science and pseudoscience

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Science and Pseudoscience. Critical Thinking. Science. The scientific method isn’t a complex, or magical process. It’s actually quite mundane! It’s how scientists are trained to think that makes science such a powerful tool. Science. Science relies on: Skepticism Critical Thought - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Science and PseudoscienceCritical Thinking

  • ScienceThe scientific method isnt a complex, or magical process. Its actually quite mundane!Its how scientists are trained to think that makes science such a powerful tool

  • ScienceScience relies on:SkepticismCritical ThoughtThe Scientific MethodImagination!

  • ScienceScience relies on:SkepticismCritical ThoughtThe Scientific MethodImagination!

  • SkepticismWhich line is longer?

  • SkepticismWhich block is darker?

  • SkepticismSkepticism is the practice of not taking the world at face-value but, instead, considering it in close detail before drawing conclusions

  • CynicismSkepticism is not cynicismCynicism:Close-minded dismissal of claims that contradict your beliefsSkepticism:Willingness to entertain many possibilities, but only accepting them after seeing persuasive evidence

  • ScienceScience relies on:SkepticismCritical ThoughtThe Scientific MethodImagination!

  • Critical ThinkingThere is a difference between being critical and criticizingCritical thinking is a style of thinking that focuses on careful investigation of phenomena that are not understood, and conservative adoption of new beliefsCriticizing (without also providing advice) is just being mean!

  • Extraordinary ClaimsThe more a claim contradicts what we already know, the more persuasive the evidence for the claim must be before we should accept it

  • Overtoun BridgeThere is a bridge in Scotland where dogs have been known to commit suicide off ofSome dogs, which have failed at committing suicide, have even returned for repeat attempts!

    Why is this an extraordinary claim?

  • FalsifiabilityClaims must be capable of being disproved.

  • CreationismCreationism is the belief that the universe is so complex that it could not have been created by mere physical processes, and therefore must have been created by a divine being.Why can this statement not be falsified? Does this mean it is wrong?

  • Flying Spaghetti MonsterismIn 2005, the Kansas City school board attempted to integrate Creationism into science classesCritics argued that regardless of whether Creationism is true or false, it has no place in science classes because it cannot be falsifiedOne of the more popularized criticisms was the church of the flying spaghetti monster:

  • Occams RazorIf two hypotheses explain a phenomenon equally well, we should generally select the simpler one.

  • Occams RazorWhich theory is preferable?

    Does this mean the Unicorn theory is necessarily wrong?

  • Occams RazorOften what will happen in scientific research is not that we will immediately falsify a theory but, rather, find evidence that supports a more succinct theory

  • Overtoun BridgeThe dogs have mostly jumped from one side of the bridgeMost jumps occurred during clear weatherMost jumpers have been breeds of dogs with long snoutsA colony of minks were found living in the foliage under Overtoun BridgeAccording to Occams Razor, which theory should we prefer? The dog suicide theory, or the mink-hunting theory? Why?

  • ReplicabilityA finding must be capable of being duplicated by independent researchers following the same recipe.

  • Overtoun BridgeHow could we replicate the mink-hunting theory in a way that would not kill any more dogs?

  • Ruling out Rival HypothesesFindings consistent with several hypotheses require additional research to eliminate these hypotheses

  • Overtoun BridgeFinally, how could we rule out the dog suicide theory?


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