seismic attributes - tectonics

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  • 6a-1

    Seismic Attribute Mapping of Structure Seismic Attribute Mapping of Structure

    and Stratigraphy and Stratigraphy

    Attribute Expression of Tectonic DeformationAttribute Expression of Tectonic Deformation

    Kurt J. Marfurt (University of Oklahoma)Kurt J. Marfurt (University of Oklahoma)

  • 6a-2

    Course OutlineCourse Outline

    IntroductionIntroduction

    Complex Trace, Horizon, and Formation AttributesComplex Trace, Horizon, and Formation Attributes

    Multiattribute DisplayMultiattribute Display

    Spectral DecompositionSpectral Decomposition

    Geometric AttributesGeometric Attributes

    Attribute Expression of GeologyAttribute Expression of Geology

    Impact of Acquisition and Processing on AttributesImpact of Acquisition and Processing on Attributes

    Attributes Applied to OffsetAttributes Applied to Offset-- and Azimuthand Azimuth--Limited VolumesLimited Volumes

    StructureStructure--Oriented Filtering and Image EnhancementOriented Filtering and Image Enhancement

    Inversion for Acoustic and Elastic ImpedanceInversion for Acoustic and Elastic Impedance

    Multiattribute Analysis ToolsMultiattribute Analysis Tools

    Reservoir Characterization WorkflowsReservoir Characterization Workflows

    3D Texture Analysis3D Texture Analysis

  • 6a-3

    Attribute expression of tectonic deformationAttribute expression of tectonic deformation

    After this section you should be able to:

    Use coherence to accelerate the interpretation of faults on 3-D volumes,

    Use volumetric attributes to provide a preliminary interpretation across multiple surveys having different amplitude and phase,

    Identify the appearance and structural style of salt and shale diapirs on geometric attributes,

    Use curvature to define axial planes, and

    Use coherence and curvature as an aid to predicting fractures.

  • 6a-4

    N

    E

    S

    W

    EastWest

    Gentle

    South

    Dip

    Moderate

    West dip

    Gentle

    North

    dip

    Northeast

    dip

    Moderate

    Southeast

    dip

    Growth faults, Gulf of MexicoGrowth faults, Gulf of Mexico

  • 6a-5

    N

    E

    S

    W

    Growth faults, Gulf of MexicoGrowth faults, Gulf of Mexico

    00

    66

    44

    22

    Tim

    e (

    s)

    Tim

    e (

    s)

  • 6a-6

    Identification of faults (Gulf of Mexico, USA)Identification of faults (Gulf of Mexico, USA)

    Salt

    Salt

  • 6a-7

    Identification of faults (Alberta, Canada)Identification of faults (Alberta, Canada)

  • 6a-8

    4.0

    2.0

    3.0

    1.0

    1.0

    2.0

    3.0

    0.0

    Tim

    e (

    s)

    5 k

    m

    4.0

    2.0

    3.0

    1.0

    1.0

    2.0

    3.0

    0.0

    Tim

    e (

    s)

    5 k

    mSeismicSeismic CoherenceCoherence

    Identification of faults and stratigraphyIdentification of faults and stratigraphy(Gulf of Mexico, USA)(Gulf of Mexico, USA)

    FaultsFaults

    BandingBanding

    StratigraphyStratigraphy

  • 6a-9

    Attribute imaging of faults and flexuresAttribute imaging of faults and flexures

  • 6a-10

    Fault not seen Fault not seen

    on curvature.on curvature.

    Seen on Seen on

    coherence.coherence.

    Fault seen on Fault seen on

    curvature. curvature.

    Seen on Seen on

    coherence.coherence.

    Idealized Idealized

    growth growth

    faultfault

    Idealized Idealized

    strikestrike--slip slip

    faultfault

  • 6a-11

    Fault seen on Fault seen on

    coherence. coherence.

    Not seen on Not seen on

    curvature.curvature.

    Fault seen on Fault seen on

    curvature.curvature.

    Not seen on Not seen on

    coherence.coherence.

    Fault with Fault with

    minimal minimal

    offsetoffset

    Fault with Fault with

    finite finite

    offsetoffset

  • 6a-12

    Fault seen on coherence Fault seen on coherence

    at depth. Infill/collapse at depth. Infill/collapse

    seen on curvature seen on curvature

    shallow.shallow.

    FaultFault seen seen

    on curvature.on curvature.

    Not seen on Not seen on

    coherence.coherence.

    Folds and Folds and

    flexuresflexuresInfilledInfilled

    grabensgrabens

  • 6a-13

    BasinwideBasinwide Regional Interpretation across Regional Interpretation across

    Heterogeneous Seismic SurveysHeterogeneous Seismic Surveys

  • 6a-14

    10 km

    1.0

    1.2

    1.4

    1.6

    0.8

    Time (s)

    N

    Time/structure map of heterogeneous surveysTime/structure map of heterogeneous surveys

    Central Basin Central Basin

    Platform, Platform,

    Texas, USATexas, USA

    Top DevonianTop Devonian

  • 6a-15

    1.0

    0.8

    Coh

    10 km

    N

    Coherence time slice on heterogeneous surveysCoherence time slice on heterogeneous surveys

    Central Basin Central Basin

    Platform, Platform,

    Texas, USATexas, USA

    t=1.0 st=1.0 s

    (Data courtesy (Data courtesy

    of BP, OXY, of BP, OXY,

    Burlington)Burlington)

  • 6a-16 (Biles et al, 2003).

