Skeletal System

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<p>What are the Functions of the Bone?</p> <p>Support- framework that supports body and cradles its soft organs</p> <p>Protection- for delicate organs, heart, lungs, brain</p> <p>Movement- bones act as levers for muscles</p> <p>Mineral storage- calcium &amp; phosphate Blood cell formation- hematopoietic Storage of fats - it stores energy-rich fat in yellow bone marrow</p> <p>Spongy Bone Tissue Located at the ends and interior of long bones Also called as bone marrow Composed of an open lattice of bone Within this lattice framework, RBC are produces</p> <p>Compact Bone Tissue Surrounds</p> <p>the sponfu bone tissue Also found at the core of bones Give strength to withstand mechanical</p> <p>Exoskeleton or dermal skeleton Built up outside the body Muscles are attached to the inner surface Characteristics into axial and appendicular skeletons</p> <p>Endoskeleton Built up inside the body surrounded by sot tissue Muscles are attached to the outer surface Characteristics of vertebrae Divided into axial and appendicular </p> <p>Axial</p> <p>SkeletonAppendicular</p> <p>Skeleton</p> <p>Forms</p> <p>the main axis of the body notochord, vertebral column, ribs,hyoid sternum and skull of the</p> <p>Composed</p> <p>CRANIUM PARTS:</p> <p>Frontal bone- forms the forehead and the anterior part of the brain case Occipital Bone- curves to form the base of the brain Temporal Bone- that leads to middle ear Sphenoid Bonecontributes to forming the orbits Ethmoid Bone- smallest</p> <p>Posterior View</p> <p>Nasal bone form the bridge of the nose Zygomatic bone form the cheekbones Lacrimal Bone located at the corners of the eyes near the nose Maxillae form the upper jaw to which facial bones are joined Mandible - forms the lower jaw the only movable portion of the skull.</p> <p>anchors the tongue and serves as the site for the attachment of muscles associated with swallowing.</p> <p>Frontal Sinus</p> <p>Ethmoid Sinus Sphenoid Sinus Maxillary Sinus</p> <p>Warm and moisten air Lighten the skull Enhance voice resonance</p> <p> The</p> <p>main axial support vertebrae Common called back bone Protect the spinal cord Provides rigidity to the body</p> <p>Cervical vertebrae - Smallest of all separate vertebrae - Atlas- firs t cervical - Axis second cervical Thoracic vertebrae - Have an extra articular facet for</p> <p>Lumbar Vertebrae - The largest and strongest of all vertebrae Sacrum - Forms the pelvic curvature Coccyx - Formed by the fusion of 4 vertebrae</p> <p>The Vertebral Column Cervical Vertebrae (7) Thoracic Vertebrae (12) Lumbar Vertberae (5) Sacrum Coccyx</p> <p>Cervical Vertebrae</p> <p>Sacrum &amp; Coccyx</p> <p>Series</p> <p>of cartilaginous or elongated bony structures attached to the vertebrae Form the thoracic cage Composed of the neck, shaft and the angle</p> <p> True</p> <p>Ribs (7 pairs) - Directly connected to the sternum False Ribs ( (3 pairs) - The distal cartilaginous ends unite with the costal cartilages of the last true ribs Floating Ribs (2 pairs)</p> <p>The Thoracic Cage</p> <p>Sternum True Ribs (7) False Ribs (3) Floating Ribs (2)</p> <p> Commonly</p> <p>called as the breast bone Elongated structure lying in the midventral region of the anterior trunk Articulates with the pectoral girdle</p> <p> Consists</p> <p>of the anterior pectoral appendages and girdle and the posterior pelvic appendages and girdle.</p> <p>Pectoral girdle - Scapula shoulder blade - coracoid - Clavicle collar bone Forelimbs - humerus- upper arm - Radius and ulnaforearm - Carpals-wrist</p> <p>Pelvic girdle - Illium - Ischium - pubis Hindlimbs - Femur thigh - Tibia and fibula shank - Patella- knee cap - Tarsals- ankle - Metatarsals sole</p> <p>Bones of the Pectoral Girdle</p> <p>Humerus</p> <p>Ulna Radius 8 Carpals 5 Metacarpals 14 Phalanges</p> <p>The Lower Limb (Legs)</p> <p>Femur Patella Tibia Fibula 7 Tarsals 5 Metatarsals 14 Phalanges</p> <p>phelangies metatarsals tarsals tarsals metatarsals phelangies</p> <p>Pelvis</p> <p>Pelvis (lateral