Scientific Literature Search Skills and strategies

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Scientific Literature Search Skills and strategies. Literature: Hundreds of thousands of books and Journals . Research: What has been done before and build on previous work. Classification of Scientific Literature Three major types of sources of information 1. primary (1 o ) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>Scientific Literature Search Skills and strategies </p></li><li><p>Literature: Hundreds of thousands of books and Journals.Research: What has been done before and build on previous work.Classification of Scientific LiteratureThree major types of sources of information</p><p>1. primary (1o)2. secondary (2o)3. Tertiary (3o)</p><p>Some journals may present only a single type but some may carry literature in two or three categories.</p></li><li><p>Primary LiteratureComprises all scientific literature that presents new, novel scientific data or ideas. Reviews, perspectives and analyses that advance new concepts and viewpoints about data generated by others</p><p>Published in scholarly journalsPeer-reviewed journals most respected.</p></li><li><p>An original article in a research journal can be in the form of a:1) Full paperComplete report usually accompanied by a short abstract2) Note A final report on a project of smaller scope, includes experimental details but not abstract3) CommunicationA preliminary report of finding of unusual significanceVery concise In most cases followed by a full journal</p></li><li><p>Examples of journals that publish 1o journals for Anthropology</p><p>GeneralJournal of Human EvolutionCurrent AnthropologyAmerican Journal of Physical AnthropologyEvolutionary Anthropology</p><p>Specific to the project:Journal of Archaeological SciencePaleobiologyAnthropozoologicaAntiquity </p></li><li><p>Examples of journals that publish 1o journals for Biology</p><p>GeneralPLOS BiologyJournal of the History of BiologyCellEcology</p><p>Specific to the projectJournal of Experimental BotanyJournal of Biological ChemistryMolecular Biology and EvolutionPlant Molecular Biology Plant Physiology</p></li><li><p>Examples of journals that publish 1o journals for Chemistry</p><p>GeneralJournal of American Chemical Society (English) Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communication (English)Journal of Organic ChemistryTetrahedron Letters (English, German, French) Journal of Medicinal chemistrySpecific to the projectJournal of Food ChemistryJournal of Agriculture and Food chemistryJournal of Food chemistry and NutritionTrends in Food Science and TechnologyAmerican Journal of Clinical NutritionMolecular Nutrition and Food Research</p></li><li><p>Secondary Literature -Comprises summaries of results and ideas from primary literature written for an audience of scientists with some understanding of the topics.-Good place to begin searching a topicExamples of secondary literature include:1. Journals that only publish review articles a survey of a single limited topicChemical ReviewAnnual review of food science and technologyComprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety2. Review articles and Perspectives in other journals</p></li><li><p>3. SymposiaScientist meet to present scientific information focused upon a particular topicOften published together as a book4. Abstract Journalsexample chemical abstract5. BooksSome written by individual, others compilation of articles by one or more editorsSome could be considered as primary sources if they disclose new ideas on a very specific topic.</p></li><li><p>Useful handbooks that compile data in chemistry:1) Beilstein A multivolume that lists all known organic compounds, their physical properties, methods of preparation and other available information. Not up to date2) the handbook of Chemistry and Physics3)the dictionary of Organic Compounds4) the Merck Index5) the Aldrich Catalog of chemical compounds6) for the chemistry Science 10 projectHarvestPlus Handbook for Carotenoid Analysis http://vizedhtmlcontent.next.ecollege.com/CurrentCourse/harvestplus%20handbook.pdfa Guide to Carotenoid Analysis in Foodshttp://vizedhtmlcontent.next.ecollege.com/CurrentCourse/harvest_plus_-2[1].pdf</p></li><li><p>Well known and widely used scientific journals that cover a wide variety of topics in science</p><p>Nature SciencePNASPLOS One</p></li><li><p>Tertiary LiteratureGenerally written for a nonscientific audience or for scientist in other disciplines.Generally sources of information in theses articles are not cited, or a bibliography of related readings is included.Information found here are usually unreferencedExamples of 3o literature sources :Science magazines such as Scientific American, Current science, Science Today, National GeographicLay magazines as Discover Magazine, Newspapers, News Journals such as Newsweek or Times)Textbooksencyclopedias </p></li><li><p>Gray LiteratureInformation that is not easily classifiedExample some government publications</p><p>***In some cases the scientific literature can be just classified primary and secondary in which all peer-reviewed journal article are primary and the rest of the literature is secondary.</p><p>***What is more important than knowing the exact classification is to know what sources are available and understand the reliability of the articles and use the information accordingly. </p></li><li><p>Types of Sources that are Appropriate for Your research projectYour literature search should include mainly 1o, 2o however some 3o literature sources that are reliable and reputable are acceptableFor developing posters do not include 3o literature .</p></li><li><p>Some Basic Steps to Searching the Scientific Literature1. Do a quick elementary search by using your textbook or other textbooks, encyclopedia, or a quick online search2. Develop a list of Key words to help you further search your topic3. Search the computerized catalog under these key words4. Use various computerized and bound indexes to search key words5. Revise your key words as needed to broaden or narrow the search6. Use the literature cited in these papers to identify other relevant articles and access 2o and 1o sources.