separating fracks from fiction, james northrup

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  • 8/7/2019 Separating Fracks from Fiction, James Northrup

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    Meet the Frackers . . .

    Not your usual well

    Massive heavy truck traffic

    Massive drilling pressures

    Massive wastewater

    21st century technology Managed with 20th century

    NY state regulations

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    Fracking 101: Shale is Located

    Seismic is shot todetermine the depth

    and thickness of the

    shale formation

    Once shale formation is

    identified, no more

    seismic is usually shot -

    in Texas. . .

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    Fracking 101: The Well is Drilled

    Well drilled into shaleformation

    Shale is tested to

    determine whether it is

    economic to produce

    gas

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    Fracking 101: Let the Fracking Begin

    A lateral (horizontal) section

    is drilled into the shale

    formation

    The lateral is used to inject

    water under high pressure to

    break up the shale in order

    to release the gas

    Frack generates flowback

    wastewater from well

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    Fracking 101: The Economics

    Shale gas marginally economic Creative accounting + creative reserve estimates

    Steep production decline curves

    Costly search over wide area for hot spots

    A fraction of the wells will be profitable Life cycle impacts rarely considered

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    Fracking 101: Economics in New York

    Property values will go down for many

    Most wont directly benefit Small fraction own usable mineral rights

    No direct tax revenue from gas production

    No infrastructure, no waste disposal wells

    Gas producers avoid NYS income tax

    Drilling crews highly trained - not locals

    Taxpayers left with clean-up bill

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    Fracking 101: Abandoned Wells

    Road use agreements in place Clean-up bonds posted prior to

    Land use statutes in place

    Tax gas at the wellhead

    Protect sensitive areas fromexploration

    Signing bonuses in tax appraisals

    Or get stuck with the clean up bill

    Be Prepared with Rules and Regulations Upfront

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    Whats the Hurry? Safety FIRST

    We need the money/jobs

    When did we notneed them ?

    Landowners sold too much

    all their mineral rights

    for too little

    before the rules are in place Many drillers are speculators

    Canadian penny stock companies

    Copyright 2009 FIREHOW LLC

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    Itll be just like Texas

    Shale gas fracking was developed in Texas

    Texas New York Frack wastewater

    disposal wells: 12,000 none

    Environmental agency:does not issue

    well permits

    DEC

    issues well permits

    Terrain: flat and semi-arid neither flat nor arid

    deep > 1000Water wells: shallow

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    New York Is Not Texas

    Lakesowned by

    municipalitiesowned by NYS

    except NYC

    Revenuestaxes gas

    production directly

    no tax on

    gas production

    Seismically faults dont move some faults move

    rarely

    enforced

    DEC compels

    non-consenters into wellsCompulsory

    integration

    no trout streams in Texas . . . . . .

    Texas New York

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    Just How unPrepared is New York ?

    EPA criticized the proposed regulations

    Regs. are so flawed New York City got a carve out

    New York shale loaded with radium

    No place to put toxic radioactive flowback from wells

    New York gets no direct tax revenue from gas production

    Road use agreements not in place No zoning controls over well locations

    Etc., etc., etc.

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    Problems of Shale Gas

    Massive amounts of truck traffic Spills and drilling blowouts pollute

    groundwater

    Frack wastewater must be disposed of

    forever Marginal direct economics

    Problematic indirect economics

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    A Lot of Fracking Traffic

    1,200 tankers per well

    6 wells per site 7,200 trips

    Sites exempt from zoning

    No road use agreements

    Counties have no funds

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    Frack Truck Solutions

    Local zoning should control well location Road use agreements in place

    Usage fees to counties

    Routes established

    Insurance and bonds in place

    State should tax gas production at wellhead

    Full value of lease in property valuations

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    What Does this Look Like to a Duck ?

    Containment of Fluids Onsite

    2010 HVPA

    2009-2010 Copyright Rodale.

