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  • 7/30/2019 Shoemaker - Marian Relics DOP 62

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    t h e C u l t o f f a s h i o n : t h e e a r l i e s t LIFE OF TH E V IRG I N a n DC o n s ta n t i n o Pl e s m a r i a n r e l i C s

    s t e P h e n J . s ho e m a k e r

    ly a igl aricl ha challgd Maximu auhr-hip (rahr uuccully), ad may pciali hihugh m a la prviially hav accpd h

    Life of the Virgina a wrk Maximu.2 Ad rgardl hLife auhrhip, i i widly rcgizd a h arlixa bigraphy h Virgi ad i alm craily awrk h vh cury, a vral va Ebrck

    argum idica ad a I hav urhr clarifd i a pair aricl hi x.3 Aalyi hLife urc adi cidrabl iuc ubqu Maria lira-ur lca i prduci mim wihi h vhcury, m likly i r arud Caipl.

    Accrdig va Ebrck, m h m cm-pllig vidc r hi prvac i b ud ih amblag radii ccrig Mary clhig

    aon te ost clbrad aur h

    Byzai cul h Virgi ar h variuclhig rlic blivd lik h Tk

    pcially wih h imprial capial, Caipl.Y a cral a h rlic ad hir hri wr Byzai piy acr h curi, hir arly hiryrmai rahr prly udrd. I h arly mdival

    urc a wll a i mdr chlarhip, hr i r-qu diagrm ad cui rgardig h aur Caipl Maria rlic ad hir rpcivhri. Mary garm a Blachrai i prhap h bdcumd, bu hr girdl a Chalkpraia ad hrim clhig al appar hav cm i h mixarly . Nvrhl, prir h middl Byzaiprid, i i dicul acrai ju wha i bigvrad whr. Surc r h arly hiry h rl-ic ad hir hri ar cradicry ad dicul da, rquly prjcig radii ad pracic

    rm a lar im a arlir prid. Frualy,a w, i vrlkd, urc ha rcly cm ligh ha ca clariy umru apc Maria piyi arly Byzaium, icludig h vrai Maryclhig i la aci Caipl.

    Apprximaly w dcad ag, Michl va Ebrckpublihd h arli xaLife of the Virgin, a lg-vrlkd x acribd Maximu h Cr haurviv ly i h Grgia laguag.1 I h irduc-i hi dii, va Ebrck pr vral crdiblargum r h accuracy hi aribui Maxi-mu, bu urualy h i abl rlv h iudciivly. Whil m ucraiy ligr rgardig hauhiciy hLife of the Virgin aribui, ar

    I wuld lik hak A lic-Mary alb ad w aymu rad-r rDumbarton Oaks Papers, wh uggi graly imprvd hiaricl. I al hak Dirk Kraumllr r harig hi upublihd wrk h church ad rlic Chalkpraia.

    1 M. va Ebrck, d.,Maxime le Confesseur: Vie de la Vierge, 2 vl.,CSCO 47879, Scripr Ibrici 2122 (Luvai, 1986).

    2 E.g., J.-C. Larch,La diinisation de l'homme selon saint Maxime leConfesseur, Cgiai fdi 194 (Pari, 1996); idm,Maxime le Confesseur,mdiateur entre l'Orient et l'Occident, Cgiai fdi 208 (Pari, 1998);A. Nichl,Byzantine Gospel: Maximus the Confessor in Modern Scho-larship (Ediburgh, 1993). T ly publihd challg Maximuauhrhip cm rm E. M. il, LAkahi lla Via di Mariadi Maim il Cr, i Virgo Liber Dei: Miscellanea di studi inonore di P. Giuseppe M. Besutti, O.S.M., d. I. M. Calabuig (Rm, 1991),20928. Y, a I hav xplaid i a arlir aricl, il argumar pruaiv: S. J. Shmakr, T Grgia Li h VirgiAribud Maximu h Cr: I Auhiciy? ad Impr-ac, iMmorial R.P. Michel an Esbroeck, S.J., d. A. Muraviv adB. Luri, Scriium 2 (S. Prburg, 2006), 30728. T pibiliy Maximu auhrhip wuld al cmpr wih Claudia Rapp brva-i ha h vh cury aw a umbr iuial Church ladrur cmpii hagigraphy: C. Rapp, Byzai Hagigraphra Aiquaria, Svh h Curi,ByzF21 (1995): 35.

