secondhand smoke and smoke-free laws
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DESCRIPTIONSECONDHAND SMOKE AND SMOKE-FREE LAWS. 430,000. Cigarettes. 105,095. Alcohol. 2 nd Hand Smoke. 53,000. Car Accidents. 46,300. 30,906. Suicide. 29,939. AIDS. 24,932. Homicides. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Nothing Kills Like Tobacco. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
SECONDHAND SMOKE AND SMOKE-FREE LAWS
Nothing Kills Like Tobacco
Secondhand tobacco smoke contains more than 4,000 chemicals5 regulated hazardous air pollutants47 regulated hazardous wastes60 known or suspected cancer-causing agentsMore than 100 chemical poisons
Toxic Poisons in SecondhandTobacco SmokeMethanolCarbon MonoxideHydrogen CyanideAcetoneTarDDTNaphthaleneVinyl ChlorideBenzene
There is no safe level of exposure to firsthand tobacco smoke or secondhand tobacco smokeFormaldehydeMercuryLeadArsenicTolueneCadmiumAmmoniaButaneEthanol
Health Consequences of Secondhand SmokeHeart disease Lung cancerSudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)Low birth weightAsthmaOtitis Media (ear infections) in childrenBronchitis and pneumonia Breast cancer in pre-menopausal women.Increased risk of cervical cancer. Cognitive deficits among children even at extremely low levels of exposure.
Short-Term Heart Effects of Secondhand Smoke Exposure5 minutes of exposure stiffens the aorta as much as smoking a cigarette.20 minutes of exposure causes excess blood clotting, increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke.30 minutes of exposure increases the build up of fat deposits in blood vessels, increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke.2-hours of exposure increases the chance of irregular heart beat that can be fatal or trigger a heart attack.In April 2004, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a warning that all patients with heart disease should avoid exposure to secondhand smoke.
Effects on Workers HealthLevels of secondhand tobacco smoke in restaurants and bars is 1.6 to 6 times higher than in office workplacesServers have the greatest risk of developing lung cancer and heart disease compared to other occupations
After Lexingtons Smoke-free Law, Hair Nicotine Dropped by 56%
The Average Decrease in Hair Nicotine Was Greater in Bar Workers*adjusted for cigarettes smoked per day
I worked as a cocktail waitress in smoky restaurants and bars for 14 years. I have onset emphysema. My doctor says my constant exposure to tobacco smoke contributed significantly to my emphysema. No one should have to breathe tobacco smoke to hold a job. Suzanne H
Air Pollution Before and After Lexingtons Smoke-free LawIndoor air pollution in restaurants, bars, and other entertainment venues was 3 times the outdoor air pollution standard, but dropped 91% after Lexingtons smoke-free law took effect.
Ventilation StandardsTechnical experts have concluded that source control (smoke-free) is the only feasible way to protect the public from secondhand tobacco smoke No feasible ventilation system can reduce secondhand smoke exposure to safe levelsThe current ASHRAE indoor standard (62-1999) assumes no smokingAmerican Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)
Percent of Workers Covered by Smoke-free Workplace Policies, 1993-1999
Public Health Benefits of Smoke-Free LawsNonsmokers protectedFewer children start to smokeSmokers consume fewer cigarettesMore smokers quit
The Economics of Smoke-free LawsA large number of studies using objective measures show no negative economic impact.Smoke-free measures have been shown to improve business.A few studies using subjective measures show negative economic impact.
Economic Benefits of Smoke-free LawsSmoke-free restaurants and bars are profitableSmoke-free policies contribute to employee productivityFacility maintenance costs are lowerMost people prefer smoke-free policies
Economic Impact of Lexingtons Law on Fayette County Restaurants and Bars3% increase in restaurant employment Bar employment remained stable No change in payroll withholding taxes in restaurants or barsNo change in business openings or closures in alcohol-serving establishments or at non-alcohol serving establishments
Why the Thalheimer Report is FlawedAnalyzed only on-premise wholesale alcohol sales and found a 9.8%-13.3% drop post-lawSignificant effect found in only 2 of the 9 distributors in Fayette County (only examined data from 3 of the 9)No information on types of alcoholic beverages soldReport does not account for change in alcohol price over timeNo audit of data provided by distributors (traditionally close allies of the tobacco industry)Report not peer-reviewed or independently evaluated
Lexingtons Public Support and Knowledge of Health Risks Before and After the LawPublic support for the law increased significantly.
Why the Tobacco Industry Opposes Smoke-free LawsFinancial impact of smoking bans will be tremendous 3 to 5 fewer cigarettes per day per smoker will reduce annual manufacturer profits a billion dollars plus per year. (A Smokers Alliance, Phillip Morris, 8/1/93)Smoking bans are the biggest challenge we have ever faced. Quit rate goes from 5% to 21% when smokers work in non-smoking environments. (Bates # 2054893642/3656; Legacy Tobacco Documents Library; 1994. http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/nyg12a00)
Tobacco Industry Continues to Reject the Scientific Consensus and Suggest Unhealthy Alternatives to Smoke-free LawsIt is our view that, the scientific evidence is not sufficient to establish that environmental tobacco smoke is a cause of lung cancer, heart disease or other chronic diseases. Brown & Williamson Tobacco, 2003
Business owners should have some flexibility in deciding how best to address the preferences of non-smokers and smokers through separation, separate rooms and/or high quality ventilation. Philip Morris, 2002
Kentucky Supreme Court Decision, April 2004Among the police powers of the government, the power to promote and safeguard public health ranks at the top.. The real issue is whether the public health regulation [Lexingtons smoke-free law] is reasonable.. In this case we must conclude that it is.
Not since the polio vaccine has this nation had a better opportunity to make a significant impact in public health.
David Satcher, MD, PhD, Former U.S. Surgeon General
Median hair nicotine levels pre- and post-law