Science and Sanity 5th edition

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<p>Fifth EditionWithPreface by Robert P. PulaSCIENCEANDSANITYAN INTRODUCTION TONON-ARISTOTELIAN SYSTEMS ANDGENERAL SEMANTICSBYALFRED KORZYBSKIAUTHOR, Manhood of HumanityFOUNDER. INSTITUTE OF GENERAL SEMANTICS- - - ~ - : - : : = = = INSTITUTE OF GENERAL SEMANTICS..The progress of modem science, including the flew science of man as a lime-binder,has been due uniquely to the freedomof scientists to revise their fundamemalassumptions, terminologies, undefined terms, which involve hidden assumptions, etc.,underlyingourreflections, afreedomprohibitedin 'primitivesciences' andalsoindictatorships, past and present."From Manhood ofHumanity"The aim of the work of Aristotle and the work of the non-aristolelians is similar, exceptfor the date of ourhumandevelopment andtheadvance of science. Theproblemiswhether we shall deal with science and scientific methods of 350 B.C. or of [today]. Ingeneral semantics. inbuildingupa non-aristotelian system,theaims of Aristotle arepreserved yet scientific methods are brought up to date."From the author's Introduction to the 2nd Edition"General semamics is not any'philosophy', or 'psychology', or 'logic', in the ordinarysense. It is a new extensional disciplinewhich explains and trains ushowtouse ournervous systems most efficiently. It is not a medical science, but like bacteriology, it isindispensable for medicine in general and for psychiatry, mental hygiene, and educationin particular. In brief, il is the formulation of a newnon-aristotelian systemoforientation which affects every branch of science and life. The separate issues involvedare not entirely new; their methodological formulation as a system which is workable,teachable and so elementary that it can be applied by children,is entirely new."From the author's Introduction to lhe 2nd EditionInformation on the Institute and ils programs and publications available from:Institute of General Semamics86 85th StreetBrooklyn, New York 112094208USAPhone: 7189217093Fax: 718-921-4276Email: Institute@General-Semamics.orgWeb: www.General-Semaotics.orgLeadin A Revolution in HumanEvaluatin ISBN0-93729B-01-8"1 must stressthat I givenopanaceas, butexperienceshowsthat whenthemethods of general semanticsareapplied, theresults are usuallybeneficial, whether inbusiness, management, etc., medicine, law, education onall levels, or personal inter-relationships, be they infamily, national orinternational fields. If theyarenotapplied, but merely talked about, no results can beexpected."In general semantics we are concerned with the sanity oftherace, includingparticularlymethods of prevention;eliminating from home, elementary, and higher educationinadequatearistOlelian types ofevaluation which toooften lead to the un-sallity of the race, and building up forthefirsttime a positive theoryof sanity, asa workablenon-aristotelian system.''Thetask ahead is gigantic if weare to avoid morepersonal, national, and even international tragedies basedon unpredictability, insecurity, fears, anxieties, etc.,whicharesteadily disorganizingthe functioningof thehuman nervous system. Onlywhenwe facethese factsfearlessly and intelligently may we save for futurecivilizations whatever there is left to save, and build fromthe ruins of a dying epoch a new and saner society."Anon-aristotelian re-orientation is inevitable; the onlyproblem today is when, and at what cost."Fromtheauthor's Preface tothe ThirdEdition andIntroduction10 the Second Edition..... Korzybski was not only a bold innovator, but also abrilliant synthesizer ofavailable data intoacoherentsystem. This system, when internalized and applied, cancreate a saner and more peaceful world,justifying the titleof this book, Science and Sal/ity."From the Preface to the Fifth Edition by Robert P. PulaSCIENCEANDSANITYKORZYBSKI5THEDITION__A.