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  • Security in WirelessAd Hoc and SensorNetworks

    Erdal ayrc

    NATO Joint Warfare Centre, Norway

    Chunming Rong

    University of Stavanger, Norway

    A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, Publication

  • Security in Wireless Ad Hocand Sensor Networks

  • Security in WirelessAd Hoc and SensorNetworks

    Erdal ayrc

    NATO Joint Warfare Centre, Norway

    Chunming Rong

    University of Stavanger, Norway

    A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, Publication

  • This edition first published 2009c 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

    Registered officeJohn Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex,PO19 8SQ, United Kingdom

    For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services and for information about how to applyfor permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website at www.wiley.com.

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    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, ortransmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording orotherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the priorpermission of the publisher.

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    Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. Allbrand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks orregistered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product orvendor mentioned in this book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritativeinformation in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher isnot engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance isrequired, the services of a competent professional should be sought.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    ayrc, E. (Erdal)Security in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks / Erdal ayrc, Chunming Rong.

    p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 978-0-470-02748-6 (cloth)1. Ad hoc networks (Computer networks)Security measures. 2. Ad hoc networks(Computer networks)Security measures. I. Rong, Chunming. II. Title.TK5105.59.C387 2009005.8dc22

    2008041824

    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

    ISBN 978-0-470-02748-6 (H/B)

    Set in 10/12pt Times by Integra Software Services Pvt. Ltd, Pondicherry, IndiaPrinted in Great Britain by CPI Antony Rowe, Chippenham, England

    www.wiley.com

  • To Tlin and ErtugErdal ayrc

    To Zhihua and HelenaChunming Rong

  • Contents

    About the Authors xiii

    Preface xv

    Acknowledgements xvii

    List of Acronyms xix

    Part One Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor and Mesh Networking 1

    1 Introduction 31.1 Information Security 4

    1.1.1 Computer Security 41.1.2 Communications Security 5

    1.2 Scope of the Book 51.3 Structure of the Book 61.4 Electronic Resources for the Book 71.5 Review Questions 7

    2 Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor and Mesh Networks 92.1 Ad Hoc Networks and Applications 10

    2.1.1 Application Examples 102.1.2 Challenges 11

    2.2 Sensor and Actuator Networks 132.2.1 Application Examples 142.2.2 Challenges 15

    2.3 Mesh Networks 172.3.1 Application Examples 182.3.2 Challenges 19

    2.4 Tactical Communications and Networks 192.4.1 Blue Force Tracking System 22

    2.5 Factors Influencing the Design of Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor and MeshNetworks 232.5.1 Wireless Medium 242.5.2 Networking Regime 25

  • viii Contents

    2.5.3 Nature of Traffic 262.5.4 Quality of Service Requirements 262.5.5 Mobility 262.5.6 Fault Tolerance 272.5.7 Operating Environment 272.5.8 Power Efficiency Requirements 272.5.9 Scalability 272.5.10 Hardware Requirements and Production Cost 27

    2.6 Review Questions 28

    3 The Wireless Medium 293.1 Wireless Channel Fundamentals and Security 29

    3.1.1 Capacity 313.1.2 Electromagnetic Spectrum 323.1.3 Path Loss and Attenuation 353.1.4 Other Transmission Impairments and Jamming 363.1.5 Modulation and Demodulation 383.1.6 Manchester Encoding 413.1.7 Multiplexing and Duplexing 42

    3.2 Advanced Radio Technologies 433.2.1 Directional and Smart Antennas 433.2.2 Software Radios 443.2.3 Cognitive Radios 443.2.4 Multiradio/Multichannel Systems 453.2.5 MIMO Systems 45

    3.3 Review Questions 45

    4 Medium Access and Error Control 474.1 Medium Access Control 47

    4.1.1 Generic MAC Protocols 474.1.2 MAC Protocols for Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor and Mesh

    Networks 514.2 Error Control 53

    4.2.1 Error Correction 544.2.2 Error Detection 56

    4.3 Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks 584.3.1 IEEE 802.16 584.3.2 WiMAX 58

    4.4 Wireless Local Area Networks 594.4.1 IEEE 802.11 594.4.2 Wi-Fi 60

    4.5 Wireless Personal Area Networks 604.5.1 IEEE 802.15.1 604.5.2 Bluetooth 614.5.3 IEEE 802.15.4 62

  • Contents ix

    4.5.4 ZigBee 624.5.5 WiMedia 63

    4.6 Review Questions 64

    5 Routing 655.1 Internet Protocol and Mobile IP 65

    5.1.1 IPv4, IPv6 and Security in IP 655.1.2 Distance Vector and Link State Algorithms 685.1.3 Internetworking 705.1.4 Multicasting, Geocasting, Anycasting and

    Broadcasting 715.1.5 Mobile IP 71

    5.2 Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks 725.2.1 Flooding and Gossiping 735.2.2 Ad Hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) 735.2.3 Dynamic Source Routing 74

