# Science Stuff

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<p>8086 PINS and SIGNALS</p>
<p>The 8086 pins and signals are shown below. Unless otherwise indicated, all 8086 pins are TTL compatible. The 8086 can operate in two modes. These are minimum mode (uniprocessor system single 8086) and maximum mode (multiprocessor system system more than one 8086). Pin Diagram for the 8086 is given below: REFER DIAGRAM 3:1.1</p>
<p>Pin(s) Symbol Input/ Description Output 1 GND Ground 2-16 AD14- I/O-3 Output address during ADO the first part of the bus cycle and inputs or outputs data during the remaining part of the bus cycle. 17 NMI I Nonmaskable interrupt request level triggered 18 INTR I Maskable interrupt request level triggered 19 CLK I Generates clock signals that synchronize the operation of processor. 20 GND Ground 21 RESET I Terminates activity, clears PSW, IP, DS,SS,ES, and the instruction queue, and</p>
<p>sets CS to FFFF; IP to 0000H; SS to 0000H; DS to 0000H; PSW to 0000H. Processing begins at FFFFO when signal is dropped. Signal must be 1 for at least 4 clock cycles. 22 READY I Acknowledgment from memory or I/O interface that cpu can complete the current bus cucle. Used in conjuction with the WAIT instruction in multiprocessing environments. A WAIT instruction will cause the cpu to idle, except for processing interruptsm, until a 0 is applied to this pin see chp-11 Definition depends on mode Indicates a memory or I/O read is to be performed Cpu is in minimum mode when strapped to +5 v and in maximum mode when grounded If o during first of bus cycle this pin indicates that at least one byte of</p>
<p>23</p>
<p>TEST</p>
<p>I</p>
<p>24-31 32 RD 0-3</p>
<p>33</p>
<p>MN/MX I</p>
<p>34</p>
<p>BHE/s7 0-3</p>
<p>35-38 A19/s6- 0-3 A16/s3</p>
<p>39 40</p>
<p>AD15 Vcc</p>
<p>I/0-3</p>
<p>the current transfer is to be made on pins AD15AD8 if 1 the transfer is made on AD7-AD0. Status s7 is output during the latter part of bus assigned a meaning During the first part of the bus cycle the upper 4 bits of the address are output and during the remainder of the bus cycle status is output. S3 and S4 indicates the segment register being used as follows; S4 s3 Register 0 0 ES 0 1 SS 1 0 CS or more 1 1 DS s5 gives the current setting of IF. S6 is always 0. Same as AD14-AD0 Supply voltage - +5 v 10%</p>
<p>1. MN/MX is an input pin used to select one of these modes. When MN/MX is HIGH, the 8086 operates in the minimum mode. When MN/MX is LOW, 8086 is configured to support</p>
<p>multiprocessor systems. In this case, the Intel 8288 bus controller is added to the 8086 to provide bus controls. 2. Pins 2 through 16 and 39 (AD15 - AD0) are a 16-bit multiplexed address/data bus. During the first clock cycle AD0-AD15 are the low order 16 bits of address. The 8086 have a total of 20 address lines. The upper four lines (35 38)are multiplexed with the status signals for the 8086. These are the A16/S3, A17/S4, A18/S5, and A19/S6. During the first clock period of a bus cycle, the entire 20-bit address is available on these lines. During all other clock cycles for memory and I/O operations, AD15-AD0 contains the 16-bit data, and S3, S4, S5, and S6 become status lines. S3 and S4 lines are decoded as follows: A17/S4 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 A16/S3 Function Extra segment Stack segment Code or no segment Data Segment</p>
<p>Status bits S3 and S4 indicate the segment register that is being used to generate the address the address and bit S5 reflects the contents of the IF flag. S6 is always held at 0 and indicates that an 8086 is controlling the system bus. 3. Pins 1 and 20 are grounded. Pin 17 is NMI. This is the Non Maskable Interrupt input activated by a leading edge. Pin 18 is INTR. INTR is the maskable interrupt input. Pin 19 is CLK is for supplying the clock signal that synchronizes the activity within the CPU.</p>
