scheeben--manuel of catholic dogma
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A MANUAL OF CATHOLIC THEOLOGY
A MANUAL OF
CATHOLIC THEOLOGYBASED ON SCHEEBEN'S"
WITH A PREFACE BY
THE SOURCES OF THEOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE GOD CREATION AND THE SUPERNATURAL ORDER
FOURTH EDITION, REVISED
LONDONKEG AN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER &CO., LT*
YORK, CINCINNATI, CHICAGO BENZIGER BROS.1909
[7'Ae rights of translation
and uf reproduction are
have conferred upon the England a signal boon in publishing Scheeben'sFr. Scannell
Dogmatik in English, and condensing it for careful and conscientious study. St. Anselm, in his work, "Cur Deus Homo?" says, "Asthe right order requires that we should first believe the deep things of the Christian faith before we presume todiscussif,
to be negligence
are confirmed in the faith,
not study to
the deep things of faith in by the illumination of the Church.of
a profuse exposition of the light of intelligence guidedis
Valentia teaches, inthatit
Although, as Gregory accordance with the Catholicnot a science proprie dicta, first principles that areis
cannot be resolved intoit
higher than all sciences, can be resolved into the science of God and of
by revelation and
cause be called wisdom, which Theology may is than all science, and also it may be called science higher for many reasons. First, because, if it be not a science asfor that
so as to1
form, method, process,
development, and transmission and because, if its principles are not evident, they are in all the higher regions of itinfallibly certain;
and because many of them are necessarycontemplated
exactness and method, may be called a science and the queen of sciences, the chief of the hierarchy of truth and;
and takes the
place in the intellectualIt
and tradition of the world.
and conditions of scienceadmitsas;
possesses all the qualities so far as its subject-matteras
namely, certainty as against doubt, definiteness
unity as against incoherence, progress as against dissolution
and stagnation. A knowledge and
belief of the existence of
never been extinguished in the reason of mankind. The polytheisms and idolatries which surrounded it were corruptions of a central and dominant truth, which, although And the tradition of this truth obscured, was never lost.
identified with the higher
and purer operations of the
reason, which have been called the intellectual system of the world. The mass of mankind, howsoever debased, were always theists. Atheists were anomalies natural
and exceptions, as the blind among men. The theism of the primaeval revelation formed the intellectual system ofthe heathen world.tion
of the patriarchal revela-
formed the intellectual system of the Hebrew race. The theism revealed in the incarnation of God has formed"
the intellectual system of the Christian world.aedificavitsibi
science or knowledge of has built for itself a tabernacle in the intellect ofit,
science of the world finds
expression of the theology of faith. But from first to last the reason of man is the disciple, not the critic, of the
Preface.revelation ofintellect is
and the highest science of the human that which, taking its preamble from the light
of nature, begins in faith
and receiving its axioms from faith, expands by the procession of truth from truth. The great value of Scheeben's work is in its scientific;
terminology, definitions, procedure, and unity. not only reading but study and study with;
Readers overrun truths which they have not mastered. Students leave nothing behind them until it is understood.This work needs such a conscientious treatment fromthose
hand.in all its parts, the
most valuable may
be said to be the First Book, on the Sources of Theological Knowledge, and the Second Book, on God in Unity and Trinity. Any one who has mastered this second book has reached the Head of the River of the
the superstitious and senseless mockeries, and they were many, with which the world wagged its head at the Vatican Council, none was more profoundly foolish
than the gibe that in the nineteenth century a Council has been solemnly called to declare the existence of God. Infact, it is this truth
that the nineteenth century needs most"
Homo sine cognitione Jerome says, But what the Council did eventually declareSt.
not the existence of God, but that the existence of God may be known with certitude by the reason of man through This is the infallible light the works that He has created.of the Natural Order, and the need of this definition is perceived by all who know the later Philosophies of Germany
and France, and the rationalism, scepticism, and naturalism which pervades the literature, the public opinion, and This was the the political action of the modern world.first
dominant error of these days, demanding the actionb
of the Council.
The second was
the insidious undermining
of the doctrinal authority of the Holy See, which for two hundred years had embarrassed the teaching of the Church, not only in controversy with adversaries without, but oftenin thefold.
guidance of some of
Pontiff has closed this period of contentioncertitude of the Supernatural Order completes
the twofold infallibility of the knowledge of God in the This was natural and supernatural revelation of Himself.
work of the Vatican Council
and espethe Councils of Florence and of Trent, culminated cially in defining the certitude of faith.Session, in which the Councils of the Church,
and luminously exhibited the mind
of the Vatican Council in his First and Second Books.
Definition and Division of Theology .. Short Sketch of the History of Theology
The Special Task Manual
THE SOURCES OF THEOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE.
THE OBJECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF THEOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE.CHAP.I.
DIVINE REVELATION.... .
Notion of Revelation Three Degrees of Revelation The Nature and Subject-matter of Natural Revelation The Object and Necessity of a Positive Revelation. ..
Super. . ..
The Subject-matter of Supernatural Revelation .. .. The Province of Revelation ..Progress of Revelation.. ..
7. The Protestant Theory and the Catholic Theory concerning the .. .. ode of transmitting and enforcing Revelation 8. Further Explanation of the Catholic Theory . . . . 9. Demonstration of the Catholic Theory. . . .. .
Powers and the
Organization of the Teaching Apostolate Its Relations with the Two Hierarchical Orders instituted by Christ . .
Organization of the Apostolate (continued). .
Organization of the.
Organization ofof the Teaching
Apostolate (continued). ...
The Auxiliary.. . .
Organization of the
Organic Union. .
between the Teaching Body and the Body of the Faithful . . External and 14. Organization of the Apostolate (concluded) Internal Indefectibility of Doctrine and Faith in the Church Recapitulation15.. . . .. . .
Transmission of Revelation Ecclesiastical Tradition Rule of Faith . .in the:
Apostolic. .. .
THE APOSTOLIC DEPOSIT
OF REVELATION.. .
Holy Scripture the Written Word of God Holy Scripture as a Source of Theological Knowledge The False and Self-contradictory Position of Holy Scripture..
50 56 5861
.. .. the Protestant System 19. The Position and Functions of
in the Catholic
Decisions of the Church on the Text and Interpretation of. ...
