sejarah arsitektur komputer

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Sejarah Arsitektur Komputer

Eri Prasetyohttp://staffsite.gunadarma.ac.id/eri

Mechanical devices

Abakus, 3000 BC (?)

1822 Charles Babbage

1642, add & sub, Blaise Pascal

Electromechanical Machines Based on Relays Konrad Zuse (1910-1995)

The Zuse Z3 & Z4Z1 / 1938, Z3 / 1941: mesin pemrograman Pertama di dunia Z3 dan Z4 dapat dilihat di musium jerman , Padeborn

Electronic Computers First Generation No mechanical components anymore Vacuum Tubes

Principle Basic: Triode Controllable flow within diode by a fence On / Off

1946: ENIAC machine Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer

Elektronika Tabung1906 Lee de Forest menemukan tabung elektronikkatoda Filamen pemanas gate anoda

Penguatan signal

6,3v

Polarisasi gate menarik elektron Filamen memanaskan katoda yang menyebarkan electrons : termo emission

Lee de Forest

Elektronika tabungMasalah Utama :Tegangan besar Mudah panas Ukuran komponen 300 V Plaque

6,3v Cathode

Grille 50 V

Aplikasi Pertama

Radio penerima

Audio Amplifier

Radio Pemancar

Mesin Hitung tabung Pertama1945 Mesin hitung tabung I bernama (ENIAC) Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer 30 tonnes Luas 1500 m2 Jumlah 17000 tabung Daya 140 KW 5000 penambahan setiap detik Makan tempat

Semi konduktor ????1874 Braun peletak dasar semi-conducteur

besi

selenium K. F. Braun

Dioda Pertama1940 Schottky menemukan mtal/semi-conducteur.

contact

Pointe mtallique Ge Masih digunakan sampai sekarang untuk HF

W. Schottky 1942 Produksi pertama dioda dengan bahan germanium berhasil untuk teknologi micromave dan radar

Transistor bipolar1947 Group dari Shockley mempunyai ide membuat dua dioda dari bahan yang sama (germanium).

Emetor

Collector

Base

W. Schockley

Transistor bipolar (2)

Fenomena nama baru

transistor = transfer + resistor

Transistor bipolar (3)Base Ge In Emetteur Type n In Collecteur Type p

Sebuah awal fabrikasi (sangat berjasa ) Kesulitan utama : Reproduksi, ketebalan.

Temuan hasil penelitian lebih lanjut untuk bahan (Silikon atau Germanium).

Transistor bipolar silikon1952 Bell Labs memperkenalkan metode untuk merealisasiakn printing Silikon monocristallin dengan kemurnian 99,7%.

Purification

Tirage

Si amorphe

Si polycristallin

Si monocristallin

1954

Pemakaian pertama Silikon sebagai pengganti germanium

Komputer transistor pertama1957 Seymour

pertama secara komersial

Cray

menciptakan

CDC

1604,

komputer

processeur 4-8 bits, cycle mmoire : 5 micro detik.

Penemuan rangkaian terpadu ( IC)1958 Jack

rangkaian terpadu pertama dengan 5 komponen pasif.

Kilby

dari

Texas

Instruments

menciptakan

Kemajuan Transistor1960 Lab. Fairchild semiconductor teknik planar menyempurnakan dengan

R.N. Noyce

Rangkaian terpadu pertama dengan teknik planar

Daya tarik transistors planarDi dalam transistor Planar, semua koneksi ada di permukaan dan pada sisi yang sama.Base Emetteur Collecteur

P N

N

Penemuan Transistor MOS1960 Atalla dan Kahng dari Fairchild semiconductor peletak dasar transistor pertama MOS

Source

gate

Drain

1.5 mm

1963

Hofstein & Heiman dari RCA membuat pertama IC dengan transistors MOS (8 paires de NMOS)

Structure MOSLe MOS est parfaitement symtrique et on appelle SOURCE (d'lectrons) le cot le plus ngatifAu dbut (1962) la grille tait en Aluminium d'o le nom MOS:

Mtal/Oxyde/SemiconducteurSource

Grille Drain Isolant

Substrat la masse ( Vdd pour les PMos)

N+ P

N+

Fonctionnement dun NMOSConditions normales de fonctionnement :

Vgs > 0 et Vds > 0

Vgs > 0 Source

Grille Isolant

Drain

Vds > 0

N+ P

N+

Fonctionnement dun NMOSAccumulation de charges positives sur la grille

Vgs > 0 Source

Grille Isolant

Drain

Vds > 0

N+ P

N+

Fonctionnement dun NMOSCration dun

champ lectrique E sur la capacit MOS

Vgs > 0 Source

Grille Isolant

Drain

Vds > 0

EN+ P N+

Fonctionnement dun NMOSTrous majoritaires du substrat repousss

Vgs > 0 Source

Grille Isolant

Drain

Vds > 0

EN+ P N+

Fonctionnement dun NMOSElectrons minoritaires du substrat attirs vers la grille

Vgs > 0 Source

Grille Isolant

Drain

Vds > 0

EN+ P N+

Fonctionnement dun NMOSCration dun canal de type N sous lisolant (couche dinversion)

