Skeletal System Chapter 45.2. The Skeleton  Main functions: rigid framework for support, protection, allowing bodily movement, producing blood, and storing.

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<ul><li><p>Skeletal SystemChapter 45.2</p></li><li><p>The SkeletonMain functions: rigid framework for support, protection, allowing bodily movement, producing blood, and storing minerals. </p><p>Contains approx. 206 bones.</p><p>The human skeleton is divided into two parts:1. axial (skull, ribs, spine, sternum)2. appendicular (everything else)</p></li><li><p>Bones StructurePeriosteum --- Membrane that contains a network of blood vessels which supplies nutrients. (Outer layer of the bone.)</p><p>Compact bone --- Allows the bone to endure a large amount of stress it receives upon impact.</p><p>Spongy Bone - Network of connective tissue.</p></li><li><p>Haversian canal: Narrow channel that blood vessels run through that carries nourishment to living bone tissueOsteocytes: Bone cells Osteoclasts: Bone cell that removes bone tissueOsteoblasts: Bone cells responsible for bone formation</p></li><li><p>Bone Marrow --- Red or YellowRed Marrow --- Produces red blood cells &amp; certain types of white blood cells.Yellow Marrow --- Consists of fat cells &amp; serves as energy storage.</p></li><li><p>Bone DevelopmentBone develops from cartilage. Cartilage is a tough, flexible connective tissue.Cartilage will eventually harden during fetal development in a process called ossification. </p><p>Epiphyseal Plate: Place near the ends of long bones where elongation occurs</p></li><li><p>JointsJoints are places where two bones meet.</p><p>Joints are held together by ligaments, tough bands of connective tissue.</p><p>Because of all the movement and friction of joints, synovial fluid helps protect the ends of bones.</p></li><li><p>Hinge JointFound in your elbow. Allows you to move arm forward &amp; backward. Like a door.</p></li><li><p>Gliding JointAllows bones to slide over one another. Example are the joints between the small bones of your feet. Allows your foot to flex when you walk.</p></li><li><p>Pivot JointForms the top 2 vertebrae in your neck. Allows you to move your head side to side. (Saying no).</p></li><li><p>Ball &amp; Socket JointFound in your shoulder or hip. Allows you to move your arm up &amp; down, forward &amp; backward, &amp; rotate in a complete circle.</p></li><li><p>Saddle JointFound at the base of each thumb, allows you to rotate your thumbs and helps you grasp objects with your hand.</p></li><li><p>Skeletal System DisordersInflammation: Protective attempt by the body to remove the injurious stimuliArthritis: Disorders that cause painful, swollen jointsRheumatoid Arthritis: develops when immune system begins to attack body tissues.Osteoarthritis: a degenerative joint disease where cartilage covering the surface of bone becomes thinner and rougher.Osteoporosis: Thinning of bone tissue &amp; loss of bone density over time.</p></li></ul>

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