SKELETAL SYSTEM Chapter 7 7-1. Chapter 7 Skeletal System Bone Classification Long Bones Short Bones Flat Bones Irregular Bones Sesamoid Bones (round)

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<ul><li><p>SKELETAL SYSTEMChapter 77-1</p></li><li><p>Chapter 7Skeletal SystemBone Classification Long Bones Short Bones Flat Bones Irregular Bones Sesamoid Bones (round)7-2</p></li><li><p>Bone Function Support and Protection gives shape to head, etc. supports bodys weight protects lungs, etc. Body Movement interacts with muscles bones act as rigid bar of a lever Blood Cell Formation hematopoiesis red marrow Inorganic Salt Storage calcium phosphate magnesium sodium potassium7-12</p></li><li><p>Parts of a Long Bone epiphysis (end) distal proximal diaphysis (shaft) compact bone spongy bone7-3 medullary cavity (central space) marrow red (hematopoiesis, make RBCs) yellow (fat storage) articular cartilage periosteum (outer covering) endosteum (inner covering)</p></li><li><p>Compact and Spongy Bone7-4</p></li><li><p>Microscopic Structureof Compact Bone osteon (cells grow in circle) osteonic canal (canal for bv) perforating canal (for bv) osteocyte (bone cell) lacuna (space) bone matrix (collagen, salt) canaliculus (connects cells)7-5</p></li><li><p>Bone DevelopmentIntramembranous Ossification bones originate within sheetlike layers of connective tissues broad, flat bones skull bones (except mandible)Endochondral Ossification bones begin as hyaline cartilage most bones of the skeleton7-6</p></li><li><p>Endochondral Ossification hyaline cartilage model primary ossification center secondary ossification centers epiphyseal plate osteoblasts vs. osteoclasts</p><p>7-7</p></li><li><p>Growth at the Epiphyseal PlateFirst layer of cells closest to the end of epiphysis resting cells anchors epiphyseal plate to epiphysisSecond layer of cells many rows of young cells undergoing mitosis7-8</p></li><li><p>Growth at the Epiphyseal PlateThird layer of cells older cells left behind when new cells appear cells enlarging and becoming calcifiedFourth layer of cells thin dead cells calcified intercellular substance7-9</p></li><li><p>Homeostasis of Bone TissueBone Resorption action of osteoclasts and parathyroid hormoneBone Deposition action of osteoblasts and calcitonin7-10</p></li><li><p>Factors Affecting Bone Development, Growth, and Repair Deficiency of Vitamin A retards bone development Deficiency of Vitamin C results in fragile bones Deficiency of Vitamin D rickets, osteomalacia Insufficient Growth Hormone dwarfism Excessive Growth Hormone gigantism, acromegaly Insufficient Thyroid Hormone delays bone growth Sex Hormones promote bone formation; stimulate ossification of epiphyseal plates Physical Stress stimulates bone growth7-11</p></li><li><p>Levers and Movement7-14</p></li><li><p>Skeletal OrganizationAxial Skeleton head neck trunkAppendicular Skeleton upper limbs lower limbs pectoral girdle pelvic girdle7-15</p></li><li><p>Terms Used to Describe Skeletal StructuresSee table 7.4 on page 202These terms will be used to describe specific parts of a bone.You will need to understand what many of them mean.</p></li><li><p>Hyoid (1)7-16 Supports tongue</p></li><li><p>SkullFrontal (1) (orange) forehead roof of nasal cavity roofs of orbits frontal sinuses supraorbital foramen coronal suture7-17</p></li><li><p>SkullParietal (2) (blue) side walls of cranium roof of cranium sagittal suture between 2 parietal bones7-18</p></li><li><p>SkullTemporal (2) (red) wall of cranium floor of cranium floors and sides of orbits squamosal suture external acoustic meatus mandibular fossa mastoid process styloid process zygomatic process 7-19</p></li><li><p>SkullOccipital (1) (blue) back of skull base of cranium foramen magnum occipital condyles lambdoidal suture7-20</p></li><li><p>SkullSphenoid (1) (purple) base of cranium sides of skull floors and sides of orbits sella turcica sphenoidal sinuses7-21</p></li><li><p>SkullEthmoid (1) roof and walls of nasal cavity floor of cranium wall of orbits cribiform plates perpendicular plate superior and middle nasal conchaeSupport mucous membranesmoisten and warm air ethmoidal sinuses crista gallis</p><p>7-22</p></li><li><p>Facial SkeletonMaxilla (2) (yellow) upper jawanterior roof of mouth floors of orbits sides of nasal cavity floors of nasal cavity alveolar processes maxillary sinuses palatine process7-23</p></li><li><p>Facial SkeletonPalatine (2) posterior roof of mouth floor of nasal cavity lateral walls of nasal cavity7-24</p></li><li><p>Facial SkeletonZygomatic (2) (Green) prominences of cheeks lateral walls of orbits floors of orbits temporal process7-25</p></li><li><p>Facial SkeletonLacrimal (2) (blue) medial walls of orbits groove from orbit to nasal cavity pathway for tearsNasal (2) (green) bridge of nose7-26</p></li><li><p>Facial SkeletonVomer (1) (fuscia) inferior portion of nasal