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    Session 3: Session 3: Audio editing, Audio editing, Hardware, & time-linkingHardware, & time-linking

    University of California at Santa Barbara, June 24-27, 2008

    Arienne M. DwyerUniversity of Kansas

    Yoshi OnoUniversity of Alberta

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    2

    Overview

    I. Homework & Session 2 recap Editing in Audacity: chopping, looping ... File naming

    II. Analog capture (review) III. Hardware (part 2)

    recording devices microphone types and placement

    IV. Time-linking + Analysis: Transcriber

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    3

    Audio editing Homework from yesterday

    From your recording, chop the following: Two whole utterances Any two words from these utterances Any two sounds

    Save each of these with systematic names e.g. if the original full-length recording file is called

    SA001.wav or SA25Jun08.wav, then.... How to name the utterances, words, & sounds? ISO 639-3 codes (3 letter universal lang codes)

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    4

    Exercise on systematic file naming

    File name should be unique Should be compact yet explanatory

    Language code Date Other information (recordist or speaker, etc.)

    Should indicate if its a part of another audio file (e.g. with ...a, b, c.wav or a timecode)

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    5

    Cutting utterances, words, and sounds:

    Use icons or the following shortcuts Cntrl-X [cut] or Cntrl-C [copy] File-New, Cntrl-V [paste] then save under a new name Other: Cntrl-t [Trim, removes material outside

    the selection]; Undo; Trim Silence selection (e.g. to remove a long pause or goat noises from recording); Zoom (+/-) on magnifying glass icon; Loop [Shift-Play]

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    6

    Tips

    Pause, amplitude, length Weak signal, clipping, white noise Utterance boundaries may have long pauses sonorants have big, fat waveforms, esp

    vowels

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    7

    Analog capture review

    Attach sound card to laptop & player Open audio editing software (e.g. Audacity) Testing: Adjust & monitor the recording level (Troubleshoot computers audio settings); rewind audio to

    start Capture (while wearing headphones): (1) On player, press Pause & Play(2) In editing software, push the record & pause buttons(3) Release both pauses and let er rip! Monitor levels(4) Stop software, and save.

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    8

    Analog capture review

    If you have... Reel-to-reel tapes >> bring to professional Cassettes >> professional or d.i.y.

    Professional: usually expensive but quality Do-it-yourself

    Need cassette player, cable, linear sound card, Audacity Laptop capture (via external card) Desktop capture (via internal or ext. card)

    Do not use the built-in sound card of the desktop! Either have a linear sound card built in, or Attach an external sound card to your desktop

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    9

    III. Hardware

    Device & technique overview, part 2 Recording devices Microphone types Microphone placement

    All of this (and more) is on the handout

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    10

    Lossless digital devices (1)

    Recommend devices: solid-state recorders Edirol R09(HR) Marantz PMD660: reliable but must change factory defaults to wav & turn off automatic level control and internal mic

    Samson Zoom H4ok but sl. noisy & difficult controls (not really recommended: M-audio)ok but non-replaceable battery

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    11

    Recommended Devices (2)

    New solid-state recorders which look good, but we havent tested them

    Marantz PMD 620 Sony PCM D50 Olympus LS-10 Tascam DR-1 Fostex FR2 LE

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    12

    Other digital recorders (Less recommended)

    DAT recorders great quality, but capture is time-consuming and will soon be obsolete Capture: digital out + special cable(if Sony, need optical cable)

    mp3 - designed for putting music in Capture: must have a digital out to be at all useful iPod, Zune, many small music players

    Also Minidisc

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    13

    mp3 devices (contd): iPods

    Older models recorded at 8 kHz. Newer models (in the last 9 months) can

    indeed record stereo 16bit/44.1kHz audio iPod Classic & earlier hard drive-based iPod iPod Video (=Gen 5)

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    14

    Obsolete Recording Devices

    Obsolete: reel-to-reel

    Obsolete, except when theres no alternative: analog cassette recorder

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    15

    Microphones: Characteristics

    Mono vs. Stereo Mono: one channel Stereo: two, from stereo mike or two mono mikes

    Dynamic (does not need power, durable, good for loudness) Condenser (needs power, more sensitive) Battery; plug-in power from device; phantom power (XLR) Pickup pattern

    Omnidirectional (sound from most all directions) Directional (picks up sound from one main direction)

    Cardioid, hypercardioid (heart-shaped pickup)

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    16

    Some common mics

    Shotgun (US$50-$3000 and up)A highly-directive microphone with a narrow elliptical pattern and

    extremely reduced pickup from the sides and rear. Lavalier (clip-on) ($100-350)A miniature microphone that is usually worn fastened to clothing

    somewhere near the user's mouth. Also referred to as a lapel (or clip-on) microphone. But so-so sound

    Headset mics ($60 and up) Advantages: Makes excellent quality recordings, as it follows the

    speaker's movements Disadvantages: Can seem invasive for speakers

    Boundary (not usually used for linguistics; can be good for people sitting around a table)

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    17

    Microphone pickup characteristics

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    18

    Mic pickup patterns

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    19

    Shotgun microphones: uses

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    20

    Fur windscreen

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    21

    Microphone techniques

    Site assessment (in advance) - acoustics Turn off TVs, fans, florescent lights, fridges, clocks that ring or tick

    loudly, cell phones If boisterous, you could hang a mic from a rafter with a long cable

    If the room echoes, hang cloth on wall Using one microphone (and in general)

    Keep mics close to speaker/singer Use foam filter to prevent pops from mouth Use fur filter for windy conditions Avoid placing mic directly on hard surface

    Use a tripod and/or put cloth or towel on table

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    22

    IV. Audio Analysis

    Annotation software: Transcriber and other tools Basics; Analytic methods; Export methods Hands-on practice, including bringing

    transcriptions into another piece of software (e.g. MS-Word, Excel, etc).

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    23

    Types of Software

    Audio editing Audio analysis

    Acoustic (e.g. phonetic) analysis - Spectrogram, f0, intensity

    Time-linking + annotation (audio only) Time-linking + annotation (audio + video)

    Consider: Proprietary ($$, code is business secret) vs. non-proprietary (usually free, open source); platform

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    24

    Audio Editing Software

    Non-Proprietary (shareware, freeware) Audacity, Goldwave, SoundEdit.......

    Proprietary (can be exp., but greater functionality) SoundForge, Cold Fusion...

    Proprietary (but often bundled w/DVD drive) WaveLabLite, ....

  • June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008

    Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking

    25

    Audio

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