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  1. 1. Clean Fuels 2007: June 25-26, 2007: Fuels for Future EnginesTom Ryan, Institute Engineer Engine, Emissions and Vehicle Research Division Southwest Research Institute San Antonio, Texas
  2. 2. Presentation OutlineCurrent status of HD LegislationDiesel fuel properties and their effect on emissionsBio-diesel and its effect on emissions.HCCI StatusLight-duty DieselHigh Efficiency Gasoline2
  3. 3. Presentation OutlineCurrent status of HD LegislationDiesel fuel properties and their effect on emissionsBio-diesel and its effect on emissions.HCCI StatusLight-duty DieselHigh Efficiency Gasoline 3
  4. 4. US Heavy Duty Emissions 4
  5. 5. Progression Of Heavy-Duty LegislationAnd Technology In EEC 160.414 NOx (g/kW.h) 0.35Particulates (g/kW.hPM (g/kW.h) 120.3NOx (g/kW.h) 100.25 80.2 60.15 40.1 20.05 00 90 92 95 99 05 08 1019 19 19 19 20 20 20 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,ro ro ro ro ro ro roEuEu Eu Eu Eu Eu Eu5 Commission HD Euro 6 validation report issued end 2006 Euro 6 has been proposed as 0.5 g/Kw.h NOx and 0.002 g/kW.h particulates
  6. 6. In-Cylinder Emissions Control Use InProduction EnginesTo date NOx has To date particulates been controlled byhave been controlled reducing combustion by increasing the oxidation temperature byrate of the fuel by these methods.these methods. IntercoolingTurbochargingCombustion retard Higher injectionInjection rate shapingpressureExhaust gas recirculation Smaller nozzle holes(EGR)At US 2007 and Euro 4 these methods are reachingthe limit of their practical effectivenessand other methods my be necessary. 6
  7. 7. Charge Air Cooling1.05 The effect of intake NOx / [ NOx @ 50 oC ]1.00manifold temperature on 0.95 25% Load NOx is predictable. 0.900.8575% Load0.8050% Load100% Load 0.75-5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Intake Manifold Temperature Co 7
  8. 8. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) 1.0>50% NOx 0.9reduction is possible75% Load25% Loadover transient cycle. 0.8NOx / [ NOx baseline ] 0.7 7% LoadA particulate1800 rpmcountermeasure for 0.6EGR is required. 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0 10 20 3040 50 60 EGR [%]8
  9. 9. Presentation OutlineCurrent status of EEC HD LegislationDiesel fuel properties and their effect on emissionsBio-diesel and its effect on emissions.HCCI StatusLight-duty DieselHigh Efficiency Gasoline 9
  10. 10. Weighted NOX vs. Total AromaticsModern EGR Equipped Engine2.7 WEIGHTED NOX [ g/(hp-hr)2.6 2.5 2.4 2.310 152025303540TOTAL AROMATICS [ % ] NOx depends on fuel composition through the impact on theadiabatic flame temperatureAromatics increase the adiabatic flame temperature, and thusthe NOx emissions10
  11. 11. Alternative Renewable Fuels Biodiesel in the US may soon be made by petroleum refinersrather than by using the fatty acid methyl-ester approach.Bio-mass may also be refined using Bio-mass to liquid (BTL);Fischer-Tropsch process.A process has been developed Sweden to make Di-Methyl Ether(DME) from wood chips.UOP has a process for treating vegetable oil in the refinery11
  12. 12. Stoichiometric AdiabaticFlame Temperature W EIGHTED NOx [g/(hp-hr)] 2.70 2.65 2.60 2.55 2.50 2.45 2.40 2.35 2.3012.6 12.8 13.013.2 13.413.6 13.8 14.0 FUEL HYDROGEN [%] NOX emissions show a strong relationship to hydrogen content.12
