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Seeds of World War Seeds of World War II II

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Overview of the background info leading to WWII

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Page 1: Seeds of World War II

Seeds of World War IISeeds of World War II

Page 2: Seeds of World War II

Germany’s Economic DeclineGermany’s Economic Decline Germany spent Germany spent 37 billion 37 billion

dollarsdollars during during World War IWorld War I and only collected 1.5 and only collected 1.5 billion in taxes.billion in taxes.

Treaty of Versailles signed Treaty of Versailles signed by Germany in 1919 made by Germany in 1919 made them accept complete them accept complete responsibility for World responsibility for World War I.War I.

Germany had to pay Germany had to pay 32 32 billion dollarsbillion dollars in war in war reparations to France and reparations to France and

EnglandEngland..

Page 3: Seeds of World War II
Page 4: Seeds of World War II

Fix the German Economy Germany tries to fix problem by printing Germany tries to fix problem by printing

more money, which causes more money, which causes inflation.inflation. Value of German mark ($) to the U.S. Value of German mark ($) to the U.S.

dollardollar 1914 $1 US Dollar = 4.2 German Marks1914 $1 US Dollar = 4.2 German Marks 1923 $1 US Dollar = 1 Billion German Marks1923 $1 US Dollar = 1 Billion German Marks

Price of bread 4 billion marks & glass of beer 2 million marks

Inflation left the currency and life savings of Germans almost worthless

Page 5: Seeds of World War II

“Not my problem”

Many nations in Europe had ongoing economic problems due to WWI. Several were on the verge of bankruptcy

Allied countries that won from WWI still had a spirit of revenge. Therefore, they say no reason to revise Treaty of Versailles.

Germans grew angry at the current government they had (the Weimar Republic)

Page 6: Seeds of World War II

A Failing Government

German’s did not support the Weimar Republic because its representatives signed the Treaty of Versailles.

Office of Chancellor and President were the 2 highest positions of Germany

German’s wanted change!

Page 7: Seeds of World War II

U.S. Response

Even though the U.S. policy shifted to isolationism, we provided assistance (500 million in food to Europe, including Germany)

The Dawes Plan-U.S. loaned Germany funds to pay reparations to Allies.

U.S. needed European economy to survive so U.S. could receive payment from loans to allies during WWII.

Result of Dawes Plan-FAILED. Only 1 European Nation paid U.S. war loan/debts back.

Page 8: Seeds of World War II

The Dawes PlanThe Dawes Plan

Page 9: Seeds of World War II

The Rise of Adolph HitlerThe Rise of Adolph Hitler

Born in Born in Austria Austria – 1889– 1889High school dropoutHigh school dropoutEnlisted in the German Army in WWIEnlisted in the German Army in WWIBecame an Became an extreme nationalistextreme nationalistBelieved Germany was sold out by Believed Germany was sold out by

Weimar Republic from signing of Weimar Republic from signing of Treaty of Versailles.Treaty of Versailles.

Page 10: Seeds of World War II

Hitler and the Nazi PartyHitler and the Nazi Party

Joined the Joined the Nazi PartyNazi Party in 1921 in 1921 Attacked the Weimar Republic Attacked the Weimar Republic

(rulers of Germany) in speeches.(rulers of Germany) in speeches. Denounced the Denounced the Treaty of VersaillesTreaty of Versailles 1923 - led an uprising in Munich, 1923 - led an uprising in Munich,

GermanyGermany Put in jail and wrote Put in jail and wrote Mein Kampf Mein Kampf

((My StruggleMy Struggle)) Germans were a superior “Aryan” raceGermans were a superior “Aryan” race Jews were an inferior raceJews were an inferior race Blamed Jews for Germans defeat in Blamed Jews for Germans defeat in

WWI and economic problemsWWI and economic problems

Page 11: Seeds of World War II

Hitler’s Climb to PowerHitler’s Climb to Power

Once released from jail, he Once released from jail, he rebuilt the Nazi Party. rebuilt the Nazi Party. Promised benefits to peasants, Promised benefits to peasants, workers, and the middle class. workers, and the middle class. Membership grew dramatically.Membership grew dramatically.

In 1932, the Nazis are he In 1932, the Nazis are he largest political party in largest political party in German politics.German politics.

Hitler becomes Hitler becomes ChancellorChancellor, at , at request of German President request of German President HindenburgHindenburg..

Page 12: Seeds of World War II

Hitler becomes DictatorPresident Hindenburg of Germany President Hindenburg of Germany

dies on August 2, 1934 dies on August 2, 1934 Hitler combines offices of chancellor Hitler combines offices of chancellor

and president.and president.Declares himself Declares himself Fuhrer Fuhrer (leader).(leader).Third Reich (German Empire)Third Reich (German Empire)

created.created.

Page 13: Seeds of World War II

Hitler in ControlOn first day as Fuhrer , Fuhrer , requires all requires all

members of army to take an oath to members of army to take an oath to obey.obey.