<p>4. Pin 21 (RESET) is the system reset input signal. When the 8086 detects the positive going edge of a pulse on RESET, it stops all activities until the signal goes LOW. When the reset is low, the 8086 initializes as follows:</p>
<p>8086 Component Content Falgs IP CS DS SS ES Queue Clear 0000H FFFFH 0000H 0000H 0000H Empty</p>
<p>5. Pin 22 (READY) is for inputting an acknowledge from a memory or I/O interface that input data will be put on the data bus or output data will be accepted from the data bus within the next clock cycle. In either case, the CPU and its bus control logic can complete the current bus cycle after the next clock cycle. 6. Pin 23 TEST is an input pin and is only used by the WAIT instruction. The 8086 enter a wait state after execution of the WAIT instruction until a LOW is seen on the TEST pin. 7. Pins 24 to 31 are mode dependent and are considered later.</p>
<p>8. Pin 32 (RD) is LOW whenever the 8086 is reading data from memory or an I/O location. 9. Pin 34 (BHE/S7) is used as BHE (BUS High Enable) during the first clock cycle of an instruction execution. BHE can be used in conjunction with AD0 to select memory banks. During all other clock cycles BHE/S7 is used as S7. Operation BHE AD0 Data pins used Write/Read a word at an even Address 0 0 AD15 AD0 Write/Read a byte at an even Address 1 0 AD7 AD0 Write/Read a byte at an odd Address 0 1 AD15 AD8 Write/Read a word at an odd Address 0 1 AD15 AD8 1 0 AD7 - AD0 10. Pin 40 (VCC) receives the supply voltage, which must be +5 V.</p>
<p>TIME, SPEED and DISTANCE - Worksheet 1. A person crosses a 600 m long street in 5 minutes. What is his speed in km per hour? (a).3.6 (b).7.2 (c).8.4 (d).10</p>
<p>2. An aeroplane covers a certain distance at a speed of 240 kmph in 5 hours. To cover the same distance in 1 hours, it must travel at a speed of: (a).300 kmph (b).360 kmph (c).600 kmph (d).720 kmph 3. A train can travel 50% faster than a car. Both start from point A at the same time and reach point B 75 kms away from A at the same time. On the way, however, the train lost about 12.5 minutes while stopping at the stations. The speed of the car is: (a).100 kmph (b).110 kmph (c).120 kmph (d).130 kmph 4. A swimmer swims from a point A against a current for 5min and then in favour of the current for next 5 min and comes to the point B. if AB=100mts find the speed of the current? (a)0.5 km/hr (b)0.6km/hr (c)0.7km/hr (d)0.8 km/hr 5. If the current flows at 2 mph and it takes me 3 hrs. to row 9 miles upstream, how long will it take to return? (a) 1 2/7 hrs (b) 2 5/7 hrs (c)2 2/3 hrs (d)1 5/7 hrs 6. A train 110 metres long travels at 60 km/hr. In what time will it pass a man walking at 6 km/hr? (i). against it (ii). in the same direction (a) 6 secs and 7 secs (b) 6 secs and 7 1/3 secs</p>
<p>(c) 6 1/3 secs and 7 secs (d) 6 secs and 7.1 secs 7. The ratio between the speeds of two trains is 7: 8. If the second train runs 400 kms in 4 hours, then the speed of the first train is: (a).70 km/hr (b).75 km/hr (c).84 km/hr (d).87.5 km/hr 8. A farmer travelled a distance of 61 km in 9 hours. He travelled partly on foot @ 4 km/hr and partly on bicycle @ 9 km/hr. The distance travelled on foot is: (a).14 km (b).15 km (c).16 km (d).17 km 9. Excluding stoppages, the speed of a bus is 54 kmph and including stoppages, it is 45 kmph. For how many minutes does the bus stop per hour? (a).9mins (b).10mins (c).12mins (d).20mins 10. Robert is travelling on his cycle and has calculated to reach point A at 2 P.M. if he travels at 10 kmph, he will reach there at 12 noon if he travels at 15 kmph. At what speed must he travel to reach A at 1 P.M.? (a).8 kmph (b).11 kmph (c).12 kmph (d).14 kmph 11. It takes eight hours for a 600 km journey, if 120 km is done by train and the rest by car. It takes 20 minutes more, if 200 km is done by train and the rest by car. The ratio of the speed of the train to that of the cars is: (a).2 : 3 (b).3 : 2 (c).3 : 4 (d).4 : 3</p>
