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Drug Trafficking and Abuse - Impediments to development - Akira Fujino United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Shanghai, 1909. Early days 1920s-30s. Century of Drug Control. BACKGROUND 19th century: Opium epidemic in Asia, notably China; - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Drug Trafficking and Abuse- Impediments to development -

    Akira FujinoUnited Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)

  • Shanghai, 1909

  • Early days1920s-30s

  • Century of Drug ControlBACKGROUND19th century: Opium epidemic in Asia, notably China; morphine abuse problem in USA; emergence of heroin1880-1906:Massive increases in coca leaf exports from the Andean region (later from Java); emerging cocaine epidemic in the USA

    RESPONSE1909: Shanghai Conference International Opium Commission1912: The Hague: First International Opium Convention 1920-1945: International Drug Control under auspices of League of Nations 3 drug conventions (1925, 1931, 1936)1946 + International Drug Control under auspices of United Nations1948:Protocol (synthetic opioids)1953:Opium Protocol 1961: Single Convention (amended by Protocol in 1972)1971: Convention on Psychotropic Substances1988: UN Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 1998: UNGASS: Political Declaration and Guiding Principles on Demand Reduction

  • Economic and Social Council(ECOSOC)Commission on Narcotic Drugs(CND)International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice(CCPCJ)The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime(UNODC)Related UN Agencies

  • OpiumMorphineHeroin

    Opiates

  • CANNABISCannabis

  • Coca/Cocaine

  • Amphetamine-Type Stimulants (ATS)MethamphetamineAmphetamineEcstacy

  • Precursor chemicals

  • Opiates

  • Golden Triangle

  • Myanmar Thailand border

  • Global opium production, 1990-2010

    Chart1

    15701933257

    19802032262

    19701862311

    23301998282

    34161721483

    23351803314

    22481914193

    28041829190

    26931437216

    45651029170

    32761260155

    1851237208

    3400949171

    3600930253

    4200413237

    4100326194

    6100335175

    8200469200

    7700410178

    6900341513

    3600341513

    Afghanistan

    South-East Asia

    Other

    Sheet1

    Years199019911992199319941995199619971998199920002001200220032004200520062007200820092010AVGAVG93-051995-20052002-2005

    Afghanistan1570198019702330341623352248280426934565327618534003600420041006100820077006900360036753011.69230769233036.90909090913825

    South-East Asia19332032186219981721180319141829143710291260123794993041332633546941034134112111295.84615384621193.3636363636654.5

    Other257262311282483314193190216170155208171253237194175200178513513234235.8461538462209.1818181818213.75

    World Total3760427441434610562044524355482343465764469116304520478348504620661088698288775451384543.38461538460.92905405414439.45454545464693.25

    Total heroin and morphine seizures444054566078667397999198

    Total opium seizures24717419617923921310697133212342376

    7922.3333333333

    1671.255328.57142857147333.3333333333

    2958.375

    Figure 13

    31,27828,50833,34832,31736,22954,13354,14748,80053,86060,91358,41953,658

    12,76911,93520,27623,46423,62326,79111,41624,70243,72339,17732,00845,279

    19961997199819992000200120022003200420052006% Change 1996-2006Average

    World Total Opium production(tons)4355482343465764469116304520478348504620661052%4636

    Total heroin seizures (tons)293332365454495461585488%47

    Total morphine seizures (tons)1220232427112544393245279%27

    Total opium seizures (tons)17419617923921310697133212342376116%206

    617777881067885113125131143

    her%46.8%43.5%42.1%41.2%51.1%69.4%57.5%47.6%48.7%44.7%37.5%48.2%

    mor%19.6%26.4%30.5%26.9%25.3%14.6%29.1%38.6%31.3%24.5%31.6%27.1%

    op%33.6%30.1%27.4%32.0%23.6%16.0%13.4%13.8%19.9%30.8%30.9%24.7%

    100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%0.0%100.0%

    %of heroin seizures in total opium production6.5%6.9%7.4%6.3%11.5%33.2%10.8%11.3%12.6%12.6%8.1%11.6%

    %of morphine seizures in total opium production2.7%4.2%5.4%4.1%5.7%7.0%5.5%9.1%8.1%6.9%6.9%6.0%

    % of opium seizure in total opium production4.0%4.1%4.1%4.1%4.5%6.5%2.1%2.8%4.4%7.4%5.7%4.5%

    % of opiate seizure in total opium production13.3%15.2%17.0%14.5%21.8%46.7%18.4%23.2%25.0%27.0%20.7%22.1%

