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  • Second International Handbookof Educational Leadershipand AdministrationPart Two

    Editors:

    Kenneth LeithwoodOntario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, Canada

    Philip HallingerCollege of Management, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

    Section Editors:

    Philip HallingerCollege of Management, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

    GaB C. FurmanWashington State University, Pullman, Washington, U.SA.

    Kathryn RileyInstitute of Education, University of London, United Kingdom

    lohn MacBeathFaculty of Education, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

    Peter GronnFaculty of Education, Monash University, Melboume, Australia

    Kenneth LeithwoodOntario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, Canada

    and

    Bill MulfordUniversity of Tasmania, Launceston, Australia

    KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERSDORDRECHT / BOSTON I LONDON

  • 9 The Role of School Governance in the Creation of School CommunitvRoben G. Croningerand Betty Malen - 281

    SECTION 3: LEADERS HIP IN DIVERSE CONTEXTS AND CULTURES

    11 Cultural Isomorphs in Theories and Practice of School LeadershipLejf Moos 359

    Table of Contents

    PrefaceKenneth Leithwood and Philip Hallinger

    PART ONE

    SECTION 1: LEADERSHIP AND SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT

    IntroductionPhilipHaflinger - Section Editor

    1 What Do You Call People With Visions? The Ro!e of Vision,Mission, and Goals in School Leadership and ImprovementPhilipHaflinger and Ronald Heck

    2 Leading for Change: Building Capacity for LearningLouise StolI, Raymond Bolam and Pat Collarbone

    ix

    3

    9

    41

    VI Table of Contents

    7 Cross-Cultural Leadership and Communities of Difference:Thinking about Leading in Diverse SchoolsCarolyn M. Shields

    8 The Role of Professional Learning Communities in InternationalEducationfames C. Toole and Karen Seashore Louis

    10 Community as CurriculumRoben 1Starratt

    IntroductionKathryn Riley and fohn MacBeath - Section Editors

    209

    245

    321

    351

    3 Conditions Fostering Educational ChangePeterSleegers,Femke Geijsel and Rudolfvan den Berg

    4 The Changing Context of School Leadership: Implications forParadigm ShiftYin Cheong Cheng

    5 An Alternative Perspective of Educational Leadership for Change:Reflections on Nativeiindigenous Ways of KnowingMaenette K. P.Ah Nee-Benham with L. A. Napier

    6 Moving School Leadership Beyond Its Narrow Boundaries:Developing a Cross-Cultural ApproachAllan Walkerand CliveDimmock

    75

    103

    133

    167

    12 Connecting School Leadership with Teaching, Learning, and Parentingin Diverse Cultural Contexts: Western and Asian PerspectivesClive Dimmock and Aflan Walker 395

    13 Mission Integrity: Contemporary Challenges for CathoIicSchool Leaders: Beyond the Stereotypes of Catholic SchooIingGerald Grace 427

    14 Lessons from Successful Leadership in Small SchooIsGeoff Southworth 451

    15 School Leadership and Self-Assessment: Guiding the Agendafor ChangeWilliam 1Smith 485

    SECTION 2: LEADERSHIP IN THE CREATION OF COMMUNITY

    IntroductionGail C. Furman - Section Editor 205

    v

    16 Boundary-breaking Leadership: A Must for Tomorrow's LearningCommunitiesfan M Robertson and Charles F. Webber 519

  • Tableof Contents

    PART TWO

    SECTION 4: ORGA1'HZATIONAL LEARNING A1'1DLEADERSHIP

    vii viii Table of Contents

    26 School Choice and Educational Leadership: Rethinbng theFuture of Public SchooiingJane Gaskell 915

    IntroductionPeterGronn - Section Editor 557

    27 Teacher Leadership, Reflective Practice, and School ImprovementChris Day and Alrna Hams 957

    17 Leadership and School ResultsHalia SiNns and Bill Mulford 561

    28 Leadership in Contexts of Diversity and AccountabilityJames Ryan 979

    18 Strategie Leadership and CognitionBn"anFidler 613

    29 Leading Schools in a Data-Rich Wor/dLoma Earl and Stephen Katz 1003

    19 Oistributed LeadershipPeterGronn 653 SECTION 6: LEADERS HIP DEVELOPMENT

    20 From Team Work to Teamwork in EducationValen"eHalft 697

    IntroductionBill Mulford - Section Editor 1025

    30 Leader FormationPeter Gronn 1031

    33 The Meaning of Mentoring: Notes on a Context for LearningRichard Ackerman, Laum Tlentimigliaand Melissa Juchniewicz 1133

