Saving A Byte

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<ul><li>1.How to Save a Byte Information Technology Standards Electronic Records Management Conference Gina Strack Utah State Archives</li></ul> <p>2. 3. Introduction </p> <ul><li>The archives should articulate requirements for preservation and accessibility to ensure that archival records remain available, accessible, and understandable through time. </li></ul> <ul><li>International Council on Archives, Electronic Records Workbook (2005) </li></ul> <p>4. Scope </p> <ul><li>WHAT (retention schedules) </li></ul> <ul><li>WHY (the law) </li></ul> <ul><li>HOW: Long-term preservation* </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Requirements </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Methods </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Formats </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>*beyond the life of the original software or media, includes PERMANENT </li></ul> <p>5. Basic Requirements </p> <ul><li>authentic; </li></ul> <ul><li>complete; </li></ul> <ul><li>accessible and understandable; </li></ul> <ul><li>processable; and </li></ul> <ul><li>potentially reusable </li></ul> <ul><li>Source: International Council on Archives </li></ul> <p>6. Authentic </p> <ul><li>The electronic record is what it claims to be </li></ul> <ul><li>Examples </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>dates (creation, receipt) </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>applicable process </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>part of a larger system </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Not a comment on content of record </li></ul> <p>7. Complete </p> <ul><li>Nothing added or removed inappropriately </li></ul> <p>8. Methods </p> <ul><li>Plan systems, technology, formats &amp; specifications well </li></ul> <ul><li>Be aware of available standards </li></ul> <ul><li>Preservation vs. Access (more later) </li></ul> <p>9. Formats </p> <ul><li>The ideal preservation format is: </li></ul> <ul><li>stable and standardized </li></ul> <ul><li>free of patent rights (public domain) </li></ul> <ul><li>as simple as possible </li></ul> <ul><li>fully self-descriptive, not dependent on external sources </li></ul> <ul><li>suitable for containing structured and self-selected metadata </li></ul> <ul><li>fully documented (open specification) </li></ul> <ul><li>not application or platform based, but easily exchangeable </li></ul> <ul><li>used and implemented widely </li></ul> <ul><li>easy to implement and to check for errors (validation) </li></ul> <ul><li>Digitale Archivering in Vlaamse Instellingen en Diensten (DAVID) Project [Antwerp City Archives] </li></ul> <p>10. Images - TIFF </p> <ul><li>T aggedI mageF ileF ormat </li></ul> <ul><li>Uncompressed or Lossless compression available </li></ul> <ul><li>Widely supported </li></ul> <ul><li>Independent of operating system </li></ul> <ul><li>Documented specification </li></ul> <ul><li>Large file sizes, end-users sometimes cannot view </li></ul> <p>11. Images - JPEG </p> <ul><li>Avoid if possible! </li></ul> <ul><li> lossy compression = unrecoverable information </li></ul> <ul><li>Small file size </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>derivative or access images </li></ul></li></ul> <p>12. Preservation vs. Access </p> <ul><li>Separate standards and formats forseparate functions </li></ul> <ul><li>Access methods (printing, copying, viewing on the web) change and will keep changing </li></ul> <ul><li>Plan from beginning how to handle both </li></ul> <p>13. Text </p> <ul><li>Recommended </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>XML </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>XHTML, HTML </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>SGML </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Acceptable </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>TXT </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Word DOC </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>PDF </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Library and Archives Canada. Guidelines for Computer File Types, Interchange Formats and Information Standards </li></ul> <p>14. XML </p> <ul><li>Open international standard </li></ul> <ul><li>Successor to HTML </li></ul> <ul><li>Structured </li></ul> <ul><li>Flexible, e X tensible </li></ul> <ul><li>Programming and Formatting available (XQuery, XSLT, style sheets) </li></ul> <p>15. XML Examples </p> <ul><li>iTunes music and movie information </li></ul> <ul><li>Medical records exchange </li></ul> <ul><li>Transportation fleets </li></ul> <ul><li>Online descriptions of Archives records (finding aids) </li></ul> <ul><li> and thousands more </li></ul> <p>16. Reading XML </p> <ul><li>Harry Potter</li></ul> <ul><li>J.K. Rowling</li></ul> <p> tags can be anything though often defined by industry- or platform-specific standards nested tags for structure 17. PDF </p> <ul><li>Preserves original layout &amp; format </li></ul> <ul><li>Proprietary (Adobe) though openly documented </li></ul> <ul><li>Widespread use </li></ul> <p>18. PDF/A </p> <ul><li>International Standard</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>ISO 19005-1 </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Latest version July 10, 2006 </li></ul> <ul><li>Adopted by National Archives for permanent Federal records </li></ul> <ul><li>Based on PDF 1.4 (~ Reader 5.0) </li></ul> <ul><li>developed to allow PDF to be used as an archival format </li></ul> <p>19. Archives Digital Collections </p> <ul><li>Master TIFF</li></ul> <ul><li>Display JPEG (smaller dimensions) </li></ul> <ul><li>Metadata (description of content, creation &amp; process) in XML </li></ul> <p>20. Summary </p> <ul><li>open standards </li></ul> <ul><li>uncompressed </li></ul> <ul><li>will not alter record </li></ul> <ul><li>minimum tools/software to use </li></ul> <p>21. References </p> <ul><li>Brown, D. L. (2004). Library and Archives Canada: Guidelines on Computer File Types, Interchange Formats and Information Standards. </li></ul> <ul><li>International Council on Archives. (2005). Electronic records: A workbook for archivists. </li></ul> <ul><li>National Archives. NARA Electronic Records Management (ERM) Guidance on the Web. </li></ul> <ul><li>All references linked on Resources for Further Study on Archives Electronic Records web page:;func=viewpub&amp;tid=1&amp;pid=201 </li></ul> <p>22. Fine </p> <ul><li>Gina Strack </li></ul> <ul><li>Utah State Archives </li></ul> <ul><li>801.531.3843 </li></ul> <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>