  13. 13. Fuel Effects on NOx (modeling results) 10 The flame temperature 8 NOx (g/hp/h) effects NOx.6 4 2 Diesel H/C=1.80Methane H/C = 4.0Adiabatic Flame Temperature (K)2950 2900 2850 2800 2750 2700 2650 26001.5 2 2.53 3.5 4 134.5 Hydrocarbon/Carbon Ratio
  14. 14. Relationship Between PM andFuel Composition Combustion Reactor 2220 Experiments Show Clear18 Relationship Between Soot Soot (mg/m3)16and Composition1412 Basic Fuel Parameter is the10Fuel H/C Ratio 864 1.3 1.41.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Fuel H/C Ratio 14
  15. 15. Alternative Fuel PropertiesAlternative Fuel Properties 2-D Diesel PropertyUnitsBiodiesel DME FT Diesel U.S.Cetane Number 5544 5590+ Sulfur < 15 333 00 Nitrogen ppm18114 0 0 Aromatics % mass 03400 DistillationT10C 331217217T50C 343263-24 263T90C 352317300 Specific Gravity 0.880.850.6610.771 ViscositycSt6.0 2.6 0.227 @ 20C2.6 Oxygen% mass11 0 34.740 Heating Value kJ/kg 3712042424293003198315
  16. 16. Presentation OutlineCurrent status of EEC HD LegislationDiesel fuel properties and their effect on emissions Bio-diesel and its effect on emissions.HCCI StatusLight-duty DieselHigh Efficiency Gasoline 16
  17. 17. Biodiesel Tests at SwRI- Hydrocarbon Emissions Biodiesel Tests at SwRI- Hydrocarbon Emissions B100 = 100% biodiesel B20 = 20% biodiesel, 80% diesel Oxygen in biodiesel reduces hydrocarbons0.35 0.30 0.25 HC (G/HP-HR)0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00Cummins N14 DDC Series 50Cummins B5.9TEST ENGINE17 B100 B20 Diesel
  18. 18. Biodiesel Tests at SwRI- CO Emissions Biodiesel Tests at SwRI- CO Emissions B100 = 100% biodiesel B20 = 20% biodiesel, 80% diesel2.5Oxygen in biodiesel reduces hydrocarbons2.0 CO (G/HP-HR)1.51.00.50.0Cummins N14 DDC Series 50 Cummins B5.9TEST ENGINE B100 B202D 18
  19. 19. Biodiesel Tests at SwRI- NOx Emissions Biodiesel Tests at SwRI- NOx Emissions 6.0 5.0 4.0 NOx (G/HP-HR) 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 Cummins N14 DDC Series 50Cummins B5.9 TEST ENGINE 19B100B202D
  20. 20. Effect of biodiesel fuels on particulatesPM versus Oxygen Concentration0.122003 Detroit DieselSeries 60 tested on US0.10heavy-duty transient Diesel fueltest.0.08 PM (g/hp-hr)Biodiesel fuels show0.06significant particulatereductions because of0.04higher oxygen content. Biodiesel0.02SwRI SAE Paper2005-01-36710.0002 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18Oxygen Concentration (%m/m)20
  21. 21. Effect of Biodiesel on Lubricity 800 High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) 700 Biodiesel can 600 significantly improve2% Biodiesel 500 lubricity of diesel fuel, 2% specified in(m) 400 some parts of US. 300200DF2 100DF1 0 0.010.1 110 100Biodiesel (%)21
  22. 22. Presentation OutlineCurrent status of EEC HD LegislationDiesel fuel properties and their effect on emissionsBio-diesel and its effect on emissions. HCCI StatusLight-duty DieselHigh Efficiency Gasoline 22
  23. 23. Diesel Combustion Start of Injection Controls Timing of Ignition High Temp. Diffusion Flame Creates NOx Incomplete Combustion in Fuel Rich Zones 23Causes Soot Formation
  24. 24. Spark Ignition Combustion Ignition Controlled by Spark Timing High Temperature Flame Front Moves ThroughAir and Fuel Mixture Creating NOx24 Pre-ignition (knock) limits torque and efficiency.