    3 Va Ebrck, d.,Maxime l e Confesseur, 2:VIXX XII; S. J. Sh-makr, T Virgi Mary i h Miiry Ju ad h Early Churchaccrdig h EarliLife of the Virgin,HTR 98, . 4 (2005): 44167;idm, Grgia Li h Virgi. S al S. C. Mimui, L Vies dela Vierge:a d la qui,Apocrypha 5 (1994): 21148, p. 21620;M. va Ebrck, Sm Earlir Faur i h Li h Virgi,Mar-ianum 63 (2001): 297308, p. 29798, . 2; M. Grard al., Clais

    Patrum Graecorum: Supplementum, Crpu Chriiarum (urhu,1998), 440, #7712; M. Grard, Clais apocryphorum Novi Testamenti,Crpu Chriiarum (urhu: Brpl, 1992), 71, #90.

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    Stepen J. Soemaker54

    rlic ha cclud hLife arraiv, alhugh hradii rgrably ca rlv h qui iauhrhip a dciivly a h ha prpd. Nvrh-l, hLife rlic radii ly r impracfrmai i cmpii i vh-cury C-aipl bu al bar m h arli irmaiabu Caipl Maria rlic. Ti cda hVirgi bigraphy, which llw immdialy ar haccu hr Drmii, i paricularly rmarkabl rachivig m abl fr. I i h fr dcum gahr ghr h variu arly radii Maryrlic, ad mrvr i i h fr urc cmbi hCaiplia radii Mary rlic wih harraiv hr Drmii ha had alrady b circu-laig i h Rma prvic r vral curi. I hici, hLife of the Virginuccivly cidr ach h hr mai Maria rlic radiii.., hr ural

    garm, hr rb, ad hr girdlwhil chwigay r harmiz hir dipara accu; h

    Life hu mimic h rlaiv dirdr w cur ihr arly urc.

    A pr, hwvr, i i mwha dicul aully h igifcac hi w wi, iamuch ah prci aur h Maria rlic ad hir arlyhiry rmai mwha cud bh i h aciurc ad i mdr chlarhip. Mari Jugi arlywrk i hi ara i, a will b , highly prblmaic, adAi Wgr udy, whil qui lid, i limid h

    Blachrai radii ad rciv urhr illumiairm hi w x.4 Trr, i rdr udradully h rlic radii hLife of the Virgin, w mufr i hrugh h cicd imi abuMary clhig rlic, i a r idiy a wstatusquaestionis r ach h hr rlic radii. Amghr hig, ly ar h arli urc dicul da, bu hy r varid ad vagu dcripi h Virgi rlic, a vxig prblm ha ly cmpudhr diculi i drmiig wh ad whr hirvrai had bcm ablihd. Urualy, uchqui prv ar mr dicul awr ha wuld lik, ad urly hr wa a gra dal mr harly vrai h rlic ha ur limid urcwill rval. Nvrhl, br iig hrugh h arli

    wi ach h rlic radii, i will prhapb hlpul pr a mr daild ummary h

    Life of the Virgin rlic radii. Trar, ach hhr majr rlic radii will b ivigad i ur,cmparig h vidc ardd by hLife of the Virginwih hr arly urc i rdr clariy h arly hi-ry Caipl Maria rlic.

    T rc td eLife of the Virgin

    T MaximuLife of the Virgin5 i a virual cmpdium la aci radii abu Mary: i chricl h ull

    pa hr li, rm hr miraculu ccpi hrdparur rm hi wrld a h Drmii, fllig i hgap bw hProteangelium of James ad h Dr-mii radii wih a iriguig arraiv Marycral rl i h ladrhip hr miiry ad hac Church.6 Br cmig i cclui, hw-vr, hi arli Maria bigraphy cmpl i arraivwih a xrardiary cllci rlic radii, hfr i kid, i wuld appar. Immdialy ar rla-ig h Virgi Drmii, hLife of the Virgin ur h variu radii abu Mary clhig rlic; hradii brig h arraiv a cl, ad h llw ahym h Virgi lly bad h Akahi, a cl-lci hlgical rci h Drmii adAumpi, ad a fal hym h Aumpi.

    TLife amblag rlic radii, adiga mhig a appdix hr bigraphy, arialm amlly rm h ry hr Drmiihrugh h dvic a la-arrivig apl, a cmmaur crai arly Drmii radii. Ti ar-li Maria bigraphy arra h d Mary lihrugh a iriguig ad rigial yhi h wmai lirary radii h Virgi Drmii ad

    Aumpi, h -calld Palm ad Bhlhmradii, amd r crai uiqu aur hir

    4 T primary cribui bh ar b ud i M. Jugi, Lamort et l'assomption de la Sainte Vierge, tude historico-doctrinale , S114 (Vaica Ciy, 1944); ad A. Wgr,L'Assomption de la T.S. Viergedans la tradition byzantine du VIe au Xe sicle; tudes et documents, AOC5 (Pari, 1955).