    Sheet1

    Afghanistan

    South-East Asia

    Other

    World Total

    without 2001

    157019332573760

    198020322624274

    197018623114143

    233019982824610

    341617214835620

    233518033144452

    224819141934355

    280418291904823

    269314372164346

    456510291705764

    327612601554691

    18512372081630

    34009491714520

    36009302534783

    42004132374850

    41003261944620

    61003351756610

    82004692008869

    77004101788288

    $ 130-140

    $ 30-40

    $ 150-170

    $ 110-120

    World Total

    World Total Opium Production

    Afghanistan

    South-East Asia

    Other

    World Total

    Opium (metric tons)

    Sheet3

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    Total heroin seizures (tons)

    Total morphine seizures (tons)

    Total opium seizures (tons)

    Seizure (tons)

    Opiate Seizures in the World

    Afghanistan

    South-East Asia

    Other

    World Total

    Years1990199119921993199419951996199719981999200020022003200420052006200720082009AVGAVG93-051995-20052002-20051990-20052006-20082006-2009

    Afghanistan157019801970233034162335224828042693456532763400360042004100610082007700690038623247.253322.138252965.87333.33333333337225

    South-East Asia1933203218621998172118031914182914371029126094993041332633546941041012581300.751189654.51429.0666666667404.6666666667406

    Other257262311282483314193190216170155171253237194175200178178236238.1666666667209.3213.75245.8666666667184.3333333333182.75

    World Total376042744143461056204452435548234346576446914520478348504620661088698288748851884703.64285714290.92905405414720.44693.254640.73333333337922.33333333337813.7531255

    Total heroin and morphine seizures4440545660787397999198

    Total opium seizures2471741961792392139713321234237618800

    72257922.33333333337922.333333333312455

    3730023767547.4285714286

    201.1428571429

    23767Average opium production between 1990-2005 (tons)Average opium production between 2002-2005 (tons)Average opium production between 2006-2008 (tons)

    14100Afghanistan2,9663,8257,333

    9667South-East Asia1,429655405

    Other countries246214184

    World Total4,6414,6937,922

    199619971998199920002001200220032004200520062007Average2001-06heroin2002-2006

    Colombia67901008888805250492413146051637.63.76

    Mexico5446604321915810173711081497375782.28.22

    1211361601311091711101511229512116313312613119.811.98

    consumptionseizuretotal

    C. America615222837

    S. America25015001750

    Caribbean305243548

    Mexico116300416

    128622653551

    US20500205022550

    Canada1300561356

    21800210623906

    To US+Canada9.00

    from afg15

    $ 130-140

    $ 30-40

    $ 150-170

    $ 110-120

    Afghanistan

    South-East Asia

    Other

    Years1990199119921993199419951996199719981999200020012002200320042005200620072008AVGAVG93-051995-20052002-20052002-2008

    Afghanistan1570198019702330341623352248280426934565327618534003600420041006100820077003509.0526315793011.69230769233036.909090909138255328.5714285714

    Myanmar16211728166017911583166417601676130389510871097828810370312315460410500.7142857143

    Laos20219612716912012814014712412416713411212043142091046.8571428571

    Other South-East Asian Countries1101087538181114610106690000001.2857142857

    Total SEA1933203218621998172118031914182914371029126012379499304133263354694201257.21052631581295.84615384621193.3636363636654.5548.8571428571

    Other257262311282483314193190216170155208171253237194175200178234.1578947368235.8461538462209.1818181818213.75201.1428571429

    World Total37604274414346105620445243554823434657644691163045204783485046206610886982885000.42105263164543.38461538460.92905405414439.45454545464693.256077.1428571429

  • Global heroin flows of Asian origins

  • Heroin trafficking from Afghanistan

  • Balkan Route and Northern Route Source: UNODC, 2010 World Drug Report, June 2010.

  • Cocaine

  • Coca in the Andean regionCoca cultivation, 2008 (167,600 ha) Potential cocaine production, 2008 (845 tons)81,000 ha-18%56,100 ha+4%30,500 ha+6%

  • Source: UNODC, 2010 World Drug Report, June 2010. Major trans-regional cocaine flows, 1998 and 2008

  • Amphetamine-type Stimulants (ATS)

  • Sources: UNODC, Annual Reports Questionnaire Data, UNODC, Individual Drug Seizure Database, other government sources.Locations of amphetamines manufacture and main trafficking routes

  • Major methamphetamine trafficking routes out of Myanmar

  • Illicit methamphetamine laboratory Fiji 2004

  • Illicit methamphetamine laboratoryIndonesia - 2005

  • New Trends in West Africa: Methamphetamine

  • Precursor chemicals

  • Preventing diversion of precursor chemicals into illicit drug manufacture

  • Early cases of precursors used in illicit manufacture of amphetamine-type stimulants

  • Acetic Anhydride: Diversity of trade flow

  • Acetic anhydrideSeizures of precursor chemicals

  • Way forward

  • Cultivation of opium poppyInsurgency in the South of the country2008Major activities of the Taliban Cultivation and Insurgency

  • Sustainable Alternative Development

  • Problem drug use refle