<p>12. There are two towns A and B. Anil goes from A to B at 40 kmph and comes back to the starting point at 60 kmph. What is his average speed during the whole journey? (a). 84 kmph (b). 4.8 kmph (c). 48 kmph (d). 8.4 kmph</p>
<p>13. A man is standing on a railway bridge which is 180 meter long; he finds that a train crosses a bridge in 20 secs, but himself in 8 secs. Find the length of the train and its speed? (a). 120m and 54 kmph (b). 120 kmph and 54m (c). 120m and 48 kmph (d). 1.20m and 5.4 kmph 14. Two trains 137 meters and 163 meters in length are running towards each other on parallel lines, one at the rate of 42 kmph and another at 48 kmph. In what time will they be clear of each other from the moment they meet? (a). 12 mins (b). 1.2 mins (c). 12 secs (d). 24 hrs 15. A train 100 meters long takes 6 secs to cross a man walking at 5 kmph in a direction opposite to that of the train. Find the speed of the train? (a). 5 kmph (b). 5.5 kmph (c). 60 kmph (d). 55 kmph 16. A train running at 54 kmph takes 20 secs to pass a platform, next it takes 12 secs to pass a man walking at 6 kmph in the same</p>
<p>direction in which the trains is going. Find the length of the train and the length of the platform? (a). 160m and 100m (b). 160m and 140m (c). 130m and 140m (d). 160m and 130m 17. If a boy walks from house to school at the rate of 4 kmph, he reaches the school 10 mins earlier than the scheduled time. However if he walks at the rate of 3 kmph, he reaches 10 mins late. The distance of the school from his house is (a). 6 km (b). 4.5 km (c). 4 km (d). 3 km 18. A man drives 150 km from A to B in 3 hrs 20 mins and return to A in 4 hrs 10 mins. Then the average speed from A to B exceeds the average speed for the entire trip by (a). 5 kmph (b). 4.5 kmph (c). 4 kmph (d). 2.5 kmph 19. The ratio between the speeds of A and B is 4:3 and therefore A takes 10 mins more than the time taken by B to reach a destination. If A had walked at double the speed he would have covered the distance in? (a). 30 mins (b). 25 mins (c). 20 mins (d). 15 mins 20. A car travelling with of its actual speed covers 42 km in 1 hr 40 min 48 sec. Find the actual speed of the car. (a). 17 6/7 km/hr (b). 25 km/hr (c). 30 km/hr (d). 35 km/hr</p>
<p>SET THEORY and CUBES - WORKSHEET SET THEORY 1). Which of the following is/are true? 1. A set of all natural numbers is a well defined set. 2. A null set contains an element 0 3. S1 = ( a, b, c ) and S2 = ( a, b, c), S2 is a subset of S1. 4. S1 = (a, b, c, d, e) and S2 = (a, b, c, m). S2 is an improper subset of S1. A. 1 only only B. 1and 3 only C. 2 and 4 only D. 1, 2 and 4</p>
<p>2). Which of the following is not an empty set? 1) A = ( x/x I, x2 is not positive ) 2) B = ( x/x N, 2x + 1 is even ) 2 3) C = ( x/x N, x is odd and x is even ) 4) D = ( x/x R, x2 + 1 = 0 ) 3). If A = ( x: x = 2n 2, n 3, n N ); B = (4n-1: n 5, n N ), find A B. A. (0, 2, 4) B. C. (3, 7) D. (2, 3)</p>
<p>4). DIRECTIONS for questions 1 and 2: choose the correct alternative. 1. Set A, B and C are such that A = ( x2 5x + 6 = 0); B = ( y2 8y + 15 = 0 ) and C = ( z2 7x + 10 = 0 ). Find ( A B C ) ( A U B U C ). A. ( ) B. (2, 5) C. ( 2,3,5) D. (2,5)</p>
<p>2. If A = (6x2 + x 15 = 0 ), B = ( 2x2 5X +3 = 0), and C = (2x2 + x -3 = 0 ); find A B C. A. ( 1 ) these B. (3/2) C. ( 3/2, -5/3, 1) D. None of</p>
<p>5). In a class of 100, 64% of the students have taken politics and 56% of the students have taken history, how many students have taken both subjects if all the students take atleast one of these subjects? A. 18 B. 20 C. 0 D. 25 6). After recent examination every candidate took French or Latin. 75.8% took French and 49.4% took latin. If the total number of candidates was 2500, how many took both French and latin? A. 460 B. 560 C. 1999 D. 640</p>