septum7-27</p></li><li><p>Facial SkeletonInferior Nasal Conchae (2) (blue) extend from lateral walls of nasal cavity7-28</p></li><li><p>Facial SkeletonMandible (1) lower jaw only mobile bone in skull body ramus mandibular condyle coronoid process alveolar process mandibular foramen mental foramen7-29</p></li><li><p>Infantile SkullFontanels fibrous membranes (soft spot)7-30Fontanels close by:Posterior 2 mosphenoid 3 moMastoid end 1st yrAnterior end 2nd yr</p></li><li><p>Vertebral Column cervical vertebrae (7) thoracic vertebrae (12) lumbar vertebrae (5) sacrum (1; 5 fused) coccyx (1; 4 fused)7-31</p></li><li><p>Vertebral Column cervical curvature thoracic curvature lumbar curvature pelvic curvature rib facets vertebra prominens intervertebral discs intervertebral foramina7-32</p></li><li><p>Cervical Vertebrae (7) Atlas 1st; supports head Axis 2nd; dens pivots to turn head transverse foramina bifid spinous processes vertebral prominens useful landmark on 7th 7-33</p></li><li><p>Thoracic Vertebrae (12) long spinous processes rib facets7-34</p></li><li><p>Lumbar Vertebrae (5) large bodies thick, short spinous processes7-35</p></li><li><p>Sacrum (1) five fused vertebrae (between 18 30 yrs) median sacral crest dorsal sacral foramina posterior wall of pelvic girdle sacral promontory7-36</p></li><li><p>Coccyx (1) tailbone four fused vertebrae (by 25 yrs)7-37</p></li><li><p>Thoracic Cage Ribs Sternum Thoracic vertebrae Costal cartilages Supports shoulder girdle Protects viscera Role in breathing7-38</p></li><li><p>Ribs (24) True ribs (7)[on each side] False ribs (5)[on each side] floating (inferior 2) [on each side]7-39</p></li><li><p>Rib Structure Shaft Head posterior end; articulates with vertebrae Tubercle articulates with vertebrae Costal cartilage hyaline cartilage, connect rib to sternum7-40</p></li><li><p>Sternum (1) Manubrium Body Xiphoid process7-41</p></li><li><p>Pectoral Girdle shoulder girdle clavicles (2) scapulae (2) supports upper limbs7-42</p></li><li><p>Clavicles (2) articulate with manubrium articulate with scapulae (acromion process)7-43</p></li><li><p>Scapulae (2) spine supraspinous fossa infraspinous fossa acromion process coracoid process glenoid cavity7-44</p></li><li><p>Upper Limb Humerus Radius Ulna Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges7-45</p></li><li><p>Humerus (2)bone in upper arm head greater tubercle lesser tubercle anatomical neck surgical neck deltoid tuberosity capitulum (w/ radius) trochlea (w/ ulna) coronoid fossa olecranon fossa7-46</p></li><li><p>Radius (2) lateral forearm bone headallows rotationcrosses over ulna radial tuberosity styloid process7-47</p></li><li><p>Ulna (2) medial forearm bone trochlear notch olecranon process coronoid process styloid process7-48</p></li><li><p>Wrist and Hand Carpals (16) [8 in each] trapezium trapezoid capitate scaphoid pisiform triquetrum hamate lunate Metacarpals (10) [5 in each] Phalanges (28) [14 in each] proximal phalanx middle phalanx distal phalanx7-49</p></li><li><p>Pelvic Girdle Coxae (2) supports trunk of body protects viscera Sacrum and Coccyxsometimes considered part of girdle7-50</p></li><li><p>Coxae (2) hip bones ilium iliac crest iliac spines greater sciatic notch ischium ischial spines lesser sciatic notch ischial tuberosity pubis obturator foramen acetabulum7-51</p></li><li><p>Male and Female PelvisFemale iliac bones more flared broader hips pubic arch angle greater more distance between ischial spine and ischial tuberosity pelvic brim wider sacral curvature shorter and flatter lighter bones7-53</p></li><li><p>Lower Limb Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges7-54</p></li><li><p>Femur (2) longest/strongest bone head fovea capitis neck greater trochanter lesser trochanter linea aspera condyles epicondyles7-55</p></li><li><p>Patella (2) kneecap anterior surface of knee flat sesmoid bone located in a tendon7-56</p></li><li><p>Tibia (2) shin bone weight bearing bone medial to fibula condyles tibial tuberosity anterior crest medial malleolus7-57</p></li><li><p>Fibula (2)Insert figure 7.54 lateral to tibia long, slender head lateral malleolus does not bear any body weight7-58</p></li><li><p>Ankle and Foot Tarsals (14) [7 in each] calcaneus talus navicular cuboid lateral cuneiform intermediate cuneiform medial cuneiform Metatarsals (10) [5 in each] Phalanges (28) [14 in each] proximal middle distal7-59</p></li><li><p>Ankle and Foot7-60</p></li><li><p>Life-Span Changes decrease in height at about age 30 calcium levels fall bones become brittle osteoclasts outnumber osteoblasts spongy bone weakens before compact bone bone loss rapid in menopausal women hip fractures common vertebral compression fractures common7-61</p></li><li><p>Clinical ApplicationTypes of Fractures green stick fissured comminuted transverse oblique spiral</p><p>open7-62</p></li></ul>

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