__IIISTI11lTE or GJ:lIERAL SBlWTICSTHE INSTlTUTEOFGENERAlSEMANTICS was foundedin 1938 in Chicago and is now located in Brooklyn, New York.The seminar training program continues to be carried on, andan increasing number of universities, colleges, secondary andelementaryschools offer courses in general semantics, orintegrate the methodologyin the teaching of other courses.ALFRED KORZYBSKIbelonged to an old Polishfamily which had producedmathematicians, engineers,scientists, etc. forgenerations. Born in Warsawin1879, he was trainedas anengineer, and during the FirstWorldWar was attachedtothe General Staff IntelligenceDepartment of the SecondRussian Army. Later heserved in various militarycapacities in this country andCanada. Afterthepublication of Manhood of Humanityin1921, heremained inthe UnitedStalesanddevelopedthemethodology bywhich his new theory of timebinding couldbe applied. These studies culminated in Science and Sanity in1933. HewastheFounder andDirector of theInstitute ofGeneral Semantics, established in 1938 as the center fortraininginhiswork,and continuedto lecture andwrite untilhis deathin1950.ALSO BY THE AUTHORManhood of Humanity, 1921; 2ndEd.Institute ofGeneral Semantics, 1950.Time-Binding:The General Theory. Two Papers, 1924-1926."The Role of Language in the Perceptual Processes." TopicIX, Clinical Psychology Symposium 1949-1950 inPerception: An Approach to Personality. RonaldPress, New York, 1951.Alfred Konybski:Collected Writing.s. 1920-1950, Coil. &amp;Arr. by M. Kendig. I" Ed.Institute of GeneralSemantics, 1990.INTERNATIONAL NON-ARISTOTELIAN LIBRARYINSTITUTE OF GENERAL SEMANTICSSCIENCE AND SANITYInternational Non-Aristotelian LibraryFounder: Alfred Korzybski Executive Editor: Charlotte S. ReadVOLUMES ALREADY PUBLISHEDPublished or Distributed by the Institute of General SemanticsMANHOOD OF HUMANITY: THE SCIENCE AND ART OF HUMAN ENGINEERING.E. P. DUTTON, NEW YORK, 1921; 2NDED.INSTITUTE OF GENERAL SEMANTICS (IGS), DISTRIBUTORS, 1950 by A. KORZYBSKITIME-BINDING: THE GENERAL THEORY, 1924-1926 by A. KORZYBSKISCIENCE AND SANITY. . ,.. by A. KORZYBSKISELECTIONS FROM SCIENCE AND SANITY,1948, by A. KORZYBSKI ... . .. COMPILED by G. E. JANSSENGENERAL SEMANTICS SEMINAR 1937: TRANSCRIPTION OF NOTES FROM LECTURESIN GENERAL SEMANTICS GIVENAT OLIVET COLLEGE. .. .... ... .... . . .... .. by A. KORZYBSKIPAPERS FROM THE FiRST AMERICAN CONGRESS ON GENERAL SEMANTICS, 1938..... ED. by H. BAUGHPAPERS FROM THE SECOND AMERICAN CONGRESS ON GENERAL SEMANTICS:NON-ARISTOTELIANMETHODOLOGY (ApPLIED) FOR SANITY IN OUR TIME, 1943 ED. by M.KENDIGINTRODUCTORY LECTURES ON GENERAL SEMANTICS, 1944 by FRANCIS P. CHISHOLMLEVELS OF KNOWING AND EXISTENCE: STUDIES IN GENERAL SEMANTICS. HARPER,NEW YORK, 1959; 2NDED., IGS,1973 , by HARRY L. WEINBERGWORDS AND WHAT THEY Do TO YOU: BEGINNING LESSONS IN GENERALSEMANTICS FOR JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL. ROW. PETERSON.EVANSTON, 1953; 2NDED., IGS. 1965 by CATHERINE MINTEERGENERAL SEMANTICS MONOGRAPHS III, A THEORY OF MEANING ANALYZED, 1942FOREWORD ....., . .. . . . . .. . . . .... . . . ... .... .... . . . .. by A. KORZYBSKI AND M. KENDIGTHREE SEPARATEPAPERS, .... by T. C. POLLOCK, J. G. SPAULDING AND ALLEN WALKER READGENERAL SEMANTICS MONOGRAPHS IV, SCIENTIFIC EPISTEMOLOGIC BACKGROUNDS OF GENERALSEMANTICS,1959 by MARJORIE SWANSONALFRED KORZYBSKI:COLLECTED WRITINGS, 1920-1950. 