sixth grade history-social science world history and geography: ancient civilizations

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Sixth Grade History-Social Science World History and Geography: Ancient Civilizations. Development of humankind Mesopotamia Egypt Hebrews Greece India China Rome. Lucy. Australopithecus afarensis Early bones found in Africa - Olduvai Gorge Proved that early humans walked upright - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Sixth Grade History-Social ScienceWorld History and Geography: Ancient CivilizationsDevelopment of humankindMesopotamiaEgyptHebrewsGreeceIndiaChinaRome

  • LucyAustralopithecus afarensisEarly bones found in Africa - Olduvai GorgeProved that early humans walked uprightDiscovered by Donald Johanson

  • Early HominidsHomo habilis - Handy man tool makerHomo erectus Upright man discovered how to control fireHomo sapiens Neanderthalensis Wise man found in the Neander Valley in modern Germany sense of communityHomo sapiens sapiens Doubly wise man early modern humans

  • Hunting and Gathering Farming*The transition from hunting and gathering to farming is one of the most important advance people have ever made.*Tools advanced from simple stone tools to complex metal ones

  • Early HumansEarly humans sites are found all over the worldTwo theories:Out of AfricaMulticentric

  • River ValleysMost early civilizations developed around a riverTigris and EuphratesNileIndusHuang He

  • Agricultural AdvancementsIrrigationEconomic SurplusDivision of laborWith the new time, early people were able to create new inventions plow and writing

  • The Code of HammurabiOne of the first codes of law (1792 1750 BCE)BabyloniaBased on the concept of An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.Written on stone pillars (stele) for all to seeThe laws applied to all people.

  • CuneiformAn early form of writingDeveloped in MesopotamiaScribes were trained to read and write itUsed mostly for tradeEgyptian hieroglyphicsIndia - sanskrit

  • Egyptian and Mesopotamian ArchitectureEgyptian PyramidsMesopotamian Ziggurats

  • Egyptian LeadershipPharaohs controlled EgyptQueen HatshepsutPromoter of Egyptian TradeRamses II (the Great)Military Leader and Master Builder

  • Abraham Father of the HebrewsHe was a polytheist who devoted his life to one god and became a monotheistLed his followers (they will come to be called Hebrews) from Mesopotamia to CanaanEstablished the beginnings of the religion called Judaism

  • Moses Leader and ProphetHe led the Jews out of Egypt back to their homeland.This event is called the ExodusOn the journey, Moses received the Ten Commandments from his god

  • ChristianityJesus of NazarethRaised as a JewGreat teacher and speakerSermon on the MountParablesHis followers established the religion called Christianity

  • Greek DemocracyMonarchyOligarchy/AristocracyTyrannyDemocracy

    Pericles Funeral Oration

  • City-States: Sparta vs. AthensSpartaAthensMilitary StateDemocracyAgrarian EconomyTrade EconomyFought each other in the Peloponnesian War.

  • Greek Architecture

  • Greek MythologyGreeks explained their world through their mythologyTrojan HorsePandoras boxHomerIliad and OdysseyZeus Poseidon Hades Ares Athena Apollo

  • GreekPhilosophyLove of WisdomSocratesEncouraged people to question the things they thought they knew.PlatoStudent of SocratesAristotleStudent of PlatoTaught Alexander the Great

  • Alexander the Great*Ruler of a vast empire from Macedonia to India in the 300s BCE.*As he conquered an area, he usually showed respect for the culture and religion of the area*Spread the ideas of the Greeks throughout his empire - Hellenism

  • Alexanders Empire

  • India

  • HinduismDharma perform ones duties and so to live as one shouldSamsara Reincarnation cycle of birth, death, and rebirth Karma the right way to live

  • BuddhismSiddhartha Gautama the Buddha or the Awakened OneDiscovered that life is suffering aging, sickness, and deathMoving towards Enlightenment and Nirvana

  • China - PhilosophiesConfucianism: Lead by example.Moderation in conduct and emotionRespect of eldersDaoism: If you must rule, rule as little as possible.Legalism: Set clear laws and harshly punish those who disobey them.

