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  • Sacrifice, cult, and atonement in early JudaiSm and chriStianity

    SBL P

    ress

  • reSourceS for BiBlical Study

    Editormarvin a. Sweeney, old testament/hebrew Bible

    number 85

    SBL P

    ress

  • Sacrifice, cult, and atonement in early JudaiSm and chriStianity

    constituents and critique

    Edited by

    henrietta l. Wiley and christian a. eberhart

    SBL P

    ress

  • copyright 2017 by SBl Press

    all rights reserved. no part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by means of any information storage or retrieval system, except as may be expressly permit-ted by the 1976 copyright act or in writing from the publisher. requests for permission should be addressed in writing to the rights and Permissions office, SBl Press, 825 hous-ton mill road, atlanta, Ga 30329 uSa.

    library of congress cataloging-in-Publication data

    names: eberhart, christian, editor. | Wiley, henrietta l., editor.title: Sacrifice, cult, and atonement in early Judaism and christianity : constituents and

    critique / edited by henrietta l. Wiley and christian a. eberhart.description: atlanta : SBl Press, [2017] | Series: resources for biblical study ; number 85

    | This volume features a selection of presentations delivered at annual conferences of the Society of Biblical literature for the Sacrifice, cult, and atonement section between the years 2011 and 2014introduction. | includes bibliographical references and index.

    identifiers: lccn 2017009199 (print) | lccn 2017010558 (ebook) | iSBn 9781628371550 (pbk. : alk. paper) | iSBn 9780884141914 (hardcover : alk. paper) | iSBn 9780884141907 (ebook)

    Subjects: lcSh: SacrificeJudaismcongresses. | temple of Jerusalem (Jerusalem)congresses. | Purity, ritualcongresses. | atonementcongresses. | atonement (Judaism)congresses.

    classification: lcc Bm715 .S23 2017 (print) | lcc Bm715 (ebook) | ddc296.4/92dc23lc record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017009199

    Printed on acid-free paper.

    Atlanta

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  • contents

    acknowledgments ............................................................................................viabbreviations ....................................................................................................ix

    introduction: constituents and critique of Sacrifice, cult, and atonement in early Judaism and christianity christian a. eberhart ................................................................................1

    Part 1: Purification: Perspectives from the torah and the dead Sea Scrolls

    The Purgation of Persons through the Purification offeringJoshua m. Vis ............................................................................................33

    She Shall remain in (accordance to) her Blood-of-Purification: ritual dynamics of defilement and Purification in leviticus 12dorothea erbele-Kster ..........................................................................59

    accessing holiness via ritual ablutions in the dead Sea Scrolls and related literaturehannah K. harrington ............................................................................71

    Part 2: Sacrifice: ritual aspects and Prophetic critique

    a reexamination of the ancient israelite Gesture of hand Placementdavid calabro ...........................................................................................99

    i Will not accept Them: Sacrifice and reciprocity in the Prophetic literatureaaron Glaim ...........................................................................................125

    Prophetic cult-criticism in Support of Sacrificial Worship? The case of JeremiahGran eidevall ........................................................................................151SB

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  • What to me is the multitude of your Sacrifices?: exploring the critique of Sacrificial cult and the metaphors for yhWh in the Prophetic lawsuit (micah 6:18 and isaiah 1:120)ma. maricel S. ibita ...............................................................................169

    Part 3: atonement: alternative concepts

    to atone or not to atone: remarks on the day of atonement rituals according to leviticus 16 and the meaning of atonementchristian a. eberhart ............................................................................197

    cultic action and cultic function in Second temple Jewish martyrologies: The Jewish martyrs as israels yom KippurJarvis J. Williams .....................................................................................233

    resistance is not futile: restraint as cultic action in 2 Thessalonians 2:112ross e. Winkle ........................................................................................265

    Part 4: temple and Priesthood: rethinking Sacred authority

    Pillars, foundations, and Stones: individual Believers as constituent Parts of the early christian communal templetimothy Wardle ......................................................................................289

    not one Stone Will Be left on another: The destruction of the temple and the crucifixion of Jesus in marks Gospelnicole Wilkinson duran .......................................................................311

    you are What you Wear: The dress and identity of Jesus as high Priest in Johns apocalypseross e. Winkle ........................................................................................327

    Bibliography ...................................................................................................347list of contributors .......................................................................................393ancient Sources index ..................................................................................399Subject index ..................................................................................................425

    vi contentS

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  • acknowledgments

    this volume makes the scholarly work of the Sacrifice, cult, and atone-ment section, which until 2016 convened once a year at the annual meet-ing of the Society of Biblical literature, available to a wider academic audi-ence. as chairs of this program unit, we wish to thank the members of the steering committee Bill Gilders, Steve finlan, Jason tatlock, and nicole duran for their collaboration. they have pursued the themes of this pro-gram section with scholarly rigor and professional engagement for almost a decade. We have experienced their team spirit, felt their enthusiasm, benefitted from their expertise, and appreciated their creative ideas. We would also like to express our deep gratitude to the multitude of biblical scholars who contributed their research first through presentations and then in writing.

    moreover, we are very thankful to Bob Buller and nicole l. tilford of SBl Press for their continued interest in the topic of this collection of essays and the pleasant cooperation during the process of its production and to marvin a. Sweeney, hebrew Bible editor of Society of Biblical lit-erature resources for Biblical Study, who adopted the present volume into this series. Special thanks are directed to Wipf & Stock/Pickwick for the kindness of granting permissions to reprint a chapter of the book by Jarvis J. Williams, Christ Died For Our Sins: Representation and Substitution in Romans and Their Jewish Martyrological Background (eugene, or: Pick-wick, 2015), under the title representation and Substitution in Second temple Jewish martyrologies. it provides a fitting contribution to the sec-tion on the theme of atonement in the present volume.

    We gratefully acknowledge that the following funds were made avail-able to support the finalization of the manuscript and its preparation for publication: first, a Project completion Grant by the college of liberal arts and Social Sciences at the university of houston; we are grateful to anadeli Bencomo, associate dean for faculty and research at this col-lege, for her continued support. a second book completion grant was

    -vii -SB

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  • graciously awarded from the Pangborn fund by the School of arts, Sci-ences, and Business at notre dame of maryland university. our thanks go particularly to Sabita Persaud, chair of the committee for faculty research and development at ndmu, for her enthusiasm and support for this project.

    We would also like to express our gratitude to monika c. mller, lektorat texttradition // academic Bible Services, friedrichsdorf (Ger-many), and robert matthew calhoun, houston (tX), for providing excellent editorial assistance, helping with the task of proof reading, compiling the indexes, and giving much valuable advice. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of robert Gaddie, student at the university of houston, who aided with the task of proofreading. We thank James W. Watts of Syracuse university, who has been an experienced mentor for this annual conference section of the Society of Biblical literature and a good friend for more than a decade. finally we are specifically grateful to the lanier theological library (houston, texas), its founders mark and Becky lanier, and its director charles mickey for their support and gener-osity during the work of finalizing this volume.

    christian a. eberhart (houston, texas)henrietta l. Wiley (Baltimore, maryland)

    viii acKnoWledGmentS

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  • abbreviations

    aB anchor BibleABD Anchor Bible Dictionary. edited by david n. freed-

    man. 6 vols. new york: doubleday, 1992.avot r. nat. avot de rabbi nathanaBrl anchor Bible reference libraryacBib academia Biblicaadj. adjective, ad