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etymology given in his time to the old name by Jewish below), and it is, therefore, impossible to speak with any definiteness as to the relative frequency of the two scholars. It seems quite plausible that Ezekiel's Sin names or their connotations. On the other hand, we was a fortress similar to (perhaps not very far from) are able to arrive at a quite clear perception of the idea Pelusium, but of a somewhat ephemeral importance. In the critical sixth century R. c . , fortifications and garrisons i that was connected with their use in the circle of legend along the entrance to Egypt between the sea and the and of the facts which caused the change of usage. In the thought of the ancient East every land that modern Balllh-lakes seem to have changed considerably, and even before the great revolution caused by can be looked upon as a geographical or political unity the Persian conquest i n 525 B.c., the withdrawal of the a. cosmological -and so also ' the promised land '-is large garrison to a better location may have reduced a regarded as a reflected image of the earth and of the cosmos ( K AT ( 3176); ) populous city to the position of an obscure village. the points which fix the limits of the This must have been the case with Ezekiel's Sin, as d : w. M . M. earth as a whole must, therefore, reappear also in the could no longer identify it.' [Cp C r i f . Bih. on Ezek. 29 I O 30 14-16, where an underlying 1 lesser cosmos, the country, and once more, again, in P17d is supposed. That Ezekiel's prophecies have been worked the district. It is precisely by this that the land is over by a redactor who changed the geographical setting, is shown to be a natural unity-Le., a unity determined pointed out in P ROPHET $ 27. The 'Shunem' supposed t o be and ordained by God. According as a twofold or a referred to would be tba; in the Negeb. See SHUNEM.] fourfold division is adopted, the earth is defined by two SIN, WILDERNESS OF (I'D 737p), 161, etc. Ex. or fonr points : E. and W . , or N. and S., or else ,E., See G EOGRAPHY , 7 ?and W ANDERINGS . S., W., and N. So also the year and the day are divided into two halves or four quarters in accordance SIN OFFERING (RKpp), Lev.43, etc. See with the corresponding points in the course of the sun. S ACRIFICE , 2 8 8 Any one of these two or four points can be taken as the beginning of the year or of the course of the sun ; the SINAI HOREB year can begin in spring as in Babylon, or in winter as Hebrew traditions (8 Two names ($ I). with us (following Egyptian - Roman reckoning), in Oldest Arab. civilisation (0 12). Cosmological theorz,(s ?). autumn as in the time before the rise of Babylon (end 3. Bearing on Horeh- mal (5 3). Moses story (5 1) of the third millenium B .c.) in Hither Asia, and, thereMount var~ously placed ($5 rq' Babylon and Egypt (5 4). Musri (# 5). 1) 6. fore, with the Canaanites and the Israelites ; lastly, in Minkans and Sabieans (S 6). Early sacred places (0 17). summer. The beginning selected corresponds with the Magan and Meluha (f 7). SerbZl and J. Miis5 (S IS). nature of the divinity who is principally worshipped. Amarna period (5-8). Gal. 425 ($ 19). Ma'in (( 9). Various views (5 20). Because Marduk is the god of spring the year is held to begin with spring, and because in the W. the western Sinai is the usual name for the mountain where, ( L e . , the autumn) god prevails, an autumn new year according to one tradition, Yahwb had his seat and prevails in western lands, including Canaan, as long as where, accordingly, Moses received the divine comthere is independence. mands. Sinai is, therefore, the mountain of the giving In this connection between the year-i.e., the course of the law. of the sun-and geographical conceptions we can Even the most superficial observation does not fail already discern the essential character of all oriental to note that the mountain where Yahwk dwells has also religion and science, which is to regard all that is and 1 The two another name-Horeb. In pre-critical . all that happens as flowing from the activity of the days the explanation offered and accepted names* was either that Horeb was the name of deity. But the deity reveals himself primarily and before aught else in the heavenly bodies and their the whole range and Sinai that of the individual motions; for the deities of Babylon and of all Hither mountain, or, alternatively, that Horeb designated the Asia-as the OT itse!f abundantly shows-without exnorthern part of the range and Sinai the southern, and ception bear an astral character.l The heavenly bodies more especially the highest point of this. Criticism which most plainly reflect the deitv in its working, in shows that the various sources can be sharply dis-