view)Ilium</p> <p>Acetabulum Obturator foramen Ischium Pubis Ischium</p> <p>Long Bone- column shaped bones consists of a shaft and heads at both ends Short bones normally cube shape, contain mostly spongy bone Flat bone- thin, flattened, with usually curved broad surfaces Irregular bone- which have varied shapes that permit connections with other bones Round Bone- exemplified</p> <p>spongy bone Proximal epiphysis compact bone Endosteum</p> <p>diaphysis</p> <p>epiphyseal line yellow marrow</p> <p>Sharpeys fibers Distal epiphysis hyaline cartilage periosteum</p> <p> Epiphyses</p> <p> ends of long bones Metaphysis joints epiphysis and diaphysis Articular Cartilagewhere bone forms a joint with another bone Periosteumcovering of the</p> <p> Medullary</p> <p>or marrow cavity space inside diaphysis; contain yellow bone marrow Endosteum inner covering/ lining of the bone Nutrient foramen entrance of</p> <p>Connective tissue structures that attach the muscles to the bones The tendon of the quadriceps muscle traveling over the knee joint is what is tapped to elicit</p> <p>Flexible</p> <p>bands of connective tissue connecting bones together.</p> <p>Refer</p> <p>to places where bones meet allowing a wide range of movements. Also called articulations Muscles and bone work</p> <p>Synarthrosis:immovabl</p> <p>e Amphiarthrosis:slightly movable Diarthrosis:freely movable/ Synovial joints</p> <p>Gomphoses: joins teeth to mandible and maxilla.</p> <p>Sutures: joins bones in skull to each other. Irregular edges of the sutures provide increased strength and decreased number of fractures at the suture point. Synchondrosis: is a cartilaginous. Joint; it is also temporary joint that is replaced by bone during adult life</p> <p>suture pubis symphisis</p> <p>Symphysis: have a pad of fibrocartilage between articulating bones. Includes the pubic symphyses and the intervertebral joints.</p> <p>Syndesmoses: joins articulating bones by long strands of dense, regular connective tissue. (radius/ulna and tibia/fibula)</p> <p>Ball-and-Socket Joints. (Spheroid) These joints are formed where therounded headof one bone fits into thehollow, cup-shaped socketof another bone such as theshoulder jointand thehip joint. Such joints allowfreedom of movement in all directions. Hinge Joints (Ginglymus) These joints occur where theconvex surfaceof one bone fits into theconcave surfaceof another bone, so making movement possible inone plane only. Examples of these joints are theknee and the elbow joints. Hinge joints have ligaments mainly at the sides of the joints. Gliding Joints This type of joint allows forgliding movementsbetweenflat surfacesas the surfacesslideover one another. Only alimited amount of movementis allowed such as the joints between thecarpal bones, the joints between thetarsal bonesand those between thearticular processes (zygapophyses) of successive vertebrae. Pivot Joints (Trochoid) the end of one one bonerotatesround the axis of another bone such as theend of the radius rotating around the ulnaas the palm of the hand is turned inwards or outwards.</p> <p>(diarthrosis)- freely moveablepelvis</p> <p>ligaments femur</p> <p>joint capsule</p> <p>pelvis</p> <p>hyaline cartilage femur</p> <p>synovial cavity</p> <p>Fibrous: (a), syndesmosis (tibiofibular), (b) suture, skull Cartilaginous: (c) symphysis (vertebral bodies), (d) synchondrosis (first rib and sternum) Synovial: (e) condyloid (wrist), (f) planar (intercarpals), (g) hinge or ginglymus (elbow), (h) ball and socket (hip), (i) saddle(carpometacarpal of thumb), (j) pivot (atlantoaxial)</p> <p>Synovial Joint Movement</p> <p>Types of movement and examples (with muscles) flexion- move lower leg toward upper extension- straightening the leg abduction- moving leg away from body adduction- movong leg toward the body rotation- around its axis supination- rotation of arm to palm-up position pronation- palm down circumduction- swinging arms in circles inversion- turning foot so sole is inward eversion- sole is out</p> <p>Synovial Joint MovementExtension</p> <p>Flexion</p> <p>Rotation</p> <p>Adduction Abduction</p> <p>Male Pelvic Girdle</p> <p>Female Pelvic Girdle</p> <p>Fetus: 1st 2 months</p> <p>Endochondral Ossification</p> <p>2o ossification center</p> <p>cartilage</p> <p>bone calcified cartilageJust before birth</p> <p>epiphyseal plateChildhood Adult</p> <p>epiphyseal line</p> <p>Osteoblast</p> <p>Builds new bone</p> <p>Osteocyte</p> <p>Mature bone cell</p> <p>Osteoclast</p> <p>Eats bone</p> <p>Osteoblasts are responsible for building new boneand lie at the centre of bone physiology. Their functions include the synthesis of collagen and the control of mineralization.