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    Pa. DEP fined Cabot on half of their 62 Dimock wellsPa. DEP fined Cabot on half of their 62 Dimock wells Over a third of the wells were cited for surface spillsOver a third of the wells were cited for surface spills

    Pa. has cited over 1,500 violations in shale wellsPa. has cited over 1,500 violations in shale wells

    Most Pollution is at the Surface

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    Containment of Fracking Fluids

    Open pits overflow - polluting groundwater Open pits pollute the air

    Nets dont work Bird caught in net, bird dies

    Solutions : No open pits

    No drilling sites on steep slopes > 15 degrees

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    propargyl alcohol glutaraldehyde

    hydrochloric acid

    dibromoacetonitrile

    butoxyethanol ethylene glycol

    AndMystery Ingredients

    A Fracking Good Cocktail

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    Fracking Fluid Problems

    Toxic and carcinogenic Gets into groundwater via spills

    New York water wells shallow and vulnerable

    Locals depend on well water

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    Fracking Fluid Solutions

    Non-toxic fracking fluids Test wells before fracking begins and after

    No fracking within 1000 feet of a water well

    State Environmental Quality Review (SEQR)

    in watersheds of sole source drinking water lakes In floodplains

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    A

    tomic bomb used to frack a gas formation in69

    Frack worked but gas too radioactive to sell

    So Halliburton develops horizontal

    hydrofracking

    Fracking as Explosive as a Bomb

    because atomicbombs didnt work

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    Horizontal Hydrofracking of ShaleHorizontal Hydrofracking of Shale== ExtraordinaryExtraordinaryAmounts ofWaterAmounts ofWater

    One well = 5 million gals

    8 per pad site = 40 M gal

    5 fracks per well = 200 M gals

    For every one mile drilling site

    Thousands of truck trips

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    Gulf well blew at 80%shale frack pressure

    Casing buckles due toshifts in faulting, heat orpressure

    Casing corrodes Casing set in haste

    Cemented in haste

    Casing Failures

    Casing Failures

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    Crew got killed

    Water polluted

    Company denials

    Taxpayers clean up

    When a Cement Job Failed

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    Surface casing leaks gas

    Gas channels up the casing Frack cracks the casing

    Faulting shears the casing

    Casing corrodes over time

    Frack goes out of zone Pick one or more of the above

    Turn on water

    Light

    Stand back

    How to Make Flammable Tap Water

    First start with a shallow water well, like in New York

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    Safer Fracking

    Treat it like an underground explosion Highest standards on surface casing

    Post bonds to clean up spills

    Frack doped with a tracer to identify

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    Its What Comes Back From the Frack

    The DEC classifies fracking fluids as Hazardous waste

    but classifies the fracking flowback as Industrial waste

    Inject hazardous fracking fluids into groundInject hazardous fracking fluids into ground

    + 10,000 psi pressure @ 200+ degrees+ 10,000 psi pressure @ 200+ degrees+ radium leached from the shale+ radium leached from the shale

    = fracking flowback wastewater= fracking flowback wastewater

    1,000,000 gallons per well

    8,000,000 gallons per site

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    Radium From Fracking Flowback

    Marie Curie discovered radium And it killed her . . .

    Frack fluids leach it from shale

    The Marcellus is loaded with it 267 over the safe limit

    no place to dispose of it in NY

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    Fracking WastewaterContents

    Radium 226 in the Marcellus

    Hydrochloric acid frack fluid Methanol in frack

    Glutaraldehyde

    Propylene glycol

    Propargyl alcohol

    Dissolved solids and suspended solids

    Hydrogen sulfide, propane, butane, ethane

    All of the above + heat + pressure = ??

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    Radon = Propanes Evil Twin

    Marcellus is also loaded with radon The 2nd leading cause of lung cancer

    Similar weight and flash point as propane

    Take propane from gas, radon can tag along

    Workers at risk, CNG users at risk DECs response ?

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    Where To Get Rid of all this FrackingWastewater ?

    No wastewater disposal wells in New York Closest are in Ohio for 20 cents gal. + freight

    No wastewater treatment plants in New York

    None are planned in NYS. Closest is in Pa.

    DECs response?

    Nowhere in New York . . .

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    The Used Uranium nonSolution

    Industry proposes to recycle frack wastewater

    This increases its toxicity with each use

    Nuclear plants built without fuel disposal plans

    Re-use of frack flowback repeats that mistake

    Cant start fracking without disposal wells

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    Fracking Wastewater Solutions

    Classify frack wastewater as hazardous Wastewater treated at commercial plants

    Disposed of in Class II disposal wells

    No waste disposal plan = No well permit

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    Clean Air Gets Fracked

    Gas fields pollute the air

    Barnett Shale = pollution of all cars in DFW

    Solution:

    Monitor air

    Fine operators

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    The Faults with New Yorks Faults

    DEC understates faulting

    Faulting poorly mapped

    Faults channel spills into

    ground

    Faults enable fracks to go out

    of zone

    Active faulting shears wells

    Faulting causes disposal wells

    to leak

    Earthquakes

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    DEC dsGEIS page 4-28 Fig 4.13

    DEC Says NY Faulting Looks Like

    If only it were

    this simple. . .