</p></li><li><p>Resources Available on Computer</p><p>The internet is a good and fast resource for a bibliographic research to search for references to relevant scientific articles.It can be a powerful tool for gaining information however you must recognize three key limitation :1. comprehensive search are nearly impossible since there is so much information available2. There is no guarantee of the accuracy of the quality of the material obtained unless you are sure of the sourceSome of the documents are still evolving3. The material may be moved or removed at any time.To avoid this, make a back up copy of very pertinent information</p></li><li><p>As a general rule, do not use information taken directly from web pages as sources for your paper unless they are full-length scientific articles delivered via the internet from a source such as the Electronic Journal Center.More and more papers are being delivered in this form.Such articles are usually available in print as well, and you should reference them as if you were looking at the printed product.</p></li><li><p>Databases of scientific literature can be accessed through the internet and search through a variety of channels, including key words, authors and titles.Many databases currently provide abstracts and more and more journal publish full articles online that can be accessed with a subscription or without a subscription.Abstracts are reliable on their own with out the information from the full text.</p></li><li><p>Brief list of selected online Databases of Scientific publication (Research Methods page 171) Research Methods page 171</p><p>SubjectNameCommentsAll of ScienceISI Web of KnowledgeVery broad coverage, makes it possible to follow citation All of scienceGoogle ScholarFreely available at scholar.google. comastronomyINSPECBroad coverage of physical sciencesBiologyPubMedPubMed is freely available to the public at pubmed.orgChemistryChemical abstract Can search by chemical compoundEarth ScienceGeoRefEngineeringEi CompendexSearches technical reports and conference proceedings other services miss.MathematicsMathSciNetOnline access to Mathematical Review, database, can follow citationsMedicinePubMedPubMed is freely available to the public at pumed.orgPhysicsINSPECBroad coverage of physical sciences. Indexing goes back to nineteenth century</p></li><li><p>More online data basesBiosis Preview (on-line version of BioAbstracts)Periodical AbstractsOHIOLINKIndexes on CD-ROMAcademic Search PremierScience Full Text SelectJSTOR</p></li><li><p>More about Key wordsCareful selection of key words is important to an effective searchIf the search is too general, many articles will show and it would be over whelming or if it too specific, no hits will come .It is important to use a more refined key wording to get reduce number of citation to a manageable level.Boolean searches allow you to combine words and phrases using the words AND, OR, ... known as Boolean operators) to limit, widen, or define your search. Web directories default to these Boolean search parameters anyway, but a good Web searcher should know how to use basic Boolean operators. </p></li><li><p>Obtaining Scientific articlesif you are lucky the search engine you are using might provide a link to full text, You might obtain the article:FreeCollege might have access orOr ask the Liberian if it can be obtained from UCLAOr check www.lib.utexas.edu under research tools click find a Journal and type the name of the journal2What if the journal or the article is not available check Google for the journalIf it involves biology or medicine the article is freely available through PubMedArticles written about subjects that are funded by the government (such as by NIH, NSF) are freely availableCheck Google Scholar for the article title and author namesThe last resort go to one of the university libraries and get the article</p></li><li><p>Other Research ToolsAnnual Index of Individual JournalsScientific Citation Index (SCI) Electronic Journal Center (EJC)</p></li><li><p>Bound Indexes Chemical AbstractsBiological AbstractsGeneral Science IndexThere are many other bound indexes</p></li><li><p>To access the Santa Monica College Library databases from the SMC Library website:</p><p>1) Go to http://library.smc.edu 2) Under Find click on the link "Articles in Newspapers, Journals, Magazines - Article and Reference Databases." 3) Click on "All Databases" or Article Databases.4) Read through the list with brief descriptions of the content and scope of the databases. 5) Choose a database. You might start with the database "Academic Search Premier/MasterFILE Premier. This is actually a combination of two databases. It is the largest and most general in nature, and is widest in scope in terms of the range of topics covered. Note: If you are off campus, you will be prompted to login to the database using your SMC Network Account Username and Password. 6) Once you have searched for your topic, for example "carotenoids," you will see a list of periodical articles (from journals, magazines &amp; newspapers). The citations (descriptive listings) that say "Full-Text" are available to read by clicking on the "Full-Text" link. The other citations only provide the bibliographic information and an abstract or brief summary of the article. </p></li><li><p>7) You can refine your search by specifying which search field to search in, for example by changing the "Select a Field (optional)" to "SU Subject Terms," which are controlled vocabulary terms. You can also add additional terms, for example: carotenoids AND research. 8) You can search through the full text of articles by searching in full text or all text, etc., instead of a bibliographic field. For example: carotenoids AND (research OR methodology) in full text. 9) In addition to specifying the words or phrases that describe your topic, you can limit or narrow your search in various other ways. For example, you can limit your search to those articles that are actually available from the database (instead of those articles for which only a bibliographic description with abstracts is available) by selecting the Full-Text limit. Or you can limit your results to scholarly (peer reviewed) journals. These are just two examples. 10) If you want to track down an article that is not available in full text in the result list, open a new window and from the library home page select "Journals, Newspapers, and Magazines by Name." You can paste the title of the periodical into the search box and see if the SMC Library subscribes to that periodical in one of the other databases, or in print format.</p></li><li><p>Some of the information in this PPP was obtained from</p><p>http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/introlab/infores.pdf</p></li></ul>