1990 COLL. AND ARR. by M.KENDIGGRADUATE RESEARCHIN GENERAL SEMANTICS, 1992 , COMP.byKENNETHJOHNSONTHINKING CREATICALLY, 1991 ED. by KENNETH JOHNSONGENERAL SEMANTICS BULLETIN:JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF GENERAL SEMANTICS ED. by JAMES D. FRENCHBy Other PublishersLANGUAGE HABITS IN HUMAN AFFAIRS: AN INTRODUCTION TO GENERAL SEMANTICS. HARPERNEW YORK, 1941; 2NDED. by SANFORD BERMAN, ED., 1994, INTERNATIONAL SOCIETYFOR GENERAL SEMANTICS (!SGS) , . .... ... .... .... . .. .. BY IRVING J. LEEPEOPLE IN QUANDARIES: THE SEMANTICS OF PERSONAL ADJUSTMENT.HARPER, NEW YORK, 1946; 7'" PRINTING, ISGS, 1996 WENDELL JOHNSONHow TO DEVELOP YOUR THINKING ABILITY.McGRAW HILL, NEW YORK,1950 KENNETH S. KEYES, JR.THE ART OF AWARENESS. WM. C. BROWN, DUBUQUE, 1966; 3RDED. 1978 ............ byJ.S. BOISTEACHING GENERAL SEMANTICS. ISGS,1969.. , ED. by MARY MORAINMAKING SENSE: EXPLORING SEMANTICS AND CRITICALTHINKING. GLOBE, NEW YORK, 1974 by ROBERT POTTERCLASSROOM EXERCISES IN GENERAL SEMANTICS. ISGS, 1980 ED. by MARY MORAINDRIVE YOURSELF SANE: USING THE UNCOMMON SENSE OF GENERAL SEMANTICS, 2NDED.,EXTENSIONAL PUBLISHING, PASADENA, 2001. by SUSAN PRESBY KODISH ANDBRUCE 1. KODISHVOLUMES IN PREPARATIONGENERAL SEMANTICSIN PSYCHOTHERAPY ED. BY ISABEL CARO AND CHARLOTTE S. READKNOWLEDGE, UNCERTAINTY AND COURAGE: SELECTED GENERAL SEMANTICS WRITINGS OF ROBERT P.PULA , ....................... ,....................... by ROBERT P. PULATHE NON-IDENTIFYING PERSON: PERSONAL SELF-RESTRUCTURING FOR THE EXTRA-PLANETARY ERA................................................................... by ROBERT P. PULATIME-BINDING: AREVOLUTIONARY ApPROACH TO HUMAN EVALUATING by JEFFREY A. MORDKOWITZSCIENCE AND SANITYAN INTRODUCTION TONON-ARISTOTELIAN SYSTEMS ANDGENERAL SEMANTICSBYALFRED KORZYBSKIAUTHOR, MANHOOD OF HUMANITYFOUNDER, INSTITUTE OF GENERAL SEMANTICSFIFTH EDITIONWith Preface by ROBERT P. PULAand revised and expanded index____.A.. _INSTITUTE OF GENERAL SEMANTICSInternational Non-Aristotelian LibraryINSTITUTE OF GENERAL SEMANTICSBrooklyn, New York, USACopyright.1933, 1941, 1948 by Alfred KorzybskiCopyright,1958 by Charlotte Schuchardt ReadDiagrams on Pages: 388,391,393,396,398,414,427,471 Copyright 1924,1926,1933,1941,1948 by Alfred KorzybskiCopyright, 1958 by Charlotte Schuchardt ReadPreface to Fifth Edition and Index to Fifth Edition Copyright Institute of General Semantics, 1994All International Rights ReservedFirst Edition 1933Second Edition 1941Third Edition1948Fourth Edition 1958Fifth Edition1994Second Printing 2000ISBN 0-937298-01-8Information on the Institute of General Semantics and itsprograms and publications available from:Institute of General Semantics86 85th StreetBrooklyn, New York 11209-4208USAPhone: 718-921-7093Fax: 718-921-4276Email: Institute@General-Semantics.orgWeb: www.General-Semantics.orgLeading A Revolution in Human EvaluatingLibrary of Congress Catalog Card Number 58-6260TOTHEWORKSOF:ARISTOTLE CASSIUSJ. KEYSERERIc T. BELL G. W. LEIBNITZEUGENBLEULER J. LoCKENIELS BOHR JACQUES LoEBGEORGE BOOLE H. A.LoRENTZMAX BORN ERNSTMACHLoUIS DE BROGUE J.C. MAxWELLGEORGCANTOR ADoLF MEYERERNST CASSIRER HERMANNMINKOWSJaCHARLES M. CHILD isAACNEWTONC.DARWIN IVANPAVLOVRENEDESCARTES GIUSEPPEPEANOP. A.M. DIRAC MAXPLANCKA. S. EDDINGTON PLATOALBERT EINSTEIN H. POINCAREEUCLID G. Y.RAINICHM. FARADAY G. F. B.RIEMANNSIGMUNDFREUD JOSIAHROYCEKARL F.GAUSS BERTRAND RUSSELLTHOMASGRAHAM ERNESTRUTHERFORDARTHUR HAAS E. SCHRODINGERWM. R.HAMILTON C. S. SHERRINGTONHENRY HEAD SoCRATESWERNERHEISENBERG ARNOLD SOMMERFELDC. JUDSON HERRICK OSWALD VEBLENE. V. HUNTINGTON WM. ALANSON WHITESMITH ELY JELUFFE ALFREDN. WHITEHEADLUDWIGWITTGENSTEINWHICHHAVECREATLYINFLUENCEDMYENQUIRY,THISSYSTEM ISDEDICATED" A. Tmy alighting, Iwassurrounded with acrowd of people;but those.t\. who stood nearest seemed to be of betterquality. They beheldmewithall themarksandcircumstancesof wonder, neither, indeed,was Imuch in their debt;having never, till then, seen arace of mortalssosingular intheir shapes, habits, andcountenances. Their heads wereallreclined either to the right or the left; one of their eyes turned inward, andthe other directly up to the zenith. Their