skeletal system. functions of the skeletal system bones are made of osseous tissue support and...
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SKELETAL SYSTEM Slide 2 Functions of the Skeletal System Bones are made of OSSEOUS TISSUE Support and Protection Body movement Blood cell formation (bone marrow) - hemopoiesis Storage of inorganic materials (salt, calcium, potassium.) Slide 3 ORGANIZATION About 206 bones 2 Main Divisions Axial & Appendicular Slide 4 Axial Skeleton Head, neck, trunk Skull Hyoid Bone Vertebral Column Thoracic Cage (ribs, 12 pairs) Sternum Slide 5 Hyoid Bone Slide 6 Appendicular Skeleton Limbs & Bones that connect to the o Pectoral Girdle (shoulders) o Pelvic Girdle (hips) Slide 7 BONE STRUCTURE - Long Bone 1. Epiphysis 2. Diaphysis 3. Articular Cartilage 4. Periosteum Slide 8 Inside the Long Bone Medullary Cavity hollow chamber filled with bone marrow Red Marrow (blood) Yellow Marrow (fat) Endosteum lining of the medullary Slide 9 Types of Bone Tissue Compact (wall of the diaphysis) Spongy (cancellous, epiphysis) - red marrow Slide 10 Structure of a Long Bone Figure 6.3a-c Slide 11 * Assignment Coloring of a Long Bone Slide 12 Review the Structure of a Long Bone Matching quiz at http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/a p/holehaap/student/olc2/chap 07matching01.html http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/a p/holehaap/student/olc2/chap 07matching01.html Slide 13 Microscopic Structure MATRIX - where the bone cells live OSTEOCYTES - mature bone cells, enclosed in tiny chambers called LACUNAE OSTEOCYTES form rings (LAMELLAE) around a HAVERSIAN CANAL which houses blood vessels Osteocytes are linked by CANALICULI Haversian Canals are linked by VOLKMAN's CANALS Slide 14 Compact Bone BONE COLORING! Slide 15 Test Yourself Find the... Haversian Canal Volkman's Canal Lamellae Spongy Bone Compact Bone Slide 16 Slide 17 BONE DEVELOPMENT & GROWTH 1. Intramembranous bones flat, skull 2. Endochondral bones all other ALL BONES START AS HYALINE CARTILAGE, areas graduallly turn to bone PRIMARY OSSIFICATION CENTER (shaft) SECONDARY OSSIFICATION CENTER (ends) Slide 18 Bone Development & Growth EPIPHYSEAL DISK (growth plate) is a band of cartilage between the epiphysis and diaphysis These areas increase bone length as the cells ossify Slide 19 RESORPTION OSTEOCLASTS - dissolve bone tissue to release minerals, process is called RESORPTION Slide 20 Bone Growth Slide 21 * Assignment - Coloring of the Aging Hand Slide 22 Types of Joints (articulations) 1. Synarthrotic (not moveable, aka sutures) 2. Amphiarthrotic (slightly moveable, vertebrae) 3. Diarthrotic (moveable joint, aka synovial joints) Slide 23 Synovial fluid - fluid within the joints that helps to lubricate Types of Joints 1. Ball and Socket 2. Hinge 3. Pivot 4. Saddle Slide 24 BONES OF THE SKULL 1. Frontal - 2. Parietal - 3. Occipital - 4. Temporal - 5. Sphenoid - 6. Maxilla - 7. Mandible - 8. Zygomatic - Slide 25 TOPOGRAPHY OF THE SKULL Foramen - refers to any tiny opening, nerves and blood vessels leave this opening to supply the face Mental Foramen Slide 26 Suture - refers to any connection between large bones (in fetal skulls, these are called fontanels) Fissure - any wide gap between bones Slide 27 Sutures 1. Coronal - between frontal and parietal bones 2. Lambdoidal - between occipital and parietal bones 3. Squamosal - between temporal and parietal bones 4. Sagittal - between parietal bones Slide 28 Bones of the Skull & Sutures Slide 29 Foramen Magnum * Assignment: Skull Labeling Slide 30 Slide 31 Figure 6.10 Slide 32 Slide 33 Slide 34 The Rest of the Bones Slide 35 Vertebrae Neck = cervical Middle Back = thoracic Lower Back = lumbar Slide 36 Thoracic Cage Slide 37 Pectoral Girdle Slide 38 Bones of the Arm Ulna goes to pinky (P-U) Radius goes to thumb Slide 39 Wrist Bones For test Carpels Metacarpals Phalanges *extra credit opportunity Slide 40 Name the carpals for extra credit on test. Slide 41 Pelvic Girdle Slide 42 Bones of the Leg Slide 43 Bones of the Ankle Assignment Skeleton Labeling For Test Calcaneous Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges Slide 44 Slide 45 Slide 46 Slide 47 Broken Bones Slide 48 Slide 49 Slide 50 Abnormal Bone Conditions BONE SPURS: abnormal growth. Can occur on any bone (e.g. heel). OSTEOPOROSIS: Increased activity of osteoclasts cause a break down of bone, and the subsequent fewer minerals in the extracellular matrix make it fragile. The spongy bone especially becomes more porous. Men get it as well as women. Whats the best way to prevent osteoporosis? Exercise! What does exercise do? Makes bones bigger. The most common bone used for a bone graft is the iliac bone of the hip. Slide 51 Osteoporosis Figure 6.15 Slide 52 Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease which causes joint stiffness and bone deformity Source: http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/public/article3233439.ece http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/public/article3233439.ece Slide 53 ABNORMALITIES OF THE SPINE SCOLIOSIS is a lateral curve in the spine KYPHOSIS is a hunchback curve LORDOSIS is a swayback in the lower region. ANKYLOSIS is severe arthritis in the spine and the vertebrae fuse. Slide 54 SCOLIOSIS Slide 55 LORDOSIS Slide 56 ANKYLOSIS Slide 57 FUN FACTS ABOUT BONES Bone is made of the same type of minerals as limestone. Babies are born with 300 bones, but by adulthood we have only 206 in our bodies. The giraffe has the same number of bones in its neck as a human: seven in total. The long horned ram can take a head butt at 25 mph. The human skull will fracture at 5mph. Slide 58