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<ul><li><p>1</p><p> Session 3: Session 3: Audio editing, Audio editing, Hardware, &amp; time-linkingHardware, &amp; time-linking</p><p>University of California at Santa Barbara, June 24-27, 2008</p><p>Arienne M. DwyerUniversity of Kansas</p><p>Yoshi OnoUniversity of Alberta</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>2</p><p>Overview</p><p> I. Homework &amp; Session 2 recap Editing in Audacity: chopping, looping ... File naming</p><p> II. Analog capture (review) III. Hardware (part 2)</p><p> recording devices microphone types and placement</p><p> IV. Time-linking + Analysis: Transcriber</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>3</p><p>Audio editing Homework from yesterday</p><p> From your recording, chop the following: Two whole utterances Any two words from these utterances Any two sounds </p><p> Save each of these with systematic names e.g. if the original full-length recording file is called </p><p>SA001.wav or SA25Jun08.wav, then.... How to name the utterances, words, &amp; sounds? ISO 639-3 codes (3 letter universal lang codes)</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>4</p><p>Exercise on systematic file naming</p><p> File name should be unique Should be compact yet explanatory</p><p> Language code Date Other information (recordist or speaker, etc.)</p><p> Should indicate if its a part of another audio file (e.g. with ...a, b, c.wav or a timecode)</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>5</p><p>Cutting utterances, words, and sounds:</p><p>Use icons or the following shortcuts Cntrl-X [cut] or Cntrl-C [copy] File-New, Cntrl-V [paste] then save under a new name Other: Cntrl-t [Trim, removes material outside </p><p>the selection]; Undo; Trim Silence selection (e.g. to remove a long pause or goat noises from recording); Zoom (+/-) on magnifying glass icon; Loop [Shift-Play]</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>6</p><p>Tips</p><p> Pause, amplitude, length Weak signal, clipping, white noise Utterance boundaries may have long pauses sonorants have big, fat waveforms, esp </p><p>vowels</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>7</p><p>Analog capture review</p><p> Attach sound card to laptop &amp; player Open audio editing software (e.g. Audacity) Testing: Adjust &amp; monitor the recording level (Troubleshoot computers audio settings); rewind audio to </p><p>start Capture (while wearing headphones): (1) On player, press Pause &amp; Play(2) In editing software, push the record &amp; pause buttons(3) Release both pauses and let er rip! Monitor levels(4) Stop software, and save.</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>8</p><p>Analog capture review</p><p>If you have... Reel-to-reel tapes &gt;&gt; bring to professional Cassettes &gt;&gt; professional or d.i.y.</p><p> Professional: usually expensive but quality Do-it-yourself</p><p>Need cassette player, cable, linear sound card, Audacity Laptop capture (via external card) Desktop capture (via internal or ext. card)</p><p> Do not use the built-in sound card of the desktop! Either have a linear sound card built in, or Attach an external sound card to your desktop</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>9</p><p>III. Hardware</p><p> Device &amp; technique overview, part 2 Recording devices Microphone types Microphone placement</p><p> All of this (and more) is on the handout</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>10</p><p>Lossless digital devices (1)</p><p> Recommend devices: solid-state recorders Edirol R09(HR) Marantz PMD660: reliable but must change factory defaults to wav &amp; turn off automatic level control and internal mic</p><p> Samson Zoom H4ok but sl. noisy &amp; difficult controls (not really recommended: M-audio)ok but non-replaceable battery</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>11</p><p>Recommended Devices (2)</p><p> New solid-state recorders which look good, but we havent tested them</p><p> Marantz PMD 620 Sony PCM D50 Olympus LS-10 Tascam DR-1 Fostex FR2 LE</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>12</p><p>Other digital recorders (Less recommended)</p><p> DAT recorders great quality, but capture is time-consuming and will soon be obsolete Capture: digital out + special cable(if Sony, need optical cable)</p><p> mp3 - designed for putting music in Capture: must have a digital out to be at all useful iPod, Zune, many small music players</p><p> Also Minidisc</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>13</p><p>mp3 devices (contd): iPods</p><p> Older models recorded at 8 kHz. Newer models (in the last 9 months) can </p><p>indeed record stereo 16bit/44.1kHz audio iPod Classic &amp; earlier hard drive-based iPod iPod Video (=Gen 5)</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>14</p><p>Obsolete Recording Devices </p><p> Obsolete: reel-to-reel </p><p> Obsolete, except when theres no alternative: analog cassette recorder</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>15</p><p>Microphones: Characteristics</p><p> Mono vs. Stereo Mono: one channel Stereo: two, from stereo mike or two mono mikes </p><p> Dynamic (does not need power, durable, good for loudness) Condenser (needs power, more sensitive) Battery; plug-in power from device; phantom power (XLR) Pickup pattern </p><p> Omnidirectional (sound from most all directions) Directional (picks up sound from one main direction)</p><p> Cardioid, hypercardioid (heart-shaped pickup)</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>16</p><p>Some common mics</p><p> Shotgun (US$50-$3000 and up)A highly-directive microphone with a narrow elliptical pattern and </p><p>extremely reduced pickup from the sides and rear. Lavalier (clip-on) ($100-350)A miniature microphone that is usually worn fastened to clothing </p><p>somewhere near the user's mouth. Also referred to as a lapel (or clip-on) microphone. But so-so sound</p><p> Headset mics ($60 and up) Advantages: Makes excellent quality recordings, as it follows the </p><p>speaker's movements Disadvantages: Can seem invasive for speakers</p><p> Boundary (not usually used for linguistics; can be good for people sitting around a table)</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>17</p><p>Microphone pickup characteristics</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>18</p><p>Mic pickup patterns</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>19</p><p>Shotgun microphones: uses</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>20</p><p>Fur windscreen</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>21</p><p>Microphone techniques</p><p> Site assessment (in advance) - acoustics Turn off TVs, fans, florescent lights, fridges, clocks that ring or tick </p><p>loudly, cell phones If boisterous, you could hang a mic from a rafter with a long cable</p><p> If the room echoes, hang cloth on wall Using one microphone (and in general)</p><p> Keep mics close to speaker/singer Use foam filter to prevent pops from mouth Use fur filter for windy conditions Avoid placing mic directly on hard surface</p><p> Use a tripod and/or put cloth or towel on table </p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>22</p><p>IV. Audio Analysis</p><p> Annotation software: Transcriber and other tools Basics; Analytic methods; Export methods Hands-on practice, including bringing </p><p>transcriptions into another piece of software (e.g. MS-Word, Excel, etc). </p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>23</p><p>Types of Software </p><p> Audio editing Audio analysis</p><p> Acoustic (e.g. phonetic) analysis - Spectrogram, f0, intensity</p><p> Time-linking + annotation (audio only) Time-linking + annotation (audio + video)</p><p> Consider: Proprietary ($$, code is business secret) vs. non-proprietary (usually free, open source); platform</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>24</p><p>Audio Editing Software </p><p> Non-Proprietary (shareware, freeware) Audacity, Goldwave, SoundEdit.......</p><p> Proprietary (can be exp., but greater functionality) SoundForge, Cold Fusion...</p><p>Proprietary (but often bundled w/DVD drive) WaveLabLite, ....</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>25</p><p>Audio analysis software </p><p> Acoustic analysis (e.g. for phonetics) Praat - also allows light editing &amp; some </p><p>programming (taught in this workshop) WinPitch</p><p> Time-linking + annotation (audio) Transcriber (taught in this workshop) SoundIndex, ...</p><p> Time-linking + annotation (audio + video) ELAN (taught here), Eclipse, EXMARALDA </p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>26</p><p>Transcriber</p><p> Advantages: stable, easy, for whole sessions Disadvantages: one annotation tier only; Mac </p><p>version not very good</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>27</p><p>Transcriber: Settings</p><p> Open Transcriber &amp; one of your audio filesText window: Topic/Session; Speaker; TurnAudio window: controls, waveform, trsJumps to audio+transcription at cursor [play]</p><p> Settings: encoding &amp; fonts Options General Encoding UTF-8 (usually) Options Events Fonts Text ArUnicode Options Save Configuration</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>28</p><p>Encoding problems in Western Latin (instead: set Options General UTF-8)</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>29</p><p>What can you do with Transcriber?</p><p> Time-aligned text in any (L-to-R?) encoding; Extra/Para-linguistic features (laughter; </p><p>codeswitching) Latin-script example CJK (Asian character) example</p><p> Speech overlap (mostly) English-language example</p><p>...demo...</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>30</p><p>Exercise</p><p>Transcribe your own short recording: Open a new transcription (File New) Open audio (Cntrl-A or File-Open Audio) Fill in the headers by clicking on them:</p><p> Report (=topic); Speaker (name or code) Listen to first unit (phrase or utterance) Stop cursor with [Tab], and type after green dot; then (with cursor at end of text line) hit [Enter]</p><p> Save your transcription file (...trs).</p></li><li><p> June 24-27, 2008 &amp;June 30-Jul 3, 2008</p><p> Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, &amp; Time-linking</p><p>31</p><p>So...</p><p>If you have time, Practice annotating in Transcriber</p><p> (non-keyboard characters must be pasted from another program)</p><p> Zoom is Resolution (Alt-9=higher, Alt-0=low) Practice chopping with Audacity</p><p>Slide 1OverviewAudio editing Homework from yesterdayExercise on systematic file namingCutting utterances, words, and sounds:TipsAnalog capture reviewSlide 8III. HardwareLossless digital devices (1)Recommended Devices (2)Other digital recorders (Less recommended)mp3 devices (contd): iPodsObsolete Recording Devices Microphones: CharacteristicsSome common micsMicrophone pickup characteristicsMic pickup patternsShotgun microphones: usesFur windscreenMicrophone techniquesIV. Audio AnalysisTypes of Software Audio Editing Software Audio analysis software TranscriberTranscriber: SettingsSlide 28What can you do with Transcriber?ExerciseSo...</p></li></ul>