    A large regional surveyA large regional survey

    Eugene Island

    Ship Shoal

    VermillionSouth

    VermillionSouth MarshIsland

    TexasLouisiana

    EastCameron

    WestCameron

    Gulf of Mexico

  • 6a-17 (Biles et al, 2003).

    Use of coherence to interpreter a large regional surveyUse of coherence to interpreter a large regional survey

    Coherence at 3.0 s

    TexasLouisiana

    Gulf of Mexico

  • 6a-18

    Interpretation WorkflowsInterpretation Workflows

  • 6a-19

    N

    EW

    S

    low coh

    mid coh

    high coh

    2 kmN

    EW

    S

    N

    EW

    S

    (Data courtesy of OXY)

    Workflow#1: Using attribute to delineate limits Workflow#1: Using attribute to delineate limits

    of fault of fault zoneszones

  • 6a-20

    A A

    B

    B

    C

    N

    5 km

    Workflow#2: Using attribute time slices to help Workflow#2: Using attribute time slices to help

    correlate horizons across faultscorrelate horizons across faults

    Coherence time Coherence time

    slice. T=2.7 sslice. T=2.7 s

    (Green Canyon, (Green Canyon,

    GOM, USA)GOM, USA)

    SaltSaltPick an arbitrary Pick an arbitrary

    line that runs line that runs

    around faultsaround faults

  • 6a-21

    C

    B B2.0

    2.5

    3.0

    Tim

    e (

    s)

    A A4 km

    C2.0

    2.5

    3.0

    Tim

    e (

    s)

    C

    Seismic Seismic traversetraverse

    chosen to avoid chosen to avoid

    major faultsmajor faults

    (Data courtesy of BP)(Data courtesy of BP)

  • 6a-22

    N

    3 km

    Workflow #3: Workflow #3:

    Using Using

    attributes to attributes to

    help fault help fault

    naming and naming and

    correlationcorrelation

    coherencecoherence seismicseismic

    t=2.6 st=2.6 s t=2.6 st=2.6 s

    Northwest Louisiana, Northwest Louisiana,

    USAUSA

    (Data courtesy of Seitel)(Data courtesy of Seitel)

  • 6a-23

    N

    3 km

    N

    3 km

    1) Pick on coherence 1) Pick on coherence

    using seismic time using seismic time

    slice as a guide. Try slice as a guide. Try

    to avoid to avoid

    stratigraphic stratigraphic

    discontinuities and discontinuities and

    unconformitiesunconformities

    coherencecoherence seismicseismic

    t=2.6 st=2.6 s t=2.6 st=2.6 s

    (Data courtesy of Seitel)(Data courtesy of Seitel)

  • 6a-24

    coherencecoherence seismicseismic

    2) Choose a seismic 2) Choose a seismic

    line perpendicular to line perpendicular to

    the fault traces. Pick the fault traces. Pick

    and assign faults as and assign faults as

    you normally would.you normally would.

    A A

    Top Co

    tton

    Valley

    Bott

    om

    Cott

    on V

    alley

    A A

    N

    3 km

    2.5

    2.0

    3.0

    Tim

    e (

    s)

    t=2.6 st=2.6 s

    (Data courtesy of Seitel)(Data courtesy of Seitel)

  • 6a-25

    coherencecoherence seismicseismic

    3) Choose a 23) Choose a 2nd nd EW EW

    seismic line further seismic line further

    down the fault trace down the fault trace

    to begin forming a to begin forming a

    coarse fault grid.coarse fault grid.

    B B

    2.5

    2.0

    3.0

    Tim

    e (

    s)

    A A

    B B

    t=2.6 st=2.6 s

    (Data courtesy of Seitel)(Data courtesy of Seitel)

  • 6a-26

    coherencecoherence seismicseismic

    4) Pick a NS line and 4) Pick a NS line and

    continue the continue the

    process. If subtle process. If subtle

    discontinuities seen discontinuities seen

    to be faults on to be faults on

    seismic, track them seismic, track them

    on coherence.on coherence.2.5

    2.0

    3.0

    Tim

    e (

    s)

    N

    3 km

    C

    C

    C C

    t=2.6 st=2.6 s

    (Data courtesy of Seitel)(Data courtesy of Seitel)

  • 6a-27

    coherencecoherence seismicseismic

    5) Pick additional NS 5) Pick additional NS

    lines and continue lines and continue

    the process, forming the process, forming

    a coarse grid.a coarse grid.

    D

    D

    D D

    2.5

    2.0

    3.0

    Tim

    e (

    s)

    t=2.6 st=2.6 s

    (Data courtesy of Seitel)(Data courtesy of Seitel)

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