outward garmentswere adornedwith the figures of suns, moons, and stars, interwoven with those of fiddles,flutes, harps, trumpets, guitars, harpsicords, andmanyother instrumentsofmusic, unknown tousinEurope. I observed, hereandthere, manyinthe habit of servants. with ablown bladderfastenedlikeaflail totheendof a short stick. which they carried in their hands. In each bladder was asmall quantityof driedpease, or littlepebbles (as I was afterwards in-formed). With these bladdersthey now and then flappedthemouthsandears of those who stood near them, of which practiceI could not then con-ceive the meaning; it seems, the minds of these people are so taken up withintense speculations, that theyneither canspeak, nor attendto the dis-coursesof others. without beingrousedbysomeexternal tactionupon theorgans of speechandhearing; for whichreason, thosepersons, whoareabletoaffordit always keep aflapper (the original isclimenole) in theirfamily, as oneof their domestics, nor ever walkabroad., or makevisits,without him. Andthebusinessof thisofficeris, whentwoor threemorepersons are in company. gently to strike with his bladder the mouth of himwhoistospeak, andtheright ear ofhimorthemtowhomthespeakeraddresseth himself. Thisflapperislikewiseemployed diligentlytoattendhismasterin his walks, and, upon occasion, to give him asoft flapon hiseyes, because he is alwaysso wrappedupincogitation thatheisin mani-festdanger of fallingdownevery precipice,andbouncing hishead againsteverypost; andin thestreets, ofjostling others, orbeingjostled himself,into the kennel.It was necessary to give the reader this information, without which hewould be atthesame losswith me, tounderstand theproceedingsof thesepeople. as they conducted me up the stairs to the top of the island, and fromthenceto theroyalpalace. Whilewewereascending, theyforgot severaltimes what they were about, and left me to myself, till their memories wereagainrousedbytheir flappers; for theyappearedaltogether unmovedbythesight ofmyforeignhabit andcountenance, andbytheshouts of thevulgar. whose thoughtsand mindsweremoredisengaged. Andalthough theyaredextrousenoughuponapiece of paperinthe management of the rule, the pencil, and the divider, yet, in the commonactions andbehaviour of life, I have not seena moreclumsy, awkward,andunhandypeople, nor soslowandperplexedintheirconceptionsuponall othersubjects,except those of mathematicsandmusic. Theyareverybad reasoners, and vehemently given to opposition, unless when they happento be of the right opinion, whichisseldom theircase. Imagination,fancy,andinventiontheyarewhollystrangersto, nor haveanywords intheirlanguage by which those ideas can be expressed; the whole compass of theirthoughts and mind being shut up within the two forementionedsciences."JONATHANSWIFT(Gulliver'sTravels, AVoyagetoLaputa)CONTENTSPAGEANOTEONERRATA xiiPREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION1993 by ROBERT P. PULA xiiiPREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION1958 by RUSSELL MEYERS, M.D. xxiiiBIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE, 1958 xxixPREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION1948 xxxiINTRODUCTION TO THE SECOND EDITION1941SECTIONA. Recent Developments and the Founding of the Institute of GeneralSemantics xxxviiB. Some Difficulties to be Surmounted xxxix1. ATIITUDES OF 'PHILOSOPHERS'. ETC. .................. xxxix2. PERPLEXITIES IN THEORIES OF 'MEANING' .............. xlii3. INADEQUACY OF FORMS OF REPRESENTATION AND THEIR STRUCTURALREVISION xlv4. IDENTIFICATIONS AND MIS-EVALUATIONS ............... xlvi5. METHODSOFTHEMAGICIAN.................... xlviiiC. Revolutions and Evolutions xlviiiD. A Non-aristotelian Revision (Tabulated). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. IiiE. New Factors:The Hav...</p>