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    K E V I N M . W O O D S ,

    W I L L I A M S O N M U R R A Y, a n d

    T H O M A S H O L A D A Y

    w i t h M O U N I R E L K H A M R I

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    About the Authors

    Kevin M. Woodsis a member of the research staff at the Institute forDefense Anayses (IDA) and since 2003 has been the task eader ofthe Iraqi Perspectives Project. Recent pubications incudeThe Iraqi

    Perspectives Report: Saddams Senior Leadership on Operation IraqiFreedom, andThe Mother of all Battles: Saddam Husseins StrategicPlan for the Persian Gulf War.

    Williamson Murrayis professor emeritus at The Ohio State Universityand senior feow at IDA. He is the author of numerous books and arti-ces. His recent works incudeThe Iraq War: A Military History, The Pastis Prologue(ed.), andA War To Be Won: Fighting the Second World War.

    Thomas Holadayhas a degree in Phiosophy and a minor in Arabic fromGeorgetown University. Since joining IDA, he has researched the miitary-

    strategic history of Iraq whie working on the Iraqi Perspectives Project. Mounir Elkhamriis a Midde East miitary anayst and inguist forthe U.S. Army Foreign Miitary Studies Office. His artices incudeDeaing with the Iraqi popuace: an Arab-American sodiers perspec-tive (Military Review) and Irans Contribution to the Civi War in Iraq(Jamestown Foundation).

    Laila Sabarais senior inguist for both the Terrorism PerspectivesProject and the Iraqi Perspectives Project at IDA. Previousy, she workedas an Arab inguist supporting the U.S. Senate and the Departments of

    Defense, Homeand Security, and Justice.

    The National Defense University (NDU) educates military and civilianleaders through teaching, research, and outreach in national security strategy,national military strategy, and national resource strategy; joint and multinationaloperations; information strategies, operations, and resource management;acquisition; and regional defense and security studies.

    The Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS) is a policy research

    and strategic gaming organization within NDU serving the Department of Defense,its components, and interagency partners. Established in 1984, the instituteprovides senior decisionmakers with timely, objective analysis and gaming eventsand supports NDU educational programs in the areas of international securityaffairs and defense strategy and policy. Through an active outreach program,including conferences and publications, INSS seeks to promote understandingof emerging strategic challenges and policy options.

    The National Defense University Press publishes books, monographs,reports, and occasional papers on national and international security affairs,defense policy, and military strategy, primarily the output of university research

    and academic programs. In addition, it produces Joint Force Quarterly, aprofessional military and security studies journal published for the Chairmanof the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

    Cover: A view from Wasit Province, Iraq, across the border into Iran (U.S. Army photo by Spc. Tiffany Dusterhoft)

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    Kevin M. Woods, Williamson Murray,and Thomas Holaday

    with Mounir Elkhamri

    InstItute for natIonal strategIc studIes

    natIonal defense unIversIty

    WashIngton d.c.

    9

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    t pii i mmi xp impiwii i p iw dpm d f gm. ti pb-ii i pbi ; iibi imi.

    exp mp p 47 51 5 68 pi i wk mb q pi wi pmii pi ii i i. ndu P w ppi p pi iw.

    This work was conducted under contract DASW01-04-C-003, Task ET-8-2579 or the

    National Intelligence Council. The publication o this IDA document does not in-

    dicate endorsement by the Department o Deense, nor should the contents be

    construed as reecting the ofcial position o the Agency.

    2007, 2008 Institute or Deense Analyses, 4850 Mark Center Drive, Alexandria,

    Virginia 22311-1882 (703) 845-2000.

    This material may be reproduced by or or the U.S. Government pursuant to the

    copyright license under the clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 (Nov 95).

    First printing, March 2009

    ISSN 10717552

    NDU Press publications are sold by the U.S. Government Printing Ofce. For ordering

    information, call (202) 512-1800 or write to the Superintendent of Documents, U.S.