The Oral Apostolic Deposit
Tradition, in the Narrower Sense
CHAP. IV.22. Origin23.
The Various Modes
and Growth of Ecclesiastical Tradition .. in which Traditional Testimony
71 73 76 77
Documentary Tradition, the Expression of the Living TraditionRules for demonstrating Revealed Truth from Ecclesiastical....
The Writings The Writings
of the Fathersof Theologians.... ..
THE RULE OF;
FAITH.andalso specially in
of Faith considered generallyof Opinion
Dogmas and Matters
and Judicial Decisions considered generally Papal Judgments and their Infallibility . . 32. General Councils Local or Particular Councils 33. The Roman Congregations . . . 34. Dogmatic Censures30. Definitions31.. . . .. . .
Development of Dogma The Chiei Dogmatic Documents..
Creeds and Decrees
THEOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE CONSIDERED IN ITSELF, ORSUBJECTIVELY.CHAP.37.I.
Etymology of the various words used..
Notion of Faith .. .. . .. 38. Nature of Theological Faith39.
The Formal Object or Motive of Faith The Subject-matter of Faith The Motives of Credibility .. ..and Grace Man's Co-operationNecessity of Faith.... ..
42. Faith43. 44.45.
Act of Faith..
Faith a Free Act'
The Supreme Certitude
FAITH AND UNDERSTANDING.138.
46. Doctrine of the Vatican Council on the Understanding of Faith. . 47. Theological Knowledge 48. Scientific Character of Theology .. .
The Rank of Theology among the Sciences The three great branches of Theology Fundamental,. . :.
Positive,. . . .
and Speculative51. 52.
Relation between Reason and Faith
Theology as a Sacred ScienceTheological Science
53. Progress of
GOD CONSIDERED AS ONEI.
OUR KNOWLEDGE OF GOD.
Natural Knowledge of God.158 161
.. .. 54. Natural Knowledge of God considered generally .. .. .. 55. The Demonstration of the Existence of (JoJ 56. Our Conception of the Divine Essence and the Divine Attributes .. 57. Contents and Limits of our Natural Knowledge of God
Supernatural Knowledge of God.169
Revealed Names of God 59. The Doctrine concerning especially in the Vatican Council
defined by the....
THE ESSENCE AND ATTRIBUTES OF GOD, CONSIDEREDGENERALLY.PAGE.... ..
60. 61. 62.
Fundamental Conception of God's Essence and Nature The Perfection of the Divine Being .. Our Conception of the Divine Attributes Classification. .
THE NEGATIVE ATTRIBUTES
64.65. 66. 67. 68. 69.70.
The Simplicity of God The Infinity of God The Immutability of God The Inconfusibility of God The Immensity of God The Eternity of God The Invisibility of God The Incomprehensibility of God The Ineffability of God
POSITIVE ATTRIBUTESInternal Attributes.
GOD203 204 205 206
God, the Objective Truth God, the Objective Goodness God, the Absolute BeautyB.
The Omnipotence of God The Omnipresence of God
.. The Divine Life in general .. .. .. The Divine Knowledge in general. God's Knowledge of the Free Actions of His Creatures The Divine Wisdom in relation to its External Activity. . ..
The Nature and'
Divine Will considered22 7especially.
83. 84. 85. 86.
The Absolute Freedom of God's Will The Affections (Affectus} of the Divine Will, The Moral Perfection of the Divine Will The Justice of God. ..
230 233 2382 4i
87. God's Mercy and Veracity Its Dominion over Created Wills 88. Efficacy of the Divine Will and Holiness God the 89. The Divine Will as Living Goodness.
246 2482 53
Beatitude and Glory of the Divine Life
THE DIVINE TRINITY.THE DOGMA.PAGE
of the Trinity as formulated by theII.
CHAP.92. 93. 94.
IN SCRIPTURE.. ..
The Trinity in the New Testament The Doctrine of the New Testament on God the Son . The Doctrine of the New Testament on the Holy Ghost The Doctrine of the Old Testament on the Trinity. .
. . . .
265 269 277 283
The Ante-Nicene Tradition on the Divine Trinity and Unity The Consubstantiality of the Son defined by the Council. .. .
290294 308 312
and West on the Consubstantiality of the Holy Ghost with the Father and the Son 99. The Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, Divine Hypostases and Persons Definition of Hypostasis and Person as applied to God 100. The Distinction of the Divine Persons in particular, and their .. .. .. .. .. .. Distinctive Marks .. ..
THE EVOLUTION OF THE TRINITY FROM THE FECUNDITY OF THE DIVINE LIFE.
Life as Absolute102.festation(2) of the
in God resulting from the Fecundity of the Divine .. Wisdom .. .. .. .. .. ..316 The Productions in God are True Productions of an Inner Mani(i) of the Divine Knowledge through Word and Image; and
Divine Love through Aspiration, Pledge, and Gift Perfect Immanence of the Divine Productions
stantiality of their Products as Internal Expression of the Substantial Truth and Internal Effusion of the Substantial Sanctity 104. The Divine Productions as Communications of Essence and Nature ; the Divine Products as Hypostases or Persons . . 105. The Special Names of the Divine Productions as Communications of Life in analogy with Generation and Spiration in the Animal. . .
The Personal Names(olxovo^la.)
Father, Son, and of the Divine Persons ..
Complete Unity of the Produced Persons with their Principle, resulting from their Immanent Origin Similarity, Equality, Identity, Inseparability, and Co-inherence (irepix&>p7j0'
might be called supernatural in as far as it is distinct from and superior to the Divine concurrence granted to all created causes but, strictly speaking, it is only natural, because it is exercised in accordance with a law of nature. The production of the soul is due not to a miraculous interference with the course of nature, but to the natural Providence of God, carrying out the laws which He Himself has framed for the regular course of nature. We can now easily understand (i) how human generation is a true generation not only of the flesh but of man as a whole (2) how a relation of causality exists betweention; ;
the progenitor and the soul of his offspring ; (3) how the creation of the soul by God is not a creation in the same
absolute sense as the original creation of things (4) how the natural consequences of generation are safe-guarded. IV. The Divine co-operation in human generation ele;
human paternity to the highest degree of human father is admitted to participate in;
God, the Father of spirits (Heb. xii. 9), paternity he gives origin to and has authority over a personal and immortal being, the image of God. Paternal authority thuslike
receives a religious and sacred character, possessed by no other authority on earth except that of the Church, which
founded upon similar principles. Again, the children belong not so much to the parents as to God, Who givesis
to the parents as a sacred pledge. Practically, then, as well as theoretically, the Divine origin of the soul is a doctrine of the greatest importance. The gravity of thesins against chastity becomes more apparent when considered in the light of this doctrine they imply a sacri:
legious abuse of members and actions which are destined See I Cor. vi. 15, 16. exclusively to the service of God.