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    What Faulting May Really Look Like

    These are

    suspected major faults

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    How Texas is (slightly) Less Faulty

    Texas faults are mapped Lack of active faults facilitates:

    Better locations for safe disposal wells

    Well casing longevity - less prone to shear

    Reduced risk of the frack going out of zone

    Texas has none

    however . . .

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    Disposal Wells:

    Caution is Advised

    The only Texasearthquake was due tooverloading a wastedisposal well with shalefrack flowback

    Disposal wells andfaults dont mix

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    No More Earthquakes, Thanks

    New York already has its share

    Source USGS

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    Less Faulty Fracking Solutions

    Determine where faults are in NY Shoot 3-D seismic on each lateral

    as a condition of getting the fracking permit

    No disposal wells near major faults

    Locate well sites away from surface faults

    No drilling allowed near active faults

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    Fracking doesnt contaminate

    groundwater = a big fat lie

    Frack operations can contaminate water Intensive trucking contaminates water

    33% of Cabot Dimock wells cited for spills

    13% Cabot wells gassed groundwater 1,614 violations on shale drillers in Pa.

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    Groundwater -

    Texas vs New York

    Postedby David Kozlowski on May 09, 2010

    Water contamination is a

    show stopperin New York

    Water contamination less an

    issue in arid, sparsely populated

    area with deep water wells and

    city-owned lakes, like Texas

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    Groundwater Solutions

    Test water wells before and after frack Dope fracking fluid with tracers

    Non toxic fracking fluids

    Well set-backs tied to terrain

    SEQR in floodplains and watersheds

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    20th Century Regulations in New York

    Shale Gas is 21st Century Technology

    dSGEIS premised on vertical well technology dSGEIS doesnt incorporate EPA study

    DEC tasked with promoting drilling

    The cop is the dealer

    DEC under-funded and under-staffed DEC totally out-gunned by shale gas tech.

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    The Big Apples Big Carve Out

    DEC gave NYC reservoirs special protection

    from shale gas fracking based on politics, not science

    DEC: They lack sedimentation filters

    Radiation and toxic chemicals from spills and

    wastewater are not sediment . . .

    All New Yorkers need NYCs safeguards

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    Just how Bad is the dSGEIS?

    1st draft, well set-back 50 from lake

    2nd / current draft, set-back moved to 150

    See Otsego2000.org

    Solution : Scrap the dSGEIS

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    Compulsory Integration =

    Private Eminent Domain

    NY law rewritten in 2005 by the industry One of the worst CI laws in the US

    60% acreage can force others into a well

    DEC compels landowners to participate

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    The Legal Basis for Pooling

    Oil field unitization was

    developed to keep small owners

    from drilling their own wells intoa shared or pooled reserve.

    Unless every owner drills - the

    adjacent wells will drain the

    non-drilling owners share of theoil reserve.

    The solution was to unitize or

    pool the ownership of the

    sharedoil or gas reserve.

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    Compulsory Integration NA to Shale Gas

    Shale gas not a pooled reserve Not permeable enough to drain gas from

    another property

    No geological reason for CI of adjacent

    owners

    Compulsory integration of shale not constitutional

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    How Cheney Fracked the EPA

    Fracking shale not regulated by the EPA

    because . . .

    Cheney got loopholes in Clean WaterAct,Safe Drinking WaterAct, and Clean AirAct in

    2005

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    What the Feds Should Do

    Pass the Frack Act Close Cheneys Last Loopholes

    Determine life-cycle effects of shale gas

    Put EPA back in the regulatory business

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    What Albany Should Do

    Scrap the dSGEIS SEQR on

    wells in sole source watersheds

    wells in flood plains

    Get DEC out of gas shale promotion Proof of final disposition of wastewater

    Tax gas at the wellhead

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    What Local Government Should Do

    Get notice of each well application - not afterthe permit issued

    Enforce zoning controls over well sites

    Enforce road use agreements

    Adopt EMS plans

    Lobby in Albany for safe water

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    What You Can Do Now

    Vote forsafe water overiffyshale gas Call your Congressman

    Call your state rep. / senator

    Call your county and town board

    Test your water wells before you get fracked

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    Now Go Get Busy