    Government Printing Ofce, Washington, DC 20402. For the U.S. Government On-line

    Bookstore, go to:

    .

    For current publications o the Institute or National Strategic Studies, go to the NDU

    Press Web site at:.

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    iii

    c

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    P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi

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    B P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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    I-Iq W (1981988) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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    t I-Iq c-W i 199 . . . . . . 17

    cmm sm hi Pii

    Mii l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

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    iv

    t Iiw. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

    dii o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19ab-Ii W 1967 197 Mii tii Bi r

    dii tw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Iqi Mii Pii tii 197 P I-Iq W tii Ii lip Mii dii I sm apii ei P W Pii Pisi diiz cmm c Ii opi

    dii t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Early Use of Air Power SIGINT [Signals Intelligence] Wi 1981981Iqi cmm c sm rp fi exi 198198 l am expi dpm Ii Iqif

    dii f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

    sm P Pi dpm J 1981 amB Ii hm W ti Iqi Mii Kmii spii- I B ab Km l spi f e Iii Iqi oi i M 1981

    dii fi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491981198 tb i t Ii Iii ti 198 ak B 19841988 M Iii Iqi eii e

    Ii spp I cmi Wp u Ii r-sponse to Weapons of Mass Destruction Postwar Preparations with WMD 198198 rizi rii rpbi g P-i spp sm tp Pw rpbi g ri-zi

    dii six . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6smm 198 Ii oi i hj um n Mi op-i Ki spp a 1-kim f t dm

    B upib Ii s ti fb 1984Iqi 6 am diii l Ii M opi Iidpm si spp i M 1985

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    v

    dii s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71986 Al-Fao Campaign and Baghdads Misinterpretation of Iranian Strategy

    ti i Iqi lip Pi W opi Dawn Iqic cmpii Bi Mi

    dii ei . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77rpbi g expi rp a-f hi Km g hmi cmm ob 1987 Ii ak B c Ii smj: t smm I-Iq W hmiv f Bi cii

    dii ni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8J 1987 rpbi g cmm c Bi Mii h-bj f P-1987 si i ci f w IqPi e a-f oi u hip f 1988 J1988 Iqi Ii az Mji--Kq

    dii t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9fi Iqi Mii sm dim I hm-

    i e Imp Iqi Mii c Qii Mii o Pi l l m I-Iq W fi fw

    W sm Ppi vi W

    dii e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95si W h 197 opi Iraqi Freedom sm Mi-i W hmi rii u.s. s i u-i o em

    dii tw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1199 Mii Pi i I hii expi I-Iqci rii ei em emi ri ap(Pi g) s -ab I Bim Kmii Pci Ii Q I

    dii ti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Pi Ii a Ii s Iis a exi Ii Mii dpm cp-biii Mii Ii t Iq Iii I a

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    vi

    Iqi ciii Ii Miii Iqi Mii dpmi 1991 cpi tib

    dii f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119r rii i I-Iq ci hpi Iqi oi aiI P Ppi Ii I i Iq abi B- K ai Mii sik Mii-Ii cmpx y Ii gi sm Wp si ti op-i obji Ii l l Ii Mii d

    dii fi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17am opi B Wi Mi sm Mi-i Mii t Ii hip tk cp-biii l l ai Iq I c i Iicmm c Ii ti opi dpm

    dii six. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1rmmi u.s. ai i Iq m M 7

    e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17Bibip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

    Ix tm i dii . . . . . . . . . . 144

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    vii

    fi

    fi 1. fz h m i gs gm am i W W II . . . . . xiii

    fi . g r hmi () m Iqi

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    mmb Pj 1946 m . . . xi

    fi . t iii Iqi ii I spmb 198 . 9fi 4. t w (i

    Km) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

    fi 5. s w . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

    fi 6. g hmi k Ii

    iii i 198 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

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    1981986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

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    1981986 . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

    fi 9. Bb s -ab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

    fi 1. Mp K-simi b

    wi g hmi mki . . . . . . . . .117

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    fw

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