  • China DynastiesShang Dynasty powerful kings, ancestor worshipZhou Dynasty feudal, stabilized ChinaQin Dynasty unified China and expanded the borders, built the Great WallHan Dynasty time of peace, wealth, and achievement

  • China Silk Road

  • Rome GovernmentEtruscan KingsRepublic (509 BCE)Patricians PlebeiansJulius Caesar (49 BCE)Augustus Caesar First Emperor (37 BCE)

    In the sixth grade curriculum, students learn about those people and events that ushered in the dawn of major Western and non-Western civilizations..students should come to appreciate the special significance of geographic place in the development of the human story. They should acquire a sense of the everyday life of the people; their problems and accomplishments; their relationship to the developing social, economic, and political structure of their society; the tools and technology they developed; the role of trade, both domestic and international, in their lives; the art they created; the architecture they lived with; the literature produced by their finest poets, narrators, and writers; their explanations for natural phenomena; and the ideas they developed that helped transform their world.Lucy: The evidence of early hominids is limited to a few bones and artifacts; the discovery of the bones of Lucy by Donald Johanson were an amazing find; Lucy belongs to a group of hominids called Australopithecus afarensis; her skeleton proves that early hominids walked uprightEach change along the way from walking upright to creating better tools is a key step in the development of early modern humans.Paleolithic Age Old Stone Age people got their food by hunting wild animals and gathering nuts, berries, and other plants nomadicNeolithic New Stone Age people learned to domesticate (tame) animals and cultivate crops permanent food supply - allowed them to settle down into a more sedentary life styleEarly humans: There are many early hominid sites throughout the world; there are two main theories about how early humans populated the planet: one is called the out of Africa theory all human life began in Africa, most likely the Great Rift Valley and spread out from there; the other theory is the MultiCentric Theory in this theory there were multiple origination sites in Africa and AsiaGreat River Civilizations: Most early civilizations developed around a large river; Mesopotamia around the Tigris and Euphrates; Egypt around the Nile; India around the Brahmaputra, Indus, and Ganges ; China around the Huang HeAs early humans became more adept at farming, especially by learning to control the water source through irrigation, they were able to grow more food than was needed. This meant fewer people were needed to produce the food. These people could then focus their time and energy on other endeavors division of labor. Some of the things they created were the plow and writing, religion and government.Code of Hamurabi: Hamurabi wrote a code of laws based on the idea of Lex Talionis an eye for an eye; he had his laws written onto great stone stele that were seen (but probably not read) by all citizens. His code did not treat all people equally in terms of laws and punishments, but it was the first code of law to apply to everyone.Cuneiform: One of the earliest forms of writing; developed in Mesopotamia; only scribes were trained to read and write cuneiform; used mainly for tradeEgyptian Pyramids: These monumental structures were created to entomb the mummified bodies of the pharaohs; they were built by farmers during the non-growing season; most Egyptian architecture was religious in purposeHatshepsut ruled from 1473 to 1458 BCE; New Kingdom; first female pharaoh; she promoted trade with other countries; one large expedition was to Punt

    Ramses: ruled from 1290 to 1224 BCE; New Kingdom; reigned for over 60 years; courageous military leadership; built numerous monuments many in his own honorAbraham: Founder of Judaism; developed the idea of monotheism his people had been polytheists; Abraham made a covenant sacred agreement with his god - Leave your country and your fathers house, and go to a country that I will show you I will make you the father of many ; Abraham showed his devotion to his god when he was willing to sacrifice his son, IsaacMoses: Led the Jews out of Egypt in an event called the Exodus (~1250 BCE); on their journey home, Moses was given the Ten Commandments by his god; these laws still influence our laws today; Birth of Jesus of Nazareth: Born a Jew; he becomes a great teacher; his followers will develop the religion we call Christianity; this religion faced harsh persecution yet gradually spread throughout the Roman EmpireLooking at Athens as an example, most city-states in Greece progressed through a series of governmental types:Monarchy rule by one usually a king (could also be a pharaoh, emperor, etc.)Oligarchy/Aristocracy rule by the few the wealthy upper class (aristocracy) demanded more powerTyranny one single strong ruler sometimes selected; sometimes grabbed power with a military usually ruled during a period of anarchy or chaos given supreme powerDemocracy rule by the people as the middle class gained wealth, they also wanted a share of the power most early democracy gave power only to free males

    Pericles gave an important speech his funeral oration to commemorate the dead from a battle during the Peloponnesian War it established the concept of citizenshipSparta and Athens:Two of Greeces great city-statesThey developed along different linesSparta was more focused on the military boys were sent away to the military at the age of 7 both boys and girls were educatedAthens was more focused on developing the whole person art, athletics, citizenship focus was on males Spartas government was an oligarchy. Council of Elders made most importa

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