Outlaws political opposition (which Outlaws political opposition (which he created), censors dissent from he created), censors dissent from German media.German media.

Germany is now a Fascist Germany is now a Fascist governmentgovernment

Page 14: Seeds of World War II

Anti-Semitic Policies (Anti-Anti-Semitic Policies (Anti-Jew)Jew)

German Jews began to experience German Jews began to experience discrimination.discrimination.

Jews were expelled from Jews were expelled from government government jobsjobs and and teaching positionsteaching positions..

Forbidden to practice law and Forbidden to practice law and medicine.medicine.

Jews and non-Jews could not marry.Jews and non-Jews could not marry.All Jews had to register with the All Jews had to register with the

government and government and wear yellow Stars of wear yellow Stars of DavidDavid on their clothes. on their clothes.

Page 15: Seeds of World War II

Two young brothers, seated for aTwo young brothers, seated for a family photograph in family photograph in the Kovno ghetto. One month later, they were deported to the Kovno ghetto. One month later, they were deported to

the Majdanek camp. Kovno, Lithuania, February 1944.the Majdanek camp. Kovno, Lithuania, February 1944.

Page 16: Seeds of World War II
Page 17: Seeds of World War II

Kristallnacht (Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Night of Broken GlassGlass))

Supposedly in retaliation for the assassination of Supposedly in retaliation for the assassination of a German embassy official in Paris, France by a a German embassy official in Paris, France by a Jewish student. Jewish student.

S.S. storm troopers (Hitler’s Army) went on an S.S. storm troopers (Hitler’s Army) went on an anti-Jewish rampage throughout Germany.anti-Jewish rampage throughout Germany.

In 15 hours, over In 15 hours, over 200 synagogues200 synagogues were were destroyed, 7,500 Jewish owned stores were looted destroyed, 7,500 Jewish owned stores were looted and 100 Jews killed. and 100 Jews killed.

30,00030,000 were arrested and sent to prison camps. were arrested and sent to prison camps.

Page 18: Seeds of World War II

Storefronts of Jewish Owned businesses were damaged during the Storefronts of Jewish Owned businesses were damaged during the Kristallnacht ("Night of Broken Glass") pogrom. Berlin, Kristallnacht ("Night of Broken Glass") pogrom. Berlin,

Germany, November 10, 1938.Germany, November 10, 1938.

Page 19: Seeds of World War II

Jewish-owned shop destroyedJewish-owned shop destroyed during during Kristallnacht (the "Night of Broken Glass"). Kristallnacht (the "Night of Broken Glass").

Berlin, Germany, November 1938Berlin, Germany, November 1938..

Page 20: Seeds of World War II

As the synagogue in Oberramstadt burns during As the synagogue in Oberramstadt burns during Kristallnacht (the "Night of Broken Glass"), firefighters Kristallnacht (the "Night of Broken Glass"), firefighters

instead save a nearby house. Local residents watch as the instead save a nearby house. Local residents watch as the synagogue is destroyed. Oberramstadt, Germany, synagogue is destroyed. Oberramstadt, Germany,

November 9-10, 1938.November 9-10, 1938.

Page 21: Seeds of World War II

Jews arrested after Kristallnacht (the "Night of Jews arrested after Kristallnacht (the "Night of Broken Glass") await deportation to Dachau Broken Glass") await deportation to Dachau

concentration camp. Baden-Baden, Germany, concentration camp. Baden-Baden, Germany, November 10, 1938.November 10, 1938.

Page 22: Seeds of World War II

Herzog Rudolfstrasse synagogue after it Herzog Rudolfstrasse synagogue after it was destroyed during Kristallnacht (the was destroyed during Kristallnacht (the

"Night of Broken Glass")."Night of Broken Glass").

Page 23: Seeds of World War II

Fascism in ItalyFascism in Italy

Italy suffered from economic hardships Italy suffered from economic hardships after WWI after helping the Allies fight.after WWI after helping the Allies fight.

Italians were upset because they did not Italians were upset because they did not gain the land they wanted from Treaty of gain the land they wanted from Treaty of Versailles.Versailles.

Fascism Fascism (aggressive nationalism and (aggressive nationalism and honor of military sacrifice) appealed to honor of military sacrifice) appealed to many Italians, especially war veterans many Italians, especially war veterans from WWI.from WWI.

Benito Benito MussoliniMussolini becomes Prime Minister becomes Prime Minister in 1922.in 1922.

Page 24: Seeds of World War II

The Spanish Civil WarThe Spanish Civil War

Francisco Francisco FrancoFranco and the Spanish Nationalist Party and the Spanish Nationalist Party take over Spain’s government in 1939. take over Spain’s government in 1939.

Mussolini and Hitler helped Franco overthrow the Mussolini and Hitler helped Franco overthrow the Spanish government.Spanish government.