</p> <p>Osteocytes Bone adapts to applied forces bygrowing stronger in order to withstand them; it is known that exercise can help to improve bone strength.</p> <p>Osteoclasts are specialised cells that resorp andremodel the bone. They work by sealing off an area of bone surface then, when activated, they pump out hydrogen ions to produce a very acid environment, which dissolves the hydroxyapatite.</p> <p>Fractures</p> <p>A broken bone is known as a fracture. This can simply be a crack or buckle in the structure of the bone, or a complete break,</p> <p>hematoma</p> <p>callus</p> <p>bony callus</p> <p>bone remodeling</p> <p>Bone Fracture Repair</p> <p>The repair of bone fractures is similar to embryonic bone formation.</p> <p>Arthritis </p> <p>Arthritis- inflammation of the joints Consists of more than 100</p> <p>different conditions The common denominator for all these conditions is joint pain Osteoarthritis- nick-named wear and tear arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most crippling forms of arthritis. It is characterized by chronic inflammation of the lining of joints.</p> <p>Osteoporosis </p> <p>Osteoporosis- literally means "porous bones Occurs when a body's blood calcium level is low and calcium from bones is dissolved into the blood to maintain a proper balance. Over time, bone mass and bone strength decrease. As a result, bones become dotted with pits and pores, weak and fragile, and break easily. Other factors besides age can lead to osteoporosis, such as a diet low in calcium and protein, a lack of vitamin D, smoking, excessive alcohol drinking, and insufficient weight-bearing exercises to stress the bones.</p> <p>29</p> <p>40</p> <p>84</p> <p>92</p> <p>Rickets Childhood</p> <p>disorder involving softening and weakening of the bones. It is primarily caused by lack of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate</p> <p>ScoliosisCondition involving complex lateral and rotational curvature and deformity of the spine. Typically classified as: Idiopathic (unknown cause) Congenital (caused by vertebral abnormality present at birth) possibly inherited Secondary symptom of another condition, such as cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy</p> <p>KyphosisKyphosis can be thought of as an arching of the spine in which the top of the arch is seen in the back This condition is sometimes referred to as humpback or hunchback Caused by inflammation of vertebrae, poor posture, or congenital</p> <p>LordosisLordosis is the increase of the spinal posterior concavity. In most cases the cause is unknown and the disorder appears from This the condition onset of skeletal growth. is also referred to as swayback.</p> <p>Osteomyelitis </p> <p>Infection of bone or bone marrow, usually caused by bacteria. The infective process encompasses all of the bone components, including the bone marrow Pus is produced within the bone, which may result in an abscess which then deprives the bone of its blood supply.</p> <p>Because of the particulars of their blood supply, the tibia, femur, humerus, and vertebral bodies are especially prone</p> <p>Osteosarcoma </p> <p>The most common type of malignant bone cancer, accounting for 35% of primary bone malignancies. Usually occurs in the area where the body of cartilage (that separates the epiphyses and the diaphysis) of tubular long bones is located. 50% of cases occur around the knee.</p> <p>INQUIRY</p> <p>THE END!</p> <p></p>