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1 Session 3: Session 3: Audio editing, Audio editing, Hardware, & time-linkingHardware, & time-linkingUniversity of California at Santa Barbara, June 24-27, 2008Arienne M. DwyerUniversity of KansasYoshi OnoUniversity of Alberta June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking2Overview I. Homework & Session 2 recap Editing in Audacity: chopping, looping ... File naming II. Analog capture (review) III. Hardware (part 2) recording devices microphone types and placement IV. Time-linking + Analysis: Transcriber June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking3Audio editing Homework from yesterday From your recording, chop the following: Two whole utterances Any two words from these utterances Any two sounds Save each of these with systematic names e.g. if the original full-length recording file is called SA001.wav or SA25Jun08.wav, then.... How to name the utterances, words, & sounds? ISO 639-3 codes (3 letter universal lang codes) June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking4Exercise on systematic file naming File name should be unique Should be compact yet explanatory Language code Date Other information (recordist or speaker, etc.) Should indicate if its a part of another audio file (e.g. with ...a, b, c.wav or a timecode) June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking5Cutting utterances, words, and sounds:Use icons or the following shortcuts Cntrl-X [cut] or Cntrl-C [copy] File-New, Cntrl-V [paste] then save under a new name Other: Cntrl-t [Trim, removes material outside the selection]; Undo; Trim Silence selection (e.g. to remove a long pause or goat noises from recording); Zoom (+/-) on magnifying glass icon; Loop [Shift-Play] June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking6Tips Pause, amplitude, length Weak signal, clipping, white noise Utterance boundaries may have long pauses sonorants have big, fat waveforms, esp vowels June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking7Analog capture review Attach sound card to laptop & player Open audio editing software (e.g. Audacity) Testing: Adjust & monitor the recording level (Troubleshoot computers audio settings); rewind audio to start Capture (while wearing headphones): (1) On player, press Pause & Play(2) In editing software, push the record & pause buttons(3) Release both pauses and let er rip! Monitor levels(4) Stop software, and save. June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking8Analog capture reviewIf you have... Reel-to-reel tapes >> bring to professional Cassettes >> professional or d.i.y. Professional: usually expensive but quality Do-it-yourselfNeed cassette player, cable, linear sound card, Audacity Laptop capture (via external card) Desktop capture (via internal or ext. card) Do not use the built-in sound card of the desktop! Either have a linear sound card built in, or Attach an external sound card to your desktop June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking9III. Hardware Device & technique overview, part 2 Recording devices Microphone types Microphone placement All of this (and more) is on the handout June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking10Lossless digital devices (1) Recommend devices: solid-state recorders Edirol R09(HR) Marantz PMD660: reliable but must change factory defaults to wav & turn off automatic level control and internal mic Samson Zoom H4ok but sl. noisy & difficult controls (not really recommended: M-audio)ok but non-replaceable battery June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking11Recommended Devices (2) New solid-state recorders which look good, but we havent tested them Marantz PMD 620 Sony PCM D50 Olympus LS-10 Tascam DR-1 Fostex FR2 LE June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking12Other digital recorders (Less recommended) DAT recorders great quality, but capture is time-consuming and will soon be obsolete Capture: digital out + special cable(if Sony, need optical cable) mp3 - designed for putting music in Capture: must have a digital out to be at all useful iPod, Zune, many small music players Also Minidisc June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking13mp3 devices (contd): iPods Older models recorded at 8 kHz. Newer models (in the last 9 months) can indeed record stereo 16bit/44.1kHz audio iPod Classic & earlier hard drive-based iPod iPod Video (=Gen 5) June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking14Obsolete Recording Devices Obsolete: reel-to-reel Obsolete, except when theres no alternative: analog cassette recorder June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking15Microphones: Characteristics Mono vs. Stereo Mono: one channel Stereo: two, from stereo mike or two mono mikes Dynamic (does not need power, durable, good for loudness) Condenser (needs power, more sensitive) Battery; plug-in power from device; phantom power (XLR) Pickup pattern Omnidirectional (sound from most all directions) Directional (picks up sound from one main direction) Cardioid, hypercardioid (heart-shaped pickup) June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking16Some common mics Shotgun (US$50-$3000 and up)A highly-directive microphone with a narrow elliptical pattern and extremely reduced pickup from the sides and rear. Lavalier (clip-on) ($100-350)A miniature microphone that is usually worn fastened to clothing somewhere near the user's mouth. Also referred to as a lapel (or clip-on) microphone. But so-so sound Headset mics ($60 and up) Advantages: Makes excellent quality recordings, as it follows the speaker's movements Disadvantages: Can seem invasive for speakers Boundary (not usually used for linguistics; can be good for people sitting around a table) June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking17Microphone pickup characteristics June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking18Mic pickup patterns June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking19Shotgun microphones: uses June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking20Fur windscreen June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking21Microphone techniques Site assessment (in advance) - acoustics Turn off TVs, fans, florescent lights, fridges, clocks that ring or tick loudly, cell phones If boisterous, you could hang a mic from a rafter with a long cable If the room echoes, hang cloth on wall Using one microphone (and in general) Keep mics close to speaker/singer Use foam filter to prevent pops from mouth Use fur filter for windy conditions Avoid placing mic directly on hard surface Use a tripod and/or put cloth or towel on table June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking22IV. Audio Analysis Annotation software: Transcriber and other tools Basics; Analytic methods; Export methods Hands-on practice, including bringing transcriptions into another piece of software (e.g. MS-Word, Excel, etc). June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking23Types of Software Audio editing Audio analysis Acoustic (e.g. phonetic) analysis - Spectrogram, f0, intensity Time-linking + annotation (audio only) Time-linking + annotation (audio + video) Consider: Proprietary ($$, code is business secret) vs. non-proprietary (usually free, open source); platform June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking24Audio Editing Software Non-Proprietary (shareware, freeware) Audacity, Goldwave, SoundEdit....... Proprietary (can be exp., but greater functionality) SoundForge, Cold Fusion...Proprietary (but often bundled w/DVD drive) WaveLabLite, .... June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking25Audio analysis software Acoustic analysis (e.g. for phonetics) Praat - also allows light editing & some programming (taught in this workshop) WinPitch Time-linking + annotation (audio) Transcriber (taught in this workshop) SoundIndex, ... Time-linking + annotation (audio + video) ELAN (taught here), Eclipse, EXMARALDA June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking26Transcriber Advantages: stable, easy, for whole sessions Disadvantages: one annotation tier only; Mac version not very good June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking27Transcriber: Settings Open Transcriber & one of your audio filesText window: Topic/Session; Speaker; TurnAudio window: controls, waveform, trsJumps to audio+transcription at cursor [play] Settings: encoding & fonts Options General Encoding UTF-8 (usually) Options Events Fonts Text ArUnicode Options Save Configuration June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking28Encoding problems in Western Latin (instead: set Options General UTF-8) June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking29What can you do with Transcriber? Time-aligned text in any (L-to-R?) encoding; Extra/Para-linguistic features (laughter; codeswitching) Latin-script example CJK (Asian character) example Speech overlap (mostly) English-language example...demo... June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking30ExerciseTranscribe your own short recording: Open a new transcription (File New) Open audio (Cntrl-A or File-Open Audio) Fill in the headers by clicking on them: Report (=topic); Speaker (name or code) Listen to first unit (phrase or utterance) Stop cursor with [Tab], and type after green dot; then (with cursor at end of text line) hit [Enter] Save your transcription file (...trs). June 24-27, 2008 &June 30-Jul 3, 2008 Dwyer/Ono Audio 3: Editing, Hardware, & Time-linking31So...If you have time, Practice annotating in Transcriber (non-keyboard characters must be pasted from another program) Zoom is Resolution (Alt-9=higher, Alt-0=low) Practice chopping with AudacitySlide 1OverviewAudio editing Homework from yesterdayExercise on systematic file namingCutting utterances, words, and sounds:TipsAnalog capture reviewSlide 8III. HardwareLossless digital devices (1)Recommended Devices (2)Other digital recorders (Less recommended)mp3 devices (contd): iPodsObsolete Recording Devices Microphones: CharacteristicsSome common micsMicrophone pickup characteristicsMic pickup patternsShotgun microphones: usesFur windscreenMicrophone techniquesIV. Audio AnalysisTypes of Software Audio Editing Software Audio analysis software TranscriberTranscriber: SettingsSlide 28What can you do with Transcriber?ExerciseSo...