Vgs > 0 Source

Grille Isolant

Drain

Vds > 0

IdN+

EN+ P

CaractristiquesCaractristiques similaires celle dun transistor JFET

Id (mA)Vgs = 8 V Vgs = 6 V Vgs = 2 V

La valeur de Vgs > 0 influence directement la densit de porteurs minoritaires attirs sous la capacit MOS La valeur de Vds > 0 influence directement la valeur du champ E et donc de la saturation de Id

Vds (V)

Cas du MOS appauvrissementPour Vgs drainId (mA)Vgs = 4 V Vgs = 2 V Vgs = 0 V Vgs = -2 V Vgs = -4 V

= 0, existence du canal N entre la source et le

Lexistence du canal garantit une conduction du transistor pour des valeurs ngatives et positives de Vgs

Vds (V)

CaractristiquesCaractristiques similaires celle dun transistor JFET

Id (mA)Vgs = 8 V Vgs = 6 V Vgs = 2 V

3 zones de fonctionnement : Zone ohmique, Pincement, Saturation.

Vds (V)

Mengapa terpadu ?kelebihan :Systme lectronique Circuit lectronique Composant: Circuit intgr

Tempat ringkas

Hemat energi

modular

Lebih Aman

ORGANIZATION Pertanyaan : Bagimana bentuk mesin komputasinya ? Bagaimana mengontrolnya ? Original Work ( 1946 ) Burks, Goldstine, von Neumann: Mulai diskusi untuk merancang logika instrumen komputasi elektronik

Hasil : von Neumann Architecture Arsitektur yang sangat dominan bahkan sampai sekarang

The IAS machine Dikembangkan 1952 oleh von Neumann Mesin pertama berbasiskan prinsip rancangannya Institute for Advanced Studies computer

The von Neumann architecture General purpose machine Independent of applications Flexible & Programmable

4 main units Control unit (Instruction counter) Arithmetic unit (Accumulator) Input/Output unit (Connection to the outside) Main memory

Interconnected by simple buses

Von Neumann OverviewInstructions / Program

Main Memory

Arithmetic UnitAC

Control UnitPC IR SR

Addresses

Input/Output Unit E.g. Storage

Von Neumann Details (1) System structure is application independent Fully programmable

Programs and Data are stored in the same memory Main Memory Can be manipulated by the machine

Main memory is divided into cells Equal size Consecutively numbered (addresses)

Von Neumann Details (2) Program is composed of a sequence of instructions Read one after the other from main memory

Program execution can be altered Conditional or unconditional jumps Change the current execution Done by loading new value into PC register

Von Neumann Details (3) Usage of binary numbers Just two values allowed per digit: 0/1 Easy to implement: voltage yes or no

Von Neumann Today Still the dominant architecture in current systems Used in all popular systems / chips

Only minor modifications Control und Arithmetic unit combined Result: CPU (Central Processing Unit) New memory paths between memory and I/O Direct Memory Access (DMA)

Additions to the concept Multiple arithmetic units / Multiple CPUs Parallel processing

Technology Development Vacuum tubes replaced Transistors Smaller, more power efficient DEC PDP-1, IBM 7094 Still large machines

Next step: Integrated Circuits Many transistors packed on one die High density & reliability, low power IBM 360 family & first Intel chips

Many subsequent improvements

Manufacturing Layered design Base: Silicon Light sensitive layers Projection of masks Erase parts using acid Clean

Any particle can cause errors Special fabs required Rising costs

room fabrication

IBM

Comparison of TechnologiesGen. 1 2 3 4 5 Dates 1946-1957 1958-1964 1965-1971 1972-1977 1978Technology Vacuum tube Transistor Small and medium integrated circuits Large scale integration Very large scale integration Speed 40 KHz 200 KHz 1 MHz 10 MHz 100 MHz Time/Ops 25 s 5 s 1 s 100 ns 10 ns

Main trend: smaller and faster Trend still continues today Processor speeds now over 3 GHz, but problems arise

Microprocessor History 2001: 30th Anniversary! 4-Bit, 8-Bit Processors Intel 4004 (~1971) Intel 8008

16-Bit Processors Texas Instruments TMS 9900 (~1977) Intel 8086 Zilog Z8000 (~1978-1980) Motorola MC68000 National Semiconductor NS16016

- 2300 Transistors, 108 Khz

http://www.intel4004.com

Intel 4004

Intel 4004 First Microcomputer

INTEL 4004 First Microcomputer

INTEL 4004 First Microcomputer

Microprocessor History16/32-bit Processors (external 16-bit Bus, internal 32 Bit Structure) Motorola MC68010 National Semiconductor NS16032 Additional Functionality on the Chip Direct Memory Access (DMA) (Intel 80186) Virtual memory management (MC68010, Intel 80286) Optional Coprocessor (Intel 8086/8028