    5.3 Routing in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks 755.3.1 Directed Diffusion 755.3.2 Sensor Protocols for Information via Negotiation

    (SPIN) 765.3.3 Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy

    (LEACH) 765.3.4 Power-Aware Many-to-Many Routing (PAMR) 77

    5.4 Review Questions 79

    6 Reliability, Flow and Congestion Control 816.1 Reliability 81

    6.1.1 Non-Acknowledgement-Based Schemes 836.1.2 Acknowledgement-Based Schemes 84

    6.2 Flow and Congestion Control 856.3 Review Questions 88

    7 Other Challenges and Security Aspects 897.1 Localization and Positioning 897.2 Time Synchronization 937.3 Addressing 957.4 Data Aggregation and Fusion 967.5 Data Querying 97

    7.5.1 Database Approach 977.5.2 Task Sets 997.5.3 Other Data-Querying Schemes 99

    7.6 Coverage 1007.7 Mobility Management 1017.8 Cross-layer Design 1027.9 Review Questions 103

  • x Contents

    Part Two Security in Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor and Mesh Networking 105

    8 Security Attacks in Ad Hoc, Sensor and Mesh Networks 1078.1 Security Attacks 107

    8.1.1 Passive Attacks 1078.1.2 Active Attacks 109

    8.2 Attackers 1178.3 Security Goals 1198.4 Review Questions 119

    9 Cryptography 1219.1 Symmetric Encryption 1219.2 Asymmetric Encryption 1279.3 Hash Functions and Message Authentication Code 1319.4 Cascading Hashing 136

    9.4.1 Hash Chains 1379.4.2 Hash Trees 1379.4.3 TESLA 138

    9.5 Review Questions 140

    10 Challenges and Solutions: Basic Issues 14310.1 Bootstrapping Security in Ad Hoc Networks 14410.2 Bootstrapping Security in Sensor Networks 14510.3 Key Distribution, Exchange and Management 146

    10.3.1 Standards 14710.3.2 Classification of Key Management Schemes 14710.3.3 Contributory Schemes 14810.3.4 Distributive Schemes 153

    10.4 Authentication Issues 17110.5 Integrity 17110.6 Review Questions 172

    11 Challenges and Solutions: Protection 17311.1 Privacy and Anonymity 17311.2 Intrusion Detection 174

    11.2.1 Architectures for IDS in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks 17511.3 Defense Against Traffic Analysis 17711.4 Access Control and Secure HumanComputer Interaction 17711.5 Software-Based Anti-Tamper Techniques 179

    11.5.1 Encryption Wrappers 18011.5.2 Code Obfuscation 18111.5.3 Software Watermarking and Fingerprinting 18111.5.4 Guarding 182

    11.6 Tamper Resilience: Hardware Protection 18311.7 Availability and Plausibility 18411.8 Review Questions 185

  • Contents xi

    12 Secure Routing 18712.1 Defense Against Security Attacks in Ad Hoc Routing 187

    12.1.1 Techniques Against Wormhole Attacks 18812.1.2 Techniques Against Sybil Attacks 18912.1.3 Techniques Against Selective Forwarding 18912.1.4 Secure Routing in Sensor Networks 19012.1.5 Routing Schemes That Enhance Security 191

    12.2 Secure Ad Hoc Routing Protocols 19212.2.1 Intrusion-Tolerant Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    (INSENS) 19312.2.2 Authenticated Routing for Ad Hoc Networking (ARAN) 19512.2.3 On-Demand Secure Ad Hoc Routing (ARIADNE) 19712.2.4 Watchdog Pathrater 19912.2.5 Secure Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (SAODV) 19912.2.6 Secure Link State Routing Protocol (SLSP) 200

    12.3 Further Reading 20112.4 Review Questions 202

    13 Specific Challenges and Solutions 20313.1 SPINS: Security Protocols for Sensor Networks 203

    13.1.1 SNEP 20413.1.2 TESLA 205

    13.2 Quarantine Region Scheme for Spam Attacks 20513.3 Secure Charging and Rewarding Scheme 209

    13.3.1 Establishing a Session 21013.3.2 Packet Delivery 21113.3.3 Acknowledging Delivery 21213.3.4 Terminating a Session 212

    13.4 Secure Node Localization 21313.4.1 Detection of Malicious Beacon Nodes and Replayed Beacon

    Signals 21313.4.2 Attack-Resistant Location Estimation 215

    13.5 Secure Time Synchronization 21613.6 Secure Event and Event Boundary Detection 217

    13.6.1 Stage 1: Detection of Faulty Nodes 21713.6.2 Stage 2: Detection of Event Boundary Nodes 21913.6.3 Stage 3: Improvement of Event Boundary Node

    Detection 22013.7 Review Questions 220

    14 Information Operations and Electronic Warfare 2

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