Descent of all
the consequent Unity of the
one Pair of ProHuman Race.
blessing of multiplication, bestowed by God on Adam and Eve, shows not only that the human race was to be propagated by way of generation, but also that itI.
No to spring from the pair who received the blessing. mention whatever is made of any other progenitors, and it
is distinctly stated that by multiplying their kind Adam CHAP, v and Eve were to " fill the earth," and exercise over the SECT 13 earth that dominion which is implied in the Divine Idea of man. Eve is called " the mother of all the living " (Gen. " iii. the father of the world," who " was 20), and Adam created alone" (Wisd. x. i). St. Paul told the Athenians on Mars' Hill that " God hath made of one all mankind, " to dwell upon the whole face of the earth (Acts xvii. 26). this doctrine the Apostle bases his teaching on Upon Original Sin and Redemption (Rom. v.).'
It is the
province of Apologetics to deal with the
culties raised against this To overthrow the historical
dogma by modern
evidence in favour of the descent pair, science must demonstrate the impossibility of such descent. But the fact that marbetween members of the most different races are riages prolific, proves that they all belong to the same speciesofall
mankind from one
from a single pair of progenitors
In the Divine Plan of Creation the unity of origin is intended, first of all, to secure and manifest
the perfect unity of the human species. specific unity is, indeed, conceivable even without unity of origin but, considering the great diversity existing among the several;
races of men, their specific unity would not be so manifest without the unity of origin. Again, the unity of origin gives to all individuals of the human species a sameness of nature which forms them into a species ultima that is to As a matter of say, into a species not further divisible.fact,
when the heathens lost the idea of the common origin of mankind, they took up false notions of human society. With them male and female, Greek and barbarian, bond and free, were beings of different natures. It is easily seen why, according to the Divine Idea of man as theimage of God on earth, human nature must possess Set over all visible things and the strictest specific unity. made only a little lower than the angels, man is the connecting link between the double cosmos, a position whichvisible
he could not hold if his nature was sub-divided into several species like the lower animals and the angels.
significance of the unity of origin
unity of nature and species consequent ma> than in the fact that it unites mankind into one famiiy? upon it, family with one head, thus establishing between all menever, less in the
an organic or living unity. Specific unity by itself renders possible only a society of equals, whereas the unity existing in a family constitutes a natural bond between its members, which bond is the natural foundation of the unity of destiny, of the duty of mutual assistance, and of the possibility of solidarity between humanity as a whole on one The family union of men side, and God on the other. strengthens the ties of universal brotherhood which exists between them as like creatures of the same God it is also;
the essential condition of the solidarity in grace and sin which exists between the first parent and all his descendants,
and likewise of the solidarity in the merits of Redemption which exists between all mankind and Christ, the Second Adam and Head of the Supernatural Order.SECT. 131. Division and Order of the Vital Forces in Man. "^ I. As man is a microcosmos, we can distinguish in his J degrees of life m man. nature three different degrees of life. The first is vegetative life, which performs the functions of nutrition, growth, and propagation, and is common to man, animal, and plant. Next comes sensitive life, made up of the knowledge obtained through the senses and of the tendencies or appetites connected therewith this life is common to man and animal. Lastly, we have the intellectual or spiritual life, consisting in intellectual knowledge and volitions directed by the intellect. This life man has in common with God and with the angels it is the highest order of life in man, the object and the rule of the other vital functions. Human or privileges which Divine liberality jj Qualities a nature pure and simple, to man at his creation, or which Divine justice freely gave had bound itself to confer upon him by reason of his supernatural end, do not belong to human nature because they do not necessarily flow from the human essence, or1
constituent principles. On the other hand, the nature of man contains not only the vital perfections which elevate him above the brute creation and make him the image
of God, but also the imperfections inherent in the lower CHAP. v. Human Nature, considered apart from the SKCJjJ 3a degrees of life.elevating influence of God and the deteriorating influence of sin, but with the perfections and imperfections necessarily connected with the human substance, is called by the
the nature ofall
Schoolmen nature pure and simple. Even after the Fall, man is still what it was when first created
the essential perfections of the original nature continue to be transmitted, and all the imperfections of nature in its
present stateoriginal nature.
already existed, at least radically, in the This doctrine was denied by the Reformers,essential
who held an human natureSECT.I.
The Spiritual Side of Human Nature. The Catholic Church teaches that the human soul132.
by reason of theto lead a
act of creation, an active forcelife,
natural to man.
and tendencyance with
moral and religious soul's essential character of the
image of God.
Catholics consider the moral and religious life of the soul as the exercise of a faculty essential to the soul, or as a whereas the natural result of its constituent principles;
Reformers held that the soul was merely a subject capable of receiving from outside the imprint of the Divine image.
Catholic sees the image of God in natural man, independently of supernatural influence the Protestant;
man only a subject intended to be made an image of God by a further Divine action. The Catholicsees in natural
is plainly founded upon reason. Every substance, and especially every living substance, is itself the active hence the principle of the activity natural to its species spiritual soul must be the radical principle of its entire;
The life of the soul, being rooted in its natural activity. essence and substance, cannot be lost while the substance and since all human souls have the same is not destroyed;
essence and are similarly created by God, what is true of the souls of our first parents likewise applies to the souls of all The perfect development, however, of the their posterity. and moral faculty, may be impeded through the religious
absence of external aid or of self-exertion, or by positive
SECT 1^2 '
hindrances, and thus the image of God in the soul may be deprived of its perfection and disfigured by unnaturalstains.