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ing the Sinaitic Peninsula and the adjacent parts (see1 a ' s reading Says (*.D) for 0 ' would furnish a good emend7 ation, but is forbidden by the place being described as a fortress There is nothing in the Hebrew corresponding X?,in l??.

thus the universal order. When the division is by two, Mars and Saturn are eliminated ; the reckoning in that case is by the two solar phases from equinox to equinox (spring to autumn, or autumn to spring). The sun, 1 F~~,,,hat follows cp wi. A O F 3 Is5fl, and in Dev~~~~

SINAI AND HOREBmoreover, is regarded as the god of the underworld, for the stars as they approach the sun become invisible, in other words, have their abode in the underworld. Now, this underworld aspect of the sun corresponds to Saturn (Nergal), the winter sun or the god of the underworld (Pluto). T o the moon accordingly (since the full moon is in opposition to the sun) belongs the opposite pole of the universe and the opposite planet Mars (Ninib), which represents the summer sun. By a complete reversal of all our modern notions, the sun is the deity of winter or the underworld, the moon the deity of summer and the upper world. Now when the sun takes up the position which properly belongs to it in the universe, that is, when it is a winter sun, it is at the most souther& point of its course in the zodiac ; and the corresponding full moon being in opposition is at the most northerly point. I n other words, the sun is at the Saturn-sun point, the S. pole of the ecliptic, the moon at the Mars-moon point, the N. pole of the ecliptic. T h e course of nature shows a similar cycle ; day is succeeded by night, summer by winter, and in the larger periods of time, the aeon, a similar procession is repeated. Everything that happens is divine ordering, the godhead is constantly manifesting itself anew in changed attitudes and changed activities. Thus Marduk becomes Nabu in autumn, and conversely. The same holds good of the N. and S. phase (summer and winter) of the sun or of the godhead in general ; they pass each into its opposite. Further, the four (or two) quarters of the world present themselves in various aspects according to the character of the worship exercised at each given place, and according to the different methods of reckoning there employed. The Babylonian view, with the Marduk (or spring-) cult, takes as its point of orientation (Mohammedan @Zu) the E. ( = t h a t which is before, n i p ) , and thus for it the N. is to the left, the S. to the right, and the W. behind. T o the older view, which faces westward, the N. is to the right and the S. to the left. Thus arises for a later time the possibility of an interchange of diametrically opposite points, according to the point of view assumed by each writer in his theory. Hence the phenomenon constantly observed in all forms of mythology, and therefore also of cosmology, that opposites pass into one another, that a given form bears also the marks of its antithesis. T h e selection of the two names, Horeb and Sinai, and their cosmological meaning thus become clear. As soon as scholars discovered the import3. Bearing on ance of the moon worship in ancient Horeb and Babylonia, and the name of the moonSinai. goddess Sin, the explanation of the name Sinai as Mountain of the Moon became natural. Proof, indeed, for this explanation of the word can be had only when the significance of this mountain in the cosmic scheme as a whole has been made out ; but this is accomplished precisely by means of the other name of the mountain of Yahwb-Horeb. T h e earth-and so also on a smaller scale each land and each separate district-is imagined as a mountain with two summits, the mountain of the countries of the Babylonians and Assyrians (fad mktdfe, ursng KurRurnz). According to the orientation in each case (and as regulated by this the time at which the year was held to begin, and so forth) these two points are conceived of as E. and W. (equinoctial), or as N. and S. (solstitial). T h e E. (or N . ) point is that of the light half of the day or year, the W. (or S.) that of the dark half. For when the sun is in the E. the day (or the year) begins, when it is at the northern point of its path it is midday or midsummer, and so on. This is the thought which lies at the bottom of the religious observances on Ebal and Gerizim2 (Dt.1129 27x18 Josh.830#);1 Cp Hommel, Aufssiitzeu. A&zndlwqm, 3 4 4 8 ; Winckler in MVG r g o ~ ,241,283.2

SINAI AND HOREl3Gerizim is the mount of blessing, Ebal that of cursing, that is, of the light and dark halves respectively, of good and evil omen (right and left are the lucky or unlucky sides according to the orientation) ; on each mountain stand six tribes, for each half of the year has six signs of the zodiac or six months. When the two summits of the Sad matbtc are the N. and S. points of the cosmos they belong respectively to the moon and to the sun. If Sinai takes its name from the moon-goddess Sin, Horeb is derived from the sun, for the name means Mountain of Glowing, Heat ( x i n and y,in), the sun at the most northerly part of


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