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MICROCOMP output fileS. Hrg. 106–428
PRIVATE BANKING AND MONEY LAUNDERING: A CASE STUDY OF OPPORTUNITIES AND VULNERABILITIES
HEARINGS BEFORE THE
COMMITTEE ON
GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS
(
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402
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(II)
COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS
FRED THOMPSON, Tennessee, Chairman WILLIAM V. ROTH, Jr., Delaware TED STEVENS, Alaska SUSAN M. COLLINS, Maine GEORGE V. VOINOVICH, Ohio PETE V. DOMENICI, New Mexico THAD COCHRAN, Mississippi ARLEN SPECTER, Pennsylvania JUDD GREGG, New Hampshire
JOSEPH I. LIEBERMAN, Connecticut CARL LEVIN, Michigan DANIEL K. AKAKA, Hawaii RICHARD J. DURBIN, Illinois ROBERT G. TORRICELLI, New Jersey MAX CLELAND, Georgia JOHN EDWARDS, North Carolina
HANNAH S. SISTARE, Staff Director and Counsel JOYCE A. RECHTSCHAFFEN, Minority Staff Director and Counsel
DARLA D. CASSELL, Administrative Clerk
PERMANENT SUBCOMMITTEE ON INVESTIGATIONS
SUSAN M. COLLINS, Maine, Chairman WILLIAM V. ROTH, JR., Delaware TED STEVENS, Alaska GEORGE V. VOINOVICH, Ohio PETE V. DOMENICI, New Mexico THAD COCHRAN, Mississippi ARLEN SPECTER, Pennsylvania
CARL LEVIN, Michigan DANIEL K. AKAKA, Hawaii RICHARD J. DURBIN, Illinois MAX CLELAND, Georgia JOHN EDWARDS, North Carolina
K. LEE BLALACK, II, Chief Counsel and Staff Director LINDA J. GUSTITUS, Minority Chief Counsel and Staff Director
MARY D. ROBERTSON, Chief Clerk
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(III)
C O N T E N T S
Opening statements: Page Senator Collins ................................................................................................. 1, 71 Senator Levin .................................................................................................... 4, 72 Senator Specter ................................................................................................. 8 Senator Cochran ............................................................................................... 9
WITNESSES TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 9, 1999
Robert L. Roach, Counsel to the Minority, Permanent Subcommittee on Inves- tigations ................................................................................................................ 10
Elise J. Bean, Deputy Chief Counsel to the Minority, Permanent Sub- committee on Investigations ................................................................................ 13
Amy C. Elliott, Vice President, Citibank Private Bank, New York .................... 18 Albert Misan, Vice President, Citibank Private Bank, New York ....................... 20 Alain Ober, Vice President, Citibank Private Bank, New York .......................... 36 G. Edward Montero, Senior Executive, Citibank Private Bank, New York ....... 37 John Reed, Chairman and Co-Chief Executive Officer, Citigroup, New York,
accompanied by Todd Thomson, Chief Executive Officer, Citibank Private Bank, New York, and Mark Musi, Chief Compliance and Control Officer, Citibank Private Bank, New York ...................................................................... 50
WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 10, 1999
Antonio Giraldi, Former Private Banker, currently in Federal Prison for Money Laundering ............................................................................................... 74
Raymond W. Baker, Guest Scholar in Economic Studies, The Brookings Insti- tution, Washington, DC ....................................................................................... 84
Ralph E. Sharpe, Deputy Comptroller for Community and Consumer Policy, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC ................................................................................................... 92
Richard A. Small, Assistant Director, Division of Banking Supervision and Regulation, Federal Reserve System, Washington, DC .................................... 96
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF WITNESSES
Baker, Raymond W.: Testimony .......................................................................................................... 84 Prepared statement with an attachment ....................................................... 1053
Bean, Elise J.: Testimony .......................................................................................................... 13 Prepared statement (Minority Staff Report on Private Banking and
Money Laundering: A Case Study of Opportunities and Vulner- abilities) ......................................................................................................... 872
Elliott, Amy Testimony .......................................................................................................... 18 Prepared statement .......................................................................................... 940
Giraldi, Antonio: Testimony .......................................................................................................... 74 Prepared statement .......................................................................................... 1003
Misan, Albert: Testimony .......................................................................................................... 20 Prepared statement .......................................................................................... 946
Montero, G. Edward: Testimony .......................................................................................................... 37 Prepared statement .......................................................................................... 953
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Reed, John: Testimony .......................................................................................................... 50 Prepared statement with attachments ........................................................... 957
Roach, Robert L. Testimony .......................................................................................................... 10 Prepared statement (Minority Staff Report on Private Banking and
Money Laundering: A Case