The image appeal also to Holy Scripture. and likeness of God " is the result of the creation of man and even after the Fall, he is still defined as the image andlikeness of God.it
The likeness being the perfection of the evident that, before and after the Fall, the image, substance and essence and the nature of man remainedis
able to live the
In other words, man is the image of God and life of an image of God by virtue of
the constituent principles of his nature, and not merely by of qualities or faculties which may be added to
and taken from his nature. II. The above general principle includes the followingkSedge.special conclusions. * e numan soul possesses, as an essential constituent principle of its reasonable nature, power to acquire by
itself the knowledge of God, of the relations between Creator and Creature, and consequently of the moral order as based 20; ii. 14, 15). This living upon Divine Law (Rom.i.
force develops itself, to a certain degree, spontaneously, so that a knowledge of God is gained as soon as the mind
developsSpiritual cr moral
stituent of its will, a living force
soul likewise possesses, as an essential conand tendency to love and
worship spiritual beings, and, above all, God. As the knowledge of God is the natural perfection of reason, so the love and worship of Him is the natural perfection of the will without the innate power to love God, the soul would be mutilated. Again, the soul, the image of God, has a natural relationship with Him consequently a tendency to love Him is as natural to the soul as the tendency to love itself and other reasonable beings. The soul would be unnatural indeed if by nature it had the power to love only itself and;;
tions of complacency
This power is first felt in involuntary emoand esteem which follow the knowledge;
God and influence the voluntary acts of love it is most manifest in the sense of the duty to love and serve God. This sense of duty is but a sense of love and reverence for
God and His
ordinances, which forces itself upon the soul CHAP, v
even against its free will. The development, however, of this root can be hindered still more than the development of the knowledge of God. It has to contend with free will and with many other tendencies of human nature it may be stunted to such a degree that it becomes morally unable to produce an act of love effectively placing God;
above all other things. Yet in itself it is indestructible, because it is part of the soul's nature and even the most hardened sinner feels the unrest caused by the consciousness that he acts against the natural rectitude of his will. See;
below, the treatises on Original Sin and Grace. 3. The faculty and tendency of the human will to love
and respect rational beings, and especially God, implies that the freedom of the will is not only physical but alsomoral that is to say, man has not only the power to determine his own and other forces, and to direct them to an end (physical liberty), but also the power of willing them for the sake of their own goodness and of directing them to a moral end, and consequently the power of rejecting and avoiding sin as such (moral liberty). The human will is thus an image of the Divine Will in a twofold manner: first, in as far as the Divine Will disposes its external acts and works with consciousness and with a plan secondly, in as far as God is Himself the ultimate object of all His actions and volitions. Of course, the exercise of moral liberty is not as essential to man as to God. By abusing;;
his physical liberty man is able to suspend the exercise of his moral liberty, and even to render its further use almost
The moral energy of man is the foundation impossible. of every further influence in the form of illumination andassistance
coming from God
without such foundation in could not personally co-operate with;
the Divine influence.
In its general idea, moral liberty does not at all It the faculty of choosing between good and evil. imply consists in the radical power to will the morally simply good as such, for the sake of its dignity and worth, and to(a)
consciously direct the acts of the will to their moral end. In the concise language of the Schoolmen, it is the power
of willing what is right because it is right. this power, the greater is moral liberty. It
God, wherewill the
greater greatest in manifests itself as the immutable power tois;
morally good immutablyis
God necessarily inclined to what is good only. this attribute essentially, so that He is as essenpossesses But creatures also tially holy as He is essentially free.the will
should attain such liberty by the means of grace, which clarifies their will through the caritas glories, and elevates them to the " freedom of the sons of God."to the
above general sense, is essential part of the natural image of God. But the positive power to will what is morally good, if not(U]
liberty, in thewill,
by a previous persevering deteressentially coupled with the power not to will what is good and to will evil instead it is " a power to will what is right, together with the power not to will what " is right This or " to turn away from what is right." power, then, in man, is affected by a deficiency in determination for what is good, and by the possibility of willingclarified
by grace oris
evil. The human will, belonging to a being created out of nothing, does not possess by reason of its essence all the perfection of which it is capable. Again, as it is the will of a being distinct from God, it may have special
by which Him.
be led to refuseits
what is morally good is to be a true positive power and real power, it must be conceived as " a power of the will to elect the good and to reject the evil by its own " free determination," which stamps it as a moral electiveIn as far as moral liberty in man exerts itself as an elective faculty, requiring to be determined, it only is imperfect and implies a dissimilarity to God, Whosefaculty."will is essentially inclined to the supreme good. But, in as far as it is still able to exert itself in this manner, and
has the power to annul its indetermination by its own decision, it has a peculiar similarity to Divine liberty. This power enables man not only to acquire, possess, and preserve moral goodness, but also to make it his own by
own exertions, just as it is God's own by His essence, CHAP, v SK 3 ^ and thus to deserve for it praise and reward, just as God, 2l2 for His goodness, deserves the highest honour. Moralsame sense, is also the condition not the of moral guilt, placing, as it does, face to face principle with the faculty of electing evil, the power of resisting andliberty, in this
so that evil cannot be chosen except on conthe will renounces the use of its power of
(d} The likeness of moral liberty in man to God's liberty, according to what has been said, consists, not in man's power of doing evil, but his power of avoiding the evil
The power to choose what is morally good to man in such a way that, before the choiceis
inclination or direction towards
good, and, consequently, no goodness bestowed onof man's free election.
him by the Creator independently
On the contrary, such choice would be impossible man already possessed a tendency to good. The;
goodness of the will is but the fruit of the habitual goodness received from God the object of the choice is not the "first production of moral goodness, but the development andthe exercise of the goodness already bestowed on the soul by the Creator.free will, being founded upon a tendency granted Freew.n J in relation God, can only operate dependently on God; it has to God. by an essential tendency to view all moral good as willed and commanded by God, and to seek after it as such, for the sake of the high respect due to God and His law, and especially to direct the will on God as its ultimate object. From this point of view, moral liberty is " a power to will what is right, according to God and for God's own sake." Considered specially as an elective faculty, it consists in
that man, by hisis
due to Him as to the Giver of moral homage which and the Author of the fruits springing from its libertyroot.
4i 8CHAP. VSECT.J33.Pilncipics.
The Animal Side of Man's Nature.
