second lecture 23/07/07 ld. neuropsychology neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology...
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Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors.
Neuropsychology ProblemsGenetichormonecellsChromosomal abnormalitiesNervesbonesInherited*Affect-physical,development,fisiology,mental,social and IQhemoglobin,thalasemia ,Anemia
Turner Syndrome (missing x chromosome-occur only in women) show an impairment in remembering faces and in classifying 'fear' in face images Phenylketonuria ( normal growth but at the end enzymes are not produce)Fragile X Syndrome (LD-IQ below 50) Constriction of the X ChromosomeDown syndromeMore than 100 genetic disorders are associated withlower developmental functioning and mental retardation.
Children with Down syndrome Before & After Plastic surgeryChromosomal abnormalities
Prenatal (before birth)-alcohol,smoking mother,stress,aspirin,medication,lack of nutrient, emotional disturbance.Perinatal(during birth)-lack of oxsygen,placenta,premature,vacuum,forceps,tertelan air ketuban&najis,songsangPostnatal (after birth)-jaundist(kematangan hati),meningitis (radang otak),fever,flu (over 1 week)-Child Abuse-Poverty (insufficient medical care,infection,infant very small at birth)
Other Factors-Unstable chemical Food additivesArtificial flavourToxicArsenikPlumbum etc
Motor perceptionWeaknessGross motorFine motorOral motorSightAuditory
The value of medical information for educatorsLearning occurs in the brain- all learning involves the neurological process that occurs within the brainDysfunction in that system can seriously impair the process of learning
Types of Neurological Damage found in Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Disorder Fewer numbers of brain cells in important areas of the brain Smaller size of brain cells Brain cells that moved into the wrong part of the brain (called dysplasia) Lower than normal blood flow to specific areas of the brain Brain cells that metabolize glucose (the brain's primary fuel) at lower than normal levels
Dyslexiais a type of reading disability difficulty with written language, particularly with reading and spelling. Confuse- bd p q bad dad
Dyslexia linked to nerve damage
damage in the optic nerves hearing problems the damage occurs in the brain of the developing foetus and may be caused by the mother's immune system.
Large nerve cells dyslexics suffer from a defect in a set of very large nerve cells known as magno-cells These cells rapidly transmit electrical impulses from the retina in the eye to the brain so that it can recognise rapid changes or movement. abnormalities in the shape and position of the cells. The magno-cell defects could make reading difficult because they make it impossible to process the quick eye movements needed to decipher text.
Large nerve cellsmany dyslexics find it difficult to hold their eyes steady between movements, probably because the magno-cells are failing to send proper signals to the brain. the magno-cells are damaged in the womb by antibodies produced by the mother's immune system which attack the cells and stunt their development. other nervous pathways governing hearing and coordination may also be affected
Test Before Scanningthe use of EEG (electro-encephalogram)to see increased brain activity the brains of dyslexic children show an unusual variation in left- and right-side activity
What causes dyslexia?
Inherited factors (left handed) like an ectopic pregnancy, where the egg fails to reach the womb and is fertilized in the Fallopian tube). Hearing problems at an early age. (This early learning of sounds and words is fundamental to the child's developing ability to handle language and text.) pin Thin Fan VanA combination of both
colds and throat infections
Screening and diagnosis
There's no single test for dyslexia. Vision, hearing and neurological evaluations. These evaluations can help determine whether another disorder may be causing or contributing to your child's poor reading ability. A psychological assessment. This can help determine whether social problems, anxiety or depression may be limiting your child's abilities. An evaluation of educational skills. Your child may take a set of educational tests and have the process and quality of his or her reading skills analyzed by an expert.
There's no known way to correct the underlying brain malfunction that causes dyslexia. Treatment is by remedial education. Psychological testing will help your child's teachers develop a suitable remedial teaching program. Teachers may use techniques involving hearing, vision and touch to improve reading skills. You can help your child learn by reading to him or her often and helping your child pronounce letters and spell out words.
A GiftDyslexic people are visual, multi-dimensional thinkers. We are intuitive and highly creative, and excel at hands-on learning. Because we think in pictures, it is sometimes hard for us to understand letters, numbers, symbols, and written words.We can learn to read, write and study efficiently when we use methods geared to our unique learning style.
also called autistic disorder, childhood autism, infantile autism, Kanner's syndrome or Kanner syndrome Obsessively stacking or lining up objects may indicate autism.
Autism isa brain development disorder that manifests itself before the age of three years developmental disorder of the central nervous system Children with autism are marked by impaired social interaction, impaired communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior.
causes of autism (controversial) are not known Genetic risk determines over 90% but the genetics of autism are complex and not well understood birth defects environmental factors (such as exposure of children to vaccines)
Deletion (1), duplication (2) and inversion(revesal)(3) are all chromosome abnormalities that have been implicated in autism.
Diagnosis Blood tests (to rule out metabolic disorders that affect amino acids and lipids in the blood) Chromosomal analysis (to rule out genetic disorders) Comprehensive hearing test (to rule out deafness as the cause of abnormal language development) Electroencephalogram (EEG; to rule out seizure disorder) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan; to rule out brain disorders)
Asperger syndrome (mild)diagnosis of Asperger's requires there be no clinically significant delay in language development. Rett syndrome childhood disintegrative disorder Pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)Very rare
Asperger disorder (more common in boys) Excellent rote memory-(recall) (usually) Excellent musical ability (often) Inability to use language to communicate Lack of facial expressions and emotion Limited interests and an intense interest in one or two areas Severely impaired social interaction Undeveloped motor skills
Rett disorder (occurs only in girls) Abnormal gait (a person manner of walking) Inability to control hand movements Inability to express feelings Reduced brain size and weight (microcephaly) Reduced muscle tone (hypotonia) Seizures (a suddent attack of illness-stroke,epileptic)
Pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) Abnormal play behavior Desire for sameness in their environment Difficulty using and understanding language Impaired ability to relate to people, objects, and events Repetitive movement and behavior Self-injury Unusual mannerisms
Childhood disintegrative disorder (more common in boys) Bowel (usus) and bladder (pundi kencing) control Language (i.e., ability to communicate and understand others) Motor skills Social skills (e.g., ability to play, develop peer relationships)
Social development1)less attention to social stimuli,2)smile and look at others less often, and3)respond less to their own name 4)less eye contact 5)they do form attachments to their primary caregivers.
delayed repeat others' words (echolalia )have difficulty with imaginative play and with developing symbols into language reverse pronouns
A young boy with autism, and the precise line of toys he made
Repetitive behaviorStereotypy is apparently purposeless movement, such as hand flapping, head rolling, body rocking, or spinning a plate. Sometimes it is called self-stimulation or "stimming", though stereotypy and stimming are somewhat different notions. Compulsive behavior is intended and appears to follow rules, such as arranging objects in a certain way. Sameness is resistance to change, for example, insisting that the furniture not be moved, or refusing to be interrupted. Ritualistic behavior performs daily activities the same way each time, such as an unvarying menu or dressing ritual. Restricted behavior is limited in focus, interest, or activity, such as preoccupation with a single television program. Self-injury includes movements that injure or can injure the person, such as biting oneself. Dominick et al. reported that self-injury at some point affected about 30% of children with ASD.
Early intervention is important. No single treatment is always best serotonin dopamine side effects therapies
Martin Luther wrote of a 12-year-old