Germany and Italy use the war as a testing ground Germany and Italy use the war as a testing ground for the new tanks, planes, and weapons created.for the new tanks, planes, and weapons created.

Rome-Berlin AxisRome-Berlin Axis formed ( formed (ItalyItaly and and GermanyGermany create create an alliance).an alliance).

U.S. and League of Nations did little to stop them. U.S. and League of Nations did little to stop them. They worried if they became involved it would lead They worried if they became involved it would lead to a larger conflict. to a larger conflict.

U.S. and European countries were using U.S. and European countries were using appeasement.appeasement.

Page 25: Seeds of World War II

The Rise of Militarism in The Rise of Militarism in JapanJapan

Japanese Expansion in the Far EastJapanese Expansion in the Far East

MilitaristsMilitarists control the gov’t. Build up military control the gov’t. Build up military to expand control in Asia. Censorship begins, Liberal to expand control in Asia. Censorship begins, Liberal teachers and gov’t critics arrested. teachers and gov’t critics arrested.

Secret police created to punish people speaking out against Secret police created to punish people speaking out against gov’t. Schools taught “total obedience” to the emperor.gov’t. Schools taught “total obedience” to the emperor.

Needed raw materials because they did not have much Needed raw materials because they did not have much land. As a result, Japan has a desire to expand and conquer land. As a result, Japan has a desire to expand and conquer other lands.other lands.

1931 -- Occupied 1931 -- Occupied ManchuriaManchuria part of Northeast China that part of Northeast China that was rich in coal and oil.was rich in coal and oil.

Page 26: Seeds of World War II

The Seeds of WWII planted

In 1936, Japan signs a treaty withIn 1936, Japan signs a treaty with

Italy and Germany, forming the Italy and Germany, forming the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis

General Hideki General Hideki TojoTojo – became – became dictator in 1941dictator in 1941

US Response: President FDR gives speech. Declares U.S. isolationism, but cuts off economic activities with Japan, Germany and Italy.

Page 27: Seeds of World War II

Violation of TreatyViolation of TreatyHitler violates the Hitler violates the Treaty of VersaillesTreaty of VersaillesHitler wants to take over the Hitler wants to take over the

SudetenlandSudetenland (in Czechoslovakia) (in Czechoslovakia) because 3 million Germans lived because 3 million Germans lived there.there.Rearmed GermanyRearmed GermanyOccupied the Occupied the RhinelandRhinelandDeclared Austria part of GermanyDeclared Austria part of Germany

Page 28: Seeds of World War II

Appeasement of HitlerAppeasement of Hitler

Munich Conference called (Sept. Munich Conference called (Sept. 1938).1938).

The Munich Conference was a The Munich Conference was a meeting with the leaders of Great meeting with the leaders of Great Britain, France, and Germany (Hitler)Britain, France, and Germany (Hitler)Britain decides to Britain decides to appease appease HitlerHitler

Appeasement-satisfy the demands of a Appeasement-satisfy the demands of a potential enemy in order avoid conflictpotential enemy in order avoid conflict

Germany is given part of Czechoslovakia Germany is given part of Czechoslovakia to avoid war, without discussing with the to avoid war, without discussing with the leaders of Czechoslovakialeaders of Czechoslovakia

Page 29: Seeds of World War II
Page 30: Seeds of World War II

Invasion of CzechoslovakiaInvasion of Czechoslovakia

Hitler makes more demands to Hitler makes more demands to Britain and France believing they Britain and France believing they were weak. were weak.

March 1939 – German troops decide March 1939 – German troops decide to invade and take over all of to invade and take over all of CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia

August 1939 – August 1939 – Nazi-Soviet PactNazi-Soviet Pact signed, Soviet Union & Germany signed, Soviet Union & Germany pledging not to attack each other.pledging not to attack each other.

Page 31: Seeds of World War II

World War II BeginsWorld War II Begins

Hitler invaded Hitler invaded Poland Poland in Sept. 1939. in Sept. 1939. Britain and France had pledged to Britain and France had pledged to

help Poland and declared war on help Poland and declared war on Germany.Germany.

World War II beginsWorld War II begins!!

Page 32: Seeds of World War II

U.S. NeutralityU.S. Neutrality Presdident Roosevelt Presdident Roosevelt argued that due to argued that due to

Neutrality Acts passed by Congress the Neutrality Acts passed by Congress the U.S. couldn’t send war goods to Europe U.S. couldn’t send war goods to Europe (Britain/France).(Britain/France).

Congress passes Congress passes “Cash and Carry”“Cash and Carry” legislation that says that Britain and France legislation that says that Britain and France could pay for U.S. goods in “cash” and could pay for U.S. goods in “cash” and “carry” them across the Atlantic Ocean.“carry” them across the Atlantic Ocean.

Sept. 1941 – Sept. 1941 – 80%80% of Americans opposed of Americans opposed going to war.going to war.

Why?Why?