Although the soul which animates the human body from the principle which gives life to the lower animals, and although the soul, by means of its spiritual functions, exercises control over the body and its life animal and vegetative life of the still, the of man is subject to physical laws. Man and body animal have in common not only the abstract concept of "animal life," but also its concrete mode of existence, its status and conditions. The imperfections which Holy " Scripture sums up under the name of infirmity of the " flesh have their origin in the animal part of man. The spiritual soul informs the body in the same manner as the vital principle informs the bodies of mere animals,I-
such a way as to endow the body with a life in keeping with its nature. The soul does not spiritualize the body, or give it the impassibility and incorruptibility proper to spirits it does not even absolutely control all the bodily motions and tendencies. By the mere fact of and not on account of any subsequent creation, then, derangement, the animal life of man is naturally subject to the imperfections of animal life in general. Holy Scripture offers a foundation for this doctrine when it teaches that the body, taken from the earth, was, " through the inbreathing of a spiritual soul, made into aviz. in;
that is, received the life proper to its own living soul nature. This is the argument of St. Paul (i Cor. earthly
xv. 44 sqq.), who further deduces from the earthly origin of man his infirmities and corruptibility.SpecialPrinciples.
general principle just laid-.-
following special propositions : i. The constitution of the human body subjects it to the laws and conditions of existence and development
of plants and animals, viz. the laws of and reproduction. The first characteristic, then, which distinguishes the animal body from the pure spirit is this very necessity of taking something from without for its sustenance, a necessity which appears mostlife
which rule the
clearly in the functions of respiration
2. The fact that life is dependent on a continual supply CHAP. v. of external nourishment, shows that increase, decrease, and extinction are natural to it. The tree of life, provided by Dead? aad
for our first parents, bore indeed a food which would have prevented the extinction of life. But to partake of the fruit of life would only have averted the natural necesLeft to its natural resources, the sity of decay and death. immortal soul of man would not have been able to secure immortality for the body. Again, the words of the Divine " Dust thou art, and unto dust thou shalt return," curse, point clearly to the fact that death was due to the Fall only inasmuch as man, by reason of his sin, was left to his
are, therefore, natural
and necessity of from the
very constitution ofdisposition
human nature. By a positive Divine they were suspended until the first sin wasPain,
committed.3. The spiritual essence of the soul in like manner cannot prevent the internal and external disturbances of the vital functions which lead to pain and suffering. The
possibility of suffering was certainly the same in our first parents as in us ; God alone, by supernatural intervention, was able to prevent this possibility from passing intoactuality.4. Vegetative life in plants and animals is subject to ..... a passibihty which, in the former, appears as corruption of their substance, in the latter as pain and suffering. On a level with these phenomena the Fathers place that possibility which is peculiar to the sensitive life of man and
the sensitive faculties being affected even in spite of reason. Such motions are rightly called " passions," because they result from an impulse received on the ground of some subjective want, and are more or less dependent on the excitability of theanimals.It consists in
in anticipation or
Of course, a positive force is required bodily organism. the for action at the reception of the objective impulse sensitive faculty lies both in the inimperfection of the ability to act without such impulse, and in the necessity This passive excitability of to act in accordance with it.;
the appetitive faculties of animal
described by St.
Augustine as a weakness and idleness of nature, or as a D cj q ua iity of nature. Catholic doctrine and sound philosophy alike demandj
that the appetitive faculties of sensitive
inferior position. Reason should rule over passion as far as possible by controlling inordinate desires, and by refusing the use of the body for wrong purposes.
This refusal is always in the power of rational will, for the power of man over the external motions of his body is despotic, whereas his power over his desires is only politic, or, as we now say, constitutional. Although the motions of concupiscence are due to the infirmity of human nature,the soul cannot get rid of this infirmity, because the influence of the soul, as form of the body, is like the influence
the life it gives is animal life with concomitant perfections and imperfections, the very constitution of his 5- It is thus evident that, by man is liable to spontaneous motions in his sensinature, tive tendencies, over which the will has, at best, but little In other words, concupiscence is an attribute of control. human nature. In animals which have no reason, concu;
of non-spiritual formsall its
a disturbing element in the higher life of the soul. The subjection to concupiscence in man belongs to the same order as the possibility and necessity of death and of physical pain, viz.it
piscence is the mainspring of activity with their whole nature, whereas in man;
corruptibility in animal life. f tne animal body asserts itself
the manifestations of the sexual instinct.
most in These are the
they are accompanied by spontaneous
motions of the flesh, and are the least controllable by reason. This peculiarity is accounted for on the ground that thefunctions of vegetative life, to which the sexual instinct belongs, are carried out independently of the will. Another and better ground is, that the object of this instinct is thepreservation, rather than the multiplication, of the race, so that by satisfying it the mortal individual secures to itself the only immortality it can attain, viz. a continued existence in individuals of its own kind. Inasmuch, then, as
human body shared
with other earthly beings the faculty
of propagation as well as the necessity of death, it was but CHAP. SE 3 natural that it should also share with them the morbid ^Il!excitability of the
most natural of
other domain of
brings out better the contrast between the spiritual and the animal faculties of the soul. The "law of death" in the manifestations of the sexual instinct is so strong that in their presence the soul loses commandlife
over the motions, and almost over the very use, of the body. The imperfection and lowness of its animal life is thus strongly brought home to the soul, and the contrast with its nobler spiritual life may account for the sense of
shame inseparable from sexual excitement. III. Thus all the imperfections and defectsin the
to be found animal part of man are not the result of the destruction and perversion of man's original state, but the necessary
natural result of the constitution of human nature. The objections raised against the Catholic doctrine are based upon misconception or misrepresentation. To answer themin detail
would lead to a needless repetition of the proposi-
tions contained in this chapter.
The Natural Imperfections or(" ratio
Character of the Spiritual Life
inferior ") in
corruptible body upon the spiritual soul a certain imperfection and weakness, in consequence of which the soul's own life isentails
Man, and its Consequences, union with a passible and I. The
subject to gradual increase, and is dependent on external influences and, unlike the life of pure spirits, is in many ways;
"The corruptible its free and full development. a load upon the soul, and the earthly habitation " presseth down the mind that museth upon many things (Wisd. ix. 15). The chief cause of this is, that the animal life and the animal side of the spiritual life both exercise ahindered in
disturbing influence upon the higher reason. The imperfection of man's spiritual life, arising from its dependence on animal life, may fitly be styled an "animal quality" of the
In fact, St. Paul (i Cor. ii. 14) sums up all life. the imperfections of natural man in the term "animal man" I" the mind of the Apostle, this is TTOG i/>uxvvav, tivsaVai) to be born. , r U U c refers to the origin oi a being by way of generameaning tion then it applies to that which is communicated inI.
generation and by which the progeny bears a likeness to the progenitor consequently to the specific essence of;
both progeny and progenitor. Technically the word " " the essence considered as principle nature designates of motion or change (i.e. action and passion), especially asprinciple of a certain
of vital functions.
