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  • 8/11/2019 Sample - Review of Related Literature




    What most astonishes foreigners in the Philippines is that this is a country,

    perhaps the only one in the world, where people buy and sell one stick of cigarette, half

    a head of garlic, a dab of pomade, part of the contents of a can or bottle, one single egg,

    one single banana (Joaquin, 1970). In almost all sari-sari stores in our country, almost all

    sari-sari stores use retail techniques either by takal (by measured volume) or tingi (by

    piece, referring to the division of goods into quantities smaller than is usually available in

    the marketplace. It may either by cigarettes sold by the stick, cooking oil by the cup, etc.

    A recent survey by Synovate of consumer preferences, revealed on a paper by Malapit

    (2007), reports that 63 percent of respondents bought items in tingi, with the majority

    represented in the lowest income groups (D & E market segments). For middle-income

    households, sari-sari stores are convenient sources of emergency and impulse goods,

    whereas for low-income households, sari-sari stores as their extended pantry, getting

    products they need at just the right amounts at the time they need it. According to

    Pabico (2006), tingi has allowed cash-strapped consumers to continue buying items that

    their shoestring budget could afford. Food and culture, undoubtedly, are intimately

    related and mutually constitutive. It is often adduced that one can know a people by what

    they eat and by their methods of food and preparation (Aguilar, 2005).

    According to Global Online ACNielsen Consumer Survey (2006), beyond

    convenience as their reason, one third cited that it is cheaper to purchase ready to eat

    meals rather than buying all the ingredients and preparing from scratch. Same survey

    found that 74% of consumers claimed that they didnt have enough money. The survey

    was from a poll of 22,780 internet users in 41 markets from Europe, Asia Pacific, North

    America to the Baltics.

  • 8/11/2019 Sample - Review of Related Literature


    Meanwhile, regional data for Southeast Asia shows that the Philippines has one

    of the highest incidences of poverty, with 15.5 percent of its population living below $1 a

    day (Global Call Action against Poverty, n.d.). Poor Filipinos survive eating instant

    noodles, which cost P5.50 a pack (Clemente, 2005). Some people would even consume

    more than one instant noodle brand daily (De Guzman, n.d.). Additionally, according to

    Ligan (2007), some families cant afford to eat three meals a day while others may have

    enough budget but make wrong diet choices. It has also been noted that some families

    frequently eat instant food, fast food dishes or oily food, which dont promote good


    In New York, consumers buy ready-made meals, liked the cooked food, because

    there are quite a few people who dont have a chance to cook because they are busy

    with work or they live alone (De Jesus, n.d.). In Thailand (Food Navigator, 2001), most

    consumers want to save and prefer to buy and keep instant foods for consumption in

    case of emergencies. Similarly, according to Asian Journal Online (2004), in a Philippine

    survey, convenience, affordability and the increased incidence of working mothers have

    made eating out, take-out and home deliveries more practical family choices than

    cooking their own meals. Filipino food tastes good, but its a lot of work to make, and

    you cant make it for just one or two people (De Jesus, n.d.).

    Most of the food products commonly taken by the marginalized sector of the

    Philippine society, particularly those in the depressed area, like sardines, instant

    noodles,, are now fortified with micronutrients and have the Sangkap Pinoy Seal)

    label. SPS is the official certification issued by the Department of Health (DOH), through

    the Bureau of Food and Drugs (BFAD), that food products bearing the seal have been

    fortified singly or a combination of the three basic micronutrients, namely Vitamin A, iron

    and iodine ( News, 2005). From chips to instant noodles to chocolate drinks,

    labels have included the term fortified (Veneracion, n.d.). In Belgium, France and

  • 8/11/2019 Sample - Review of Related Literature


    Germany during 2003, Knorr launched a new range of premium quality soups to address

    consumers increasing concerts about nutrition (Unilever, 2003).

  • 8/11/2019 Sample - Review of Related Literature



    Aguilar, Filomeno V. Jr (2005). Rice in the Filipino Diet and Culture. Retrieved July 16,

    2007, from

    ACNielsen Survey (2006). Retrieved July 16, 2007, from

    Asian Journal Online (2004). A Pinoy favorite gets exclusive treatment. Retrieved July

    16, 2007, from

    Clemente, Cherry B. (2005). The Filipino Youth and the Struggle for National Freedom

    and Democracy: What is to be done? Retrieved July 16, 2007, from

    De Guzman, Jin Paul (n.d.). Sealed Meals. Retrieved July 16, 2007, from

    De Jesus, Fatima (n.d.). Savoring the Past and Present. Retrieved July 16, 2007, from

    Food Navigator (2001). Consumer Demands New Flavours for Instant Food Market.

    Retrieved July 16, 2007, from

  • 8/11/2019 Sample - Review of Related Literature


    Global Call Action against Poverty (n.d.). Retrieved July 16, 2007, from News (2005). Survey shows wider use of fortified foods in RP. Retrieved July 16,

    2007, from

    Joaquin, Nick (1970). A Heritage of Smallness. Retrieved July 18, 2007, from

    Malapit, Hazel Jean (2007). The Filipino Sari-Sari Store. Retrieved July 18, 2007, from

    Pabico, Aleckz (2006). Mini-size Me. Retrieved July 18, 2007, from

    Unilever (2003). About Unilever. Retrieved July 16, 2003, from

    Veneracion, Connie (n.d.) Fortified junk food, etc. Retrieved July 16, 2007, from


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