  25. 25. HCCI Fuel & Air Charge Undergoes Compression Spontaneous Reaction Throughout Cylinder Low Temperature Reaction Creates Low NOx25 Neither diesel nor gasoline are ideal fuels
  26. 26. Only certain fuels are suitable for HCCIEPAIT is Elevated Pressure Auto-Ignition Temperature; neither diesel or regular gasoline have suitable EPAIT for HCCI 26
  27. 27. The Fuels DimensionFull time HCCI on a ~1.1 liter/cylinder engine. A barrel of oil can yieldEngine driven superchargermore low-octane gasolinePower limited by supercharger speed than high-octane.Gasoline ~80 (R+M)/2BSFC (g/kW-hr) 12 210 2150.050220 10230H-D Euro 6 proposed 2400.040at 0.50 g/kW.h NOx BMEP (bar) 260 8 NOx (g/kW.h) 2800.030300 345 0.02060.010 40.0000 200 400 600 800 10001200 2BMEP (kPa) 1000 1250 15001750 2000 27RPM
  28. 28. Presentation OutlineCurrent status of EEC HD LegislationDiesel fuel properties and their effect on emissionsBio-diesel and its effect on emissions.HCCI Status Light-duty DieselHigh Efficiency Gasoline 28
  29. 29. Zones in Rich-Low Temperature Combustion. LTC (Low Temperature Combustion) HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) PCCI (Premixed Controlled Compression Ignition) SAE 2001-0-0655 ; Toyota & ExxonMobil 65 Soot Soot Equivalence Ratio ASAE 970873 ; Dec 4 A BLocal 3 B 2C D D 1C NO NO6 014001800 2200 2600300029 Local Temperature K
  30. 30. Diesel Tier II Bin 5/23 liter, 4 cylinder engine, 1958 kg SUV 4 speed AT cycle emissions simulated from steady state measurements using RAPTORvehicle model. FTP75 compositeUS06 composite12 18RAPTOR Sim ulationSteady-state full loadSwRI representation16 curve10 14 8NGD3.0E EngineBMEP (bar) for 8 12 BMEP (bar) 5 10 6 Standard/PCCI7 Standard/PCCI 64 8 62 4652 74 3 RAPTOR Simulation 2 LTC (LPL EGR)SwRI Representation 32 4LTC (LPL EGR)FTP-75 Cycle1 1LTC (HPL EGR) LTC (HPL EGR) 00 500 1000 1500 200025003000 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 Engine Speed (rpm ) Engine Speed (rpm) 30
  31. 31. Diesel Tier II Bin 5/2 without NOx aftertreatment? 3 liter, 4 cylinder engine, 1958 kg SUV 4 speed AT cycle emissions simulated from steady state measurements using RAPTORvehicle model.Bin 5 Bin 2 Engine outMiles/120,000 120,000 NOx Gallonmiles miles (g/mile) FTP75NOx limit NOx limitcompositeUS06 FTP750.070 0.020 0.022 26.0 composite US06 0.140 0.140 0.121 19.91812RAPTOR Sim ulationSteady-state full load16curveSwRI representation10814 NGD3.0E Engine BMEP (bar) for 812 BMEP (bar) 51067 Standard/PCCI 6 Standard/PCCI84 2 6 4652 74 3 RAPTOR Simulation 2 LTC (LPL EGR)SwRI Representation 324 LTC (LPL EGR)FTP-75 Cycle1 1LTC (HPL EGR) LTC (HPL EGR) 00 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500Engine Speed (rpm )Engine Speed (rpm) 31
  32. 32. Presentation OutlineCurrent status of EEC HD LegislationDiesel fuel properties and their effect on emissionsBio-diesel and its effect on emissions.HCCI StatusLight-duty Diesel High Efficiency Gasoline 32
  33. 33. Progress on High Efficiency Gasoline 4.5L Engine1800 0.07 Excellent Load Range 1600 BMEP0.06BMEP (kPa), BSFC (g/kW-hr)Engine-Out BSNOx (g/kW-hr) Emissions potential 1400 0.05 very good. Ultra-low1200 0.04 NOx with HC and CO 1000 0.03 typical of SI ranges800 NOx 0.02Key technologies:600 0.011. EGR 400bsfc 0207210209 214220 2. Boost 200 -0.01 3. High Compression0 -0.02 4. Advanced Ignition1000 14001900 2400 2900 5. ControlsEn