In this sense, the term is also applied to beings which do not owe their origin to generation, but
to direct creation, e.g. the angels. And lastly, it is applied to the uncreated Being of God, connoting in this case the
communicability by immanent intellectual generation. Besides the above abstract meaning, the term nature may be used in the concrete. Thus it expresses the sum total of material beings, especially of organic beings which and also, from are the subject-matter of physical science;
another point of view, all things created, which, as such, are the subject-matter of theology. The word "natural" is used in a great variety of J meanings. In general, it is applied to all that belongs to nature, or proceeds from nature, or is in keeping with " nature. Opposed to the natural are the non-natural,".
the "unnatural," and especially the "supernatural."
however, clear, that the same thing may be natural under CHAP. EC 13 Jj_ one aspect, and non-natural or supernatural under another, and vice versa. This ought to be kept well in mind in order to prevent mistakes, because the use of the terms nature and natural has varied at different times, and the
in different senses,
to the point of view from which he writes.
Supernatural, in general, is what is above In this sense, God is a supernatural being or substance, inasmuch as He is infinitely above all created The conception of God as a supernatural being nature.nature.is
conception of the supernatural in
natural beings in these, the supernatural only exists in as far as God elevates them above their nature by assimilating1.
and uniting them with Himself.Negativedescription,
nature always implies a -i is neither a component part of a particular nature, nor can it proceed from such nature as a quality or product it is not required by the nature for the attainment of its essential destination and it is such that no creature of a higher order can produce; ;
The supernatural in created T^T to the creature. T Divine It
God, as absolute supernatural Cause, acting freely above and beyond all natural laws, can alone be its author.it:
in this strict sense, the supernatural"
acciden(quoad essentiam}. modum or per accidens) is sometally supernatural (quoad thing which, as a matter of fact, God directly intervenes in producing, although, under other circumstances, a created force might have been its cause or it is some Divine action the object of which is simply to assist a creature in the fulfilment or attainment of its essential destiny. The essenessentially supernatural ";
supernatural in angels and man comprises qualities perfections, forces and energies, dignities and rights, destinations to final objects, of which the essential constitution of angels and men is not the principle, which are not
required for the attainment of the final perfection of their natural order, and which can only be communicated by thefree operation of2.
Divine goodness and power. This description of the supernatural is mainly negaA positive conception is drawn from the consideration
that, whatever is supernatural to an inferior nature, must be, a t least virtually, natural to a being of a higher order, Hence the supernatural is the participation by a lower being in the natural perfection of one that is higher.3-
the twofold point of view, negative and positive, may be divided into two classes the;
absolutely supernatural, and the relatively supernatural which, as far as man is concerned, may also be termed the
supernatural pure and simple, and the preternatural.iheAbsonatuni.
(a] The absolutely, supernatural, negatively, is beyond the reach of all created nature, and, positively, elevates
created nature to a dignity and perfection natural to God alone the Absolutely Supernatural Being. Considered as
creatures, the absolutely supernatural has its centre in the beatific vision and the Hypostatic Union, each of which
contains in a differentcreature with God.
manner a marvellous union of the
In the beatific vision the blessed are so as to have God Himself as the ofpossession
Hypostatic Union the creature is admitted to the unity of His Being and personal dignity. These two fundamental forms of the supernatural are closely connected, for the assumption of human nature by Christ is the root and the crown of the beatific vision, not only of the human nature of Christ, but, by means of the incorporation of mankind into Christ, of all human nature. Hence the two forms are bound up into one supernatural order, at leastafter the Fall.
beatific vision, as supernatural
means must beviz.
supernatural a supernatural end at hand. In this order,
end of order of
theology distinguishes (i)
the beatifying or glorifying the beatific vision considered both asor as the light of glory (lumen gloria)\
(2) the sanctifying supernatural, which consists in a godlike life preparatory to and deserving of the beatific vision ; " as to sanctifying energy " (secimdum (3) the supernatural vim sanctificatricem, Ka0' aymtmjc^v Suvajutv), which consistsin the gifts
and acts destined to introduce and
to perfect a
In the latter respect, viz. as CHAP, i of sanctity. SE a godlike life, this kind of supernatural is, in ^J 36 perfecting fact, partly identical with (2) but, as preparatory to a life of holiness, it comprises a distinct krhd of gifts and acts.;
The relatively supernatural, negatively, is superJ human nature only positively, it elevates human.
The Reialively Supernatural,
nature to that state of higher perfection which is natural It comprises the gifts which free the nature to the angels. of man from the imperfections inherent in his animal life
his inferior reason, imperfections by their very nature.
from which the angels
between the two kinds of supernatural;
not merely one of degreeaffect
their operation in the natures
greatly differ. elevates the nature of angel supernatural;
and man above themselves it adds a positive perfection to them, and implants in them the root of an entirely new and godlike The relatively supernatural, on the other hand, only life.perfectsits
human nature within its own sphere, by subjecting lower faculties to the higher, and by freeing the higher from the disturbing influences of the lower. It gives nonewlife but adds to the existing life perfect soundness, consisting in freedom from corruption and perturbation, from sin and evil. The Greek Fathers call it atyQapaia, the
integrity of nature."
between the absolutely and
tively supernatural is so great that the Schoolmen often designate the latter as a "natural good," in the sense of
something perfectlyrational nature.