    5 I u hr ad lwhr i hi papr h digai h MaximuLife of the Virgin wihu makig ay claim abu hLife auhr-hip, bu iad a hrhad r h Life of the Virgin aribud Maximu h Cr.

    6 Fr mr hi aur, Shmakr, Virgi Mary i h Mi-iry Ju.

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    55Th Cul f Fshi: Th Elis Lif f h Vigi d Csils Mi Rlics

    arraiv.7 A hi ci hLife cm a cl,h apl, ar placig Mary bdy i h mb, waiuid r hr day, i accrdac wih h arliDrmii arraiv rm h Palm radii.8 Y ahi pi hLife abruply hi urc, abadigh Drmii apcrypha rm h Palm ad Bhlhmradii ha wr i urc up hi pi. Sud-dly, wihu ay advac warig, w lar ha h apl wa prvidially dlayd ad uabl ad Mary ural wih hi cllagu. Hr h

    Life ur h variu la-apl accu rmh arly Drmii lgd cmpl i arrai Mary dparur rm hi li, hrby al irducigh fr i Maria rlic radii.

    Accrdig h Life, h apl, whiiially i uamd, arriv i Jrualm hr dayar Mary burial. Ardly wihig pay hi fal

    rpc h dpard Virgi bdy, h ra hhr apl p h mb ha h migh vr-a hr rmai. Much hir cllciv urpri, whh apl p h mb hy fd i mpy: Marybdy ha diappard, havig b miracululy akaway by hr m ukw plac, whr i hab ruid wih hr ul. Such pcifc idicai Mary rurrci i lackig i h hr la-aplDrmii arraiv, which lav hr ulima a aurlvd myry; i i ai hi dail, hLifeharmiz h Virgi dramaic rurrci rm h

    Palm ad Bhlhm Drmii arraiv wih h mrmiimali accu ud i h la-apl radii.Y xcpig ly hi ic hr rurrci, h

    Life hr abad h Palm ad Bhlhm apcryphaad ciu rla h Virgi dah ad hr bdydiapparac accrdig h la-apl radii,udubdly i rdr hi h cu hr rlic. Arall, wh h apl rp h mb hy d fd icmplly bar: l bhid wr h ural wrappig(prbably r )9 ad hrud

    (r ) ha hy had ud prparMary bdy r burial.10

    A hi pi hLife arrar irud xplaiha h ha al hard ha hi la apl wa i acTma, ad hi dlay i arrivig rm Idia wa prvi-dially digd ha h culd mak v mr crd-ibl h miraculu rar Mary bdy rm hiwrld i h x, ju a arlir h had rmvd alldub abu hr rurrci. T auhr graduallyrdirc ai away rm h Virgi dah il ad h hly wrappig ( / ) hah l bhid, xplaiig ha ar hr paig rmhi wrld h rlic ciu aciy h arh ah hrl had i hr li ad burial.11 T, ar c-cdig ha Mary blig ad miracl ar maihrughu h wrld, ad limid ly hr rlic,hLife ur h rlic Mary garm (

    / r ), rig a accu hw i cam rid i h imprial capial.12

    T amu al Galbi ad Kadid, a fh-cury lgd xplaiig h rar h rlic Caipl, llw immdialy. T ry bgiby irducig Galbi ad Kadid, w brhr rma iuial Rma amily wh had rvd a gralad had rcly cvrd rm Ariaim, durig hrig L I. T brhr udrak a pilgrimag h Hly Lad, bgiig i Galil, whr ighhy uddly fd hmlv wihu a plac ay.

    Trugh h wrkig Divi Prvidc, a ldrlyJwih virgi ivi hm ldg wih hr r h igh.Whil aig dir, hy ic a irir rm hrhu flld wih ic ad a crwd ppl urigrm a variy ill. Hpig lar h purp hi rag rm, Galbi ad Kadid pruad hirh di wih hm. Evually, hy ak hr abuh rm, ad alhugh h i rluca awr, hypr hr r a xplaai. Ar warig h brhr crcy, h rval ha h rm cai hVirgi garm, which Mary hrl had giv h wma rlaiv hrly br hr Drmii.T garm, h xplai, had b placd i a mall

    7 Fr mr irmai h variu arly Drmii radii ad

    h