<p>B</p>
<p>A</p>
<p>7). Describe the shaded region? 8). In a class of 120 students numbered 1 to 120, all even numbered students opt for Physics, whose numbers are divisible by 5 opt for Chemistry and those whose numbers are divisible by 7 opt for Math. How many opt for none of the three subjects? A. 19 B. 41 C. 21 D. 57 E. 26 9). Of the 200 candidates who were interviewed for a position at a call center, 100 had a two-wheeler, 70 had a credit card and 140 had a mobile phone. 40 of them had both, a two-wheeler and a credit card, 30 had both, a credit card and a mobile phone and 60 had both, a two wheeler and mobile phone and 10 had all three. How many candidates had none of the three? A. 0 B. 20 C. 10 D. 18 E. 25 10). In a class of 40 students, 12 enrolled for both English and German. 22 enrolled for German. If the students of the class enrolled for at least one of the two subjects, then how many students enrolled for only English and not German? A. 30 B. 10 C. 18 D. 28 E. 32 11). In a class 40% of the students enrolled for Math and 70% enrolled for Economics. If 15% of the students enrolled for both Math and Economics, what % of the students of the class did not enroll for either of the two subjects?</p>
<p>A. 5%</p>
<p>B. 15%</p>
<p>C. 0%</p>
<p>D. 25%</p>
<p>E. None of these</p>
<p>12).There are three different cable channels namely Ahead, Luck and Bang. In a survey it was found that 850 viewers respond to Bang, 200 to Luck, and 300 to Ahead. 200 viewers respond to exactly two channels and 50 to none. What percentage of the viewers responded to all three? A. 10 B. 12 C. 14 D. None of these 13). Assuming 20% respond to Ahead and Bang, and 16% respond to Bang and Luck, what is the percentage of viewers who watch only Luck? A. 20 B. 10 C. 16 D. None of these 14). In a survey about the popularity of magazines A, B and C among 200 pupils, 78 pupils like A, 72 like B, 90 like C, 28 like A and B only, 22 like B and C only, 10 like A and C only. Find the maximum number of pupils who do not like any of the magazines? A. 20 B. 24 C. 16 D. None of these</p>
<p>CUBES Directions to Solve The following questions are based on the information given below: 1. A cuboid shaped wooden block has 6 cm length, 4 cm breadth and 1 cm height. 2. Two faces measuring 4 cm x 1 cm are coloured in black. 3. Two faces measuring 6 cm x 1 cm are coloured in red. 4. Two faces measuring 6 cm x 4 cm are coloured in green.</p>
<p>5. The block is divided into 6 equal cubes of side 1 cm (from 6 cm side), 4 equal cubes of side 1 cm(from 4 cm side). 1. How many cubes having red, green and black colours on at least one side of the cube will be formed? A.16 B.12 C.10 D.4 2. How many small cubes will be formed? A.6 B.12 C.16 D.24 3. How many cubes will have 4 coloured sides and two noncoloured sides ? A.8 B.4 C.16 D.10 4. How many cubes will have green colour on two sides and rest of the four sides having no colour? A.12 B.10 C.8 D.4 5. How many cubes will remain if the cubes having black and green coloured are removed? A.4 B.8 C.12 D.16 Directions to Solve The following questions are based on the information given below: 1. All the faces of cubes are painted with red colour. 2. The cubes is cut into 64 equal small cubes. 1. How many small cubes have only one face coloured? A.4 B.8 C.16 D.24</p>
<p>2. How many small cubes have no faces coloured ? A.24 B.8 C.16 D.0 3. How many small cubes are there whose three faces are coloured ? A.4 B.8 C.16 D.24 4. How many small cubes are there whose two adjacent faces are coloured red ? A.0 B.8 C.16 D.24 Directions to Solve All the six faces of a cube of a cube are...</p>

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