord exit through these foramina </li> <li> Slide 67 </li> <li> Regional Characteristic: Cervical Body is oval, but wide side to side C3 - C7 Spinous process is short and bifid (split) except in C7 Vertebral foramen is triangular Transverse processes contain foramina for blood vessels leading to brain </li> <li> Slide 68 </li> <li> Cervical Vertebrae C1 Lateral masses articulates with the occipital condyles of the skull </li> <li> Slide 69 </li> <li> Cervical Vertebrae C1 Inferior articular surface articulates with C2 below Body of the Vertebrae is missing </li> <li> Slide 70 </li> <li> Cervical Vertebrae C2 The axis has the odontoid process or dens is its unique feature The dens is the missing body of the atlas which fuses with the atlas during embryonic development </li> <li> Slide 71 </li> <li> Regional Characteristic: Cervical Spinous processes project directly posteriorly Superior facets directed superoposteriorly Inferior facets directed inferoanteriorly Flexion/extension, lateral flexion and rotation </li> <li> Slide 72 </li> <li> Regional Characteristic: Thoracic Body is larger than cervical; heart shaped Spinous process is long and sharp Vertebral foramen is circular Transverse processes project posteriorly and bear facets for ribs </li> <li> Slide 73 </li> <li> Regional Characteristic: Lumbar Body is massive and kidney shaped Spinous processes are short and blunt Vertebral foramen is triangular Transverse processes are perpendicular to spinous process but has no special features </li> <li> Slide 74 </li> <li> Regional Characteristic: Lumbar Spinous process projects posteriorly Superior facets directed medially Inferior facets directed laterally Flexion/extension, some lateral flexion, rotation prevented </li> <li> Slide 75 </li> <li> Sacral Ala are fused remnants of transverse processes that articulate with hip bones to form the sacro iliac joints of the pelvis Sacral promontory Center of gravity is 1 cm posterior of this point Transverse line are sites of vertebral fusion Sacral foramina transmit blood vessels and nerves Sacralpromontory Ala </li> <li> Slide 76 </li> <li> Sacral On the posterior aspect median sacral crest are fused spinous processes The vertebral canal continues inside the sacrum as the sacral canal Sacral hiatus is at the inferior end of the sacral canal Superior articular surface form a joint with the spinal column </li> <li> Slide 77 </li> <li> Coccyx Coccyx articulates with sacrum </li> <li> Slide 78 </li> <li> Sternum Located on the anterior midline of the thorax Consists of three fused bones; manubrium, body, and xiphoid process Manibrium articulates with clavicle &amp; 2 ribs Body with ribs 2 - 7 Xiphoid attachment site for abdominal muscle </li> <li> Slide 79 </li> <li> Thorax to Vertebral Column </li> <li> Slide 80 </li> <li> Ribs </li> <li> Slide 81 </li> <li> Ribs are bowed flat bones Long shaft Tear drop shaped with a costal groove on inner surface Head of rib has 2 facets to articulate with its vertebrae as well as the one above </li> <li> Slide 82 </li> <li> Ribs Tubercle of rib articulates with transverse process Ligaments secure rib to transverse process Note how the transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae are angled posteriorly </li> <li> Slide 83 </li> <li> * . * . * . * . *. . *- </li> <li> Slide 84 </li> <li> The Skull: Fractures Egg Shell Fracture of the Parietal bones. Results from a fall or blunt force to the head </li> <li> Slide 85 </li> <li> The Skull: Fractures Another example of an egg shell fracture. </li> <li> Slide 86 </li> <li> Knife in Skull Above Orbit AP Projection </li> </ul>

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