    34 Leadership Development Models: Learning from Different ContextsHarry Tomlinson 1163

    31 Developing Schoo! Leaders: A Critica! Review of Current Practices,Approaches, and Issues, and Some Directions for the FutureStephen Gerhard Huber and Me! West 1071

    1195

    1103

    List of Authors

    32 Emotions in Educationa! Administration: An UnorthodoxExamination of Teachers' Career DecisionsMichele Schmidt

    775

    815

    821

    735

    IntroductionKenneth Leithwood - Section Editor

    23 Scenarios for Leadership and the Public Good in EducationBn"anJ Caldwell

    22 Organizational Learning, Organizational Problem Solving, andModels of MindVivianej\;l.1. Robinson

    21 Enhancmg Knowledge in Organizations: Developing Capacity andCapabiJity Through Learning and LeadershipTem Seddon and Len Cairns

    SECTION 5: CONTEXTS FOR LEADERSHIP AT THEBEGINNING OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

    24 Leadership Practices far Accountable SchooisKenneth Leithwood, Doris Jantzi and Rosanne Steinbach 849 Name Index 1199

    25 Postmodern Expressions of Educational LeadershipLarry Sackney and Coral Mitchell 881

    Subject Index 1219

  • 31Developing School Leaders: A Critical Reviewof Current Practices, Approaches and Issues,and Same Directions for the Future

    STEPHAN GERHARD HUBERCentre for School Development and Management, University of Bamberg

    MEL WESTSchool of Education, University of Manchester

    THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERS AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT

    The headteacher plays a highly significant role in school management, beingboth locus and pivot at the centre 01 decision-making, Preparing, inductingand developing headteachers is a major responsibility 01 the education sen;ice.(DES, 1990)

    This statement, published by the British Education Ministry, is one of the fewassertions about the quality of schooling that is unlikely to be contradicted byteachers, school leaders themselves, politicians or parents. The pivotal role ofthe school leaderl as a factor in effective schools has been corroborated byfindings of school effectiveness research over the last two decades (see Rutter, etal., 1979;Edmonds, 1979; Brookover, et al., 1979; Mortimore, et al., 1988;Levine& Lezotte, 1990; Teddlie & Stringfield, 1993; Creemers, 1994; Sammons, et al.,1995). In most of the lists of key factors (or correlates) that school effectivenessresearch has compiled, 'leaders hip' plays an important part. Indeed the effective-ness lobby's original message that 'schools matter, schools do make a difference'has continued almost seamlessly into a sub-text that 'school leaders matter,schoolleaders also make a difference', as we have previously noted (Huber, 1997;West, et al., 2000). School improvement researchers have also demonstratedincreasing recognition of the importance of schoolleaders for all stages of theschool improvement process (see van Velzen, et al., 1985; Steg, et al., 1987;Fullan, 1991; Leithwood, 1992; Caldwell & Spinks, 1992; Sergiovanni, 1994;Hopkins, et al., 1996; West & Ainscow, 1997). The schoolleader is most oftencited as the key figure in the individual school's development, either blocking orpromoting change, acting as the intern al change agent, overseeing the processes

    1071

    Second International Handbook of Educational Leadership and Administration, 1071-1 IOIK Leithwood, R Hallinger (eds.) 2002 Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Prin/ed in Creat Britain.

  • 1072 Huber and West

    of grawth and renewal. It is perhaps not surpnsmg, in the face of so muchattention being given to the role of schoolleaders in creating the conditions foran effective school, that there has been a parallel growth in the attention givento how headteachers or principals are prepared for this rote. Tne training ofcurrent and future schoo! leaders has thus become a major focus of professionaldevelopment programmes in many countries.

    Of course, the schoo! leader's role has to be seen in relation to the broadcultural and educational contexts in which the school is operating. Since schoolsare embedded in their communities and in the particular national educationalsystem, aod these in turn are embedded in the particular society, schools andtheir leaders have to cope with, to support or otherwise react to the social,economic and cultural changes and developments taking place. Direct changesin the educational system have a particularly strong and to a large extentcaJcuiable impact on the school leader's role. But schools, and consequently thepressures and expectations on school leaders, also change as a result of moresubt!e and indirect forces in society - social, political and economic changes -that are gathering speed across the world as the pace of international develop-ment increasingly reflects global factars. These new conditions and demandscertainly p!ace new pressures on the leader and, though the new tasks andchallenges can be viewed positively as bringing new opportunities, neverthelessthere is same cancern that what we are trying to da is ta prepare leaders fartomorrow's schools using today's training content and methods. The keychallenges, therefore, confronting those who plan far and design school leadertraining programmes, are first how to anticipate the range of know!edge, skillsand competencies that the next generation will need and then how to find waysto equip them with these.