in harmony with the requirements of As, however, such designation is apt to lead to an underrating of the supernatural character of the
relatively supernatural, later theologians
have applied to it thus pointing out that it is somepreternatural,"
thing beyond and above nature, although it acts side by side with nature and on the domain of nature. In order duly to maintain the supernatural character of the relatively supernatural, it is necessary to consider it not merely as perfect soundness of human nature, but as a heavenly andspiritual soundness,
brought about by a marvellQus
cation and spiritualization of
nature, thus effecting 2 F
the visible image of,,
a perfect likeness to
Author.careful analysis of the supernatural conceived as the elevation of a lower to the participation in the perfec-
tions of a higher nature has led to the notion of " Supernature." This term designates a participation in the higher
nature to such a degree that not only privileges, faculties,
and acts are shared, but also the higher nature itself; i.e. the lower nature participates in that fundamental quality of the higher being's substance which to him makes such For if the community privileges, etc., natural perfections. and perfect one,of perfections, especially of vital actions, is to be a living it must include the equalization of the lower with the higher nature, and consequently it must give the
former a higher status and rank, a higher existence, or an ennobling and clarification of its substance. In this way the supernatural becomes to a certain extent natural to the holder of the favoured nature, in as far as it is consonant with his new rank and substantial perfection. The concept of Supernature finds its principal realizationintrinsicin the perfect possession of the
by which the creature"
Divine nature (2 Pet. i. to give a deeper foundation to the relatively supernatural, by attributing the gifts and perfections of this order to an innermost transfiguration of the spiritual substance of thesoul,
raised to be "partaker of the It might, however, also serve 4).
enabling it to preserve the freedom of the pure spirit, although united with a material body, and to assimilate its animal to its spiritual life.
General Notion of Divine Grace.
The Supernatural and Grace are very closely connected. The first is incomplete without the second, and the second has no specific meaning except when connected with the first in many respects the two notions are identical.;
language, the term Grace, A. r * gratia, vapig, o t> the benevolent disposition of one person towards another more exactly, benevolent feelings fpunded on love and freely bestowed by a person In this primary sense, of rank on one of lower station.I.
designates, in the
The Supernatural in General.
Further, the term grace CHAP. i. grace is synonymous with favour. _iJ 37 is applied to the effects of benevolent feelings or favour,viz. to free love-gifts, donum gratis datum, and also to the dignity which accrues to a person of lower rank from being the favourite of one who is above him. Lastly, grace signifies the qualities which contribute to
make a person
the favourite of another,
acquired excellence, beauty and amiability generally. II. In each and all of these meanings the term grace can be applied to the relations between God and creaturesGod is infinitely above His creatures, and His love of themabsolutely free, whereas, on the other hand, creatures their lovpossess nothing worthy of the Divine favouris:
Grace as b;e
a"d Hi scr
the work of God.
sider as graces (i) that love His creatures their natural existence
Hence we must conof God by which He gives to;
bestowed upon creaturesthe creature holdsfall
the relation to
by nature as long as, by sin, it does not " disgrace (4) the spiritual qualities and states of the mind which, by the working of natural faculties, make the creature pleasing to God. Notably, the term may beinto";
applied to the gifts granted to rational natures for the attainment of their ultimate end, although, in the hypothesisof their creation, such gifts are granted necessarily. Again, and even more properly, the dispositions of Divine Provi-
rational creatures are called
graces. They are indeed included in the general scheme of creation, and so far are necessary gifts yet their appli;
cation to particular individuals depends on many free acts ; the creature has no strict right to them, and God dispenses them with the love, tenderness, and goodness of a father,
with liberality rather than according to even equity.i.e.
special meaning. subjectively (as a of the mind on God's part), Grace is a Divine disposition well-wishing which is the source of the supernatural gifts
^ Considered. , ,
usage of the word grace has,
beyond and above all natural of the creature, and is, on the part of God, acquirementsit is
His creatures. inasmuch as
supernatural gift itself
a perfectly free gift (donum indebitmn). In its most special theological sense, the term Grace is applied to the benevolent affection by which God gives the highest and best He
can give, viz. Himself in the beatific vision. This act of Divine love eminently possesses the character of gracious condescension of the Creator to the creature, and of a gracious assumption of the creature into communion with the Creator. A-3 St. Thomas and St. Bonaventure say, it is a love which not only gives liberally, but also liberally accepts a love which so favours the creature as to make This it the friend, the son, and the bride of the Creator. same love is also specially called " Grace of the Holy Ghost," because it extends to the creature the Love by which God loves His only begotten Son, and from which the Holy Ghost proceeds and because it infuses into the creature a new life, of which the Holy Ghost is the breath. The term " Grace of the Holy Ghost " is also extended to all gifts absolutely supernatural, and even to gifts relatively supernatural, because all alike spring from the same Divine Benevolent Love. IV. Although all free gifts from Divine Benevolence;
receive in theology the
of Graces, the
nevertheless, be primarily applied to those gifts which not only have their principle in the Divine lovingkindness, butattain their
are themselves, in creatures, the principle enabling them to in other words, it supernatural destination;
should be applied to gifts which are supernatural aids From this point of view, eternal to a supernatural end. life is not so much a Grace as the final aim and object of Grace. Strictly speaking, this view of grace embraces only the gifts which positively, directly, and in themselves lead to the attainment of supernatural beatitude by making the creature worthy of it viz. Salutary Graces, or Graces of This worthiness, and the salvation (gratia salutares}. supernatural sanctity essentially connected therewith, make;
whence (Deo gratwri] pleasing to God " comes the other name, " Sanctifying Grace (gratia gratum The full meaning of these terms is realized in faciens).the creature;
Habitual Grace," which properly and formally constitutes " " (gratum esse Deo), finding favour in God's sight
The Supernatural in General.
above described as super- CHAP. i. 3 because nothing but a participation in the Divine ^ZlJ nature, Nature can be the basis of a title to Divine Beatitude, and can make the participating creature an object of God'sandis
identical with the state
paternal complaisance. Around this Grace are grouped all " Actual Graces." These other salutary Graces especially are not permanent forms, like Habitual Grace, but forces destined either to introduce or to increase the state of
Habitual Grace or supernature. Besides, they are able to produce works deserving of salvation only in connection with Habitual Grace, and by virtue of the dignityor worth whichit
upon the person.charismata,
V. All supernatural gifts which do not directly and immediately tend to the attainment of the creature's supernatural destiny, but merely assist in this attainment, as it which, consequently have not the were, from without, character of the Graces described, are termed specific
gratia gratis datcz, yapianaTa, i.e. Graces given out of undeserved love. They are commonly described as graces given to a person less for his own benefit than for thebenefit of others.
The Chief Errors concerning
The modern opponents of the Catholic doctrine of Grace have tried to identify it with the errors condemned in former times by the Church. This accusation is easilyrepelled
by confronting the condemned
unvarying Catholic teaching. I. In patristic times the chief opponents of the supernatural were the Manichaeans and the Pelagians, who, asSt.
reasons, agreed in attacking the grace of Christ (Contra Both founded their opposition ,on Epist. Pelag., \. ii., c. i).
a false conception ofi.
human The Manichaeans heldits
the soul to be an emanation
from the Divine Substance, areason of
member of God, to which, by God was bound to give whatso-
its highest beatitude and perfection. In an elevation to a perfection higher than that given by nature is impossible the Spiritual Substance can
ever belonged totheir system,
only be freed from the external and violent influence of J the Evil Principle.2. The Pelagians, on the contrary, looked upon man as a creature, and the gifts bestowed on him in creation as graces. They even praised human nature and the
grace. grace," which, according to them, still exists unimpaired in man, they admitted no other. They held that the original destination of man to the beatific vision
faculty of the will for"
good as a Divine
was natural to him, and that his natural power for good was sufficient to merit supreme beatitude. In like manner, they considered a life altogether free from sin and faults to be within the natural power of man. They completelyrejected the Catholic doctrine concerning Original Sin, as incompatible with their own doctrine on the naturalness of the original state of man. In fact, if man before the Fall had nothing in the shape of grace to distinguish him from fallen man, if in both there is the same unimpaired power of attaining eternal life, then no depravation of human nature was caused by the sin of our First Parents.
point of view from which the controwith the Pelagians was conducted lies in the doctrine versy of Original Sin, considered as a distortion and corruption of the original institution and integrity of man, unfitting himfor the
attainment of that end to which, as a matter of fact, destined him. As the Pelagians admitted the
ideal perfection of the actual destination of man, viz. eternal life with God, we should expect, and in fact we find, that
opponents compared the higher perfection of original man with man's present depraved condition, Hence they rather than with his nature pure and simple. had to describe the privileges of the original state, not sotheir Catholic
as free gifts added to nature, but rather as goods belonging to the first man as a matter of fact. In this sense, such goods and privileges may be represented as
innate and connatural as regards man before the Fall. The Pelagians thought that freedom from ignorance, concupiscence, and death was not required for the perfection of maneither before or after the Fall, altogether;
and consequently denied
the Catholic doctors asserted the
Supernatural in General.
existence of this privilege, they had not to point out its CHAP. L SECT *& gratuitous character: their point was to show that ignorance,
concupiscence, and death were evils of our present state, incompatible with the perfection of human nature as actuThe Fathers were bound to take ally endowed by God.
this line of
defence because their adversaries conceded
in principle the perfection of the original state, and only admitted the evils of ignorance, concupiscence, and death in that state on the plea that they were not evils of such a kind as to interfere with its perfection.II. The peculiar nature of the heresy opposed by the Modem Fathers caused them, as may be inferred from what we have said, (i) to speak of the actual destination of original man to a supernatural end, and of the integrity of his nature, as being man's natural state, taking natural as
equivalent to original ; (2) to point out the supernatural character of the original state in comparison with the present depraved state of man, but to leave almost untouched its supernatural character as compared with the first man's
pure nature. The Reformers, and, after them, Baius and Jansenius, would have us believe that these peculiarities are tantamount to a denial of the supernatural character of the original state, and that, consequently, the doctrine ofthe Schoolmen, affirming the supernaturality of the same, is in direct opposition to the teaching of the Fathers. Theyfurther pretended to find
the Pelagian doctrine of "the
indestructible, ideal goodness of our present nature," in the scholastic doctrine that the nature of the first man, conin itself, (apart from supernatural elevation, or as nature pure and simple), was identical with human nature as it is at present, when deprived of the graces and privi-
They went so far as to assert leges of the original state. that the ancient Church was at one with the Pelagians as tothe natural character of the original state In reality, the Theteaching Reformers' own doctrine, which they falsely attribute to R!
the Church, is, at least on this last point, very clearly connected with Pelagianism ; it is the old heresy with an infusion of Manichaeism and Averroism added. Starting
natural, Reformers and
concerning human nature and the superPelagians alike arrive at false
conclusions concerning the present state of man. The , Reformers exaggerate the essence and the consequences,
of Original Sin in the same measure as the Pelagians denied For this reason the Church had to defend against them.the Reformers the supernatural character of the original The Council of Trent did not, indeed, strike at the state.
very root of their errors, because the first Reformers had not gone far enough. But the Holy See intervened most decidedly as soon as Baius and Jansenius reproduced the old error in a more refined form. St. Pius V. censured the propositions of Baius in the Bull Ex omnibus afflictionibus, ] so too did Gregory XIII. in the Bull Provisionis 567 nostrce, 1 579; and Urban VIII., in the Bull In eminenti,;
1641, which contains the first condemnation of the Augustinus of Jansenius. Several more Jansenistic propositions were censured in the Bulls Unigenitus of Clement XI. and
Auctorem fidei of Pius VI.Errors ofe
Absohueiy Pnat ur'ai.
t. The doctrine of Baius concerning the absolutely supernatural starts from this principle The destination to beatitude in God and to a moral life, which, in some form or:
other, God has decreed for all rational creatures, must be a destination to " eternal life," consisting in the Beatific Vision of God, and to that morality by which man merits From this principle Baius draws the following eternal life.
vocation to eternal life cannot be a gratuitous adoption, and the bestowal of the means necessary for the attainment of this end cannot be a gratuitous elevationof the creature, but is rather an endowment due to nature. (#) To merit eternal life it is not necessary that thecreature should possess a higher status, in keeping with the excellence of the reward to be merited, since the merit depends only on the moral value of the works done that is,
obedience to the law.are not, either in them-
Hence meritorious works
selves or as to their moral goodness, the fruits of a freely
bestowed Divine grace. Although the power and means necessary for performing such works are the gift of the Holy Ghost, still the works are due to nature, and are nature's own. Further, meritorious works have their merit
The Supernatural in General.by Divine condescensiononly a reward, and;
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