    Clearly, the ever-expanding literature on schoo! leadership is a major influencehere. Gf course, as we have previously observed (West & Ainscow, 1994), thereis a danger that in approaching the headteacher role through the rhetoric of'leadership' many writers have focused on style at the expense of substance.Schools may be more pleasant places to work if they are 'led' rather than'managed', but often a preoccupation with the notion and !anguage of !eadershiphas been accompanied by a neg!ect of management activities that are central toeffective schoo! leadership. Despite this reservation, there is no doubt thatstudies of schoolleader behaviour have enriched our understanding of the rote,and helped to shape the curriculum for schaol leader development in manycouotries. Accordingly, a brief summary of current thinking seems justified.

    To a large extent, this focus on the relationship between leaders and workgroups aod the ways in which the kader can develop and harness the relationshiphas been reflected in the development of leaders hip theory generaily - it is not a'schaa!' issue as such. Murphy (1991) suggests that thinking about leadershipfaUs in to a number of phases - building towards the current interest in the linksbet\veen kader behaviour and arganisational culture. We believe that thesephases can be broadly classified as fol!ows:

    Developing School Leaders 1073

    Initial interest in the personal qualities and characteristics of 'successfu!'leaders [hat result in personality or trait theories of leadership.

    Increasing focus on what it is that leaders actually da: Are there same behavioursand approaches that are consistently associated with successful leadership?Such inquiries support the development of behavioural thearies of !eadership.

    Growing awareness that task-re!ated and people-centred behaviours may beinterpreted quite differentIy by different groups and in different contexts,prompting explanation of how the particu!ar cootext might best be accountedfor within a general theory, and resulting in a variety of situational approachesto ieadership.

    Most recently, emphasis is put on the links between Jeadership style and theculture of the organisation: a movement away from the notion of leadershipas transactional to the notion of leadership as transfomzational, having thepotential to alter the cultural context in which people work.

    !t is this last phase that has had most influence on the debate about leadershipin education over the past decade - with the (so-caHed) 'transactional' and'transformational' approaches being explored in same detail in a number ofcountries. Inevitably, there seems to be a preoccupation with 'transactional'models in systems where strong central control has been retained, while in thosesystems where decentralisation has been most evident, considerable interest in'transformational' models has emerged. Ir is worth briefly contrasting these two'stereotypes' of the leadership role.

    In the more stable system, where maintenance has a higher priority thandevelopment, and the schoolleader is seen as playing a major role in protectingand promoting the interests of the system, a transactional approach is frequentlyfound. In such an approach, the emphasis will tend to be on the management ofthe school's systems and structures, on creating efficiency and effectiveness, andon achieving prescribed outcomes. Tbe role of the transactionalleader is to focusupon the key purposes of the organisation and to ass ist people to recognise whatneeds to be done in arder to reach the desired outcomes. When the parametersfor success are weIl defined, transactional leaders can be very effective. Tney mal'even be effective in bringing about certain kinds of organisation al change - thosewhere the parameters are very clearly identified, where conformity rather thancreativity is va!ued, and where it is hoped to retain organisational structures andrelationships despite chan ging (say) education content or method. TransactioDalleadership approaches, therefore, seem best suited to static schoo! systems andcommunities.

    It has been widely argued that complex and dynamic chaoges, such as the'cultural' changes that are required for sustained school improvement, are lesslikeiy to occur as a resuit of transactional leadership (Beare, et aI., 1989; Stol! &Fink, 1996). A model of !eadership more congruent with the requirement ofcultural change is that of transformational leadership. Tbis style of leadershipfocuses on the peop!e involved aod their relationships, and requires an approachthat seeks to transform feelings, attitudes and beliefs. Transformationalleaders

  • 1074 Huber and West

    [Jot only manage structure, but they purposefully seek to impact upon the cultureof the school in order to change the complexities that surround school-basedchange and 10 situate themselves atthe heart of school improvemenl. Leithwood's(2000) recent book describes some excellent examples of what this might Jooklike in practice. Consequently, both practically and conceptually, transforma-tional !eadership would appear to be consistent with adesire to bring aboutschoo! improvement, rather than simply 'change' the schoo!. But how are we todevelop school leaders who can transform their schools in this wav: whatassumptions about the required knowledge, skilJs and understandings' ~an bedra\vn on to shape a framework for the training and preparation of schooJ !eaders?

    One of the dearest conceptualisations of such a framework has been estabIishedin the United Kingdom. Here, a national curriculum for aspiring head teachershas been speJJed oul. This curriculum was developed in response to a set ofNationa! Standards for Headteachers, laid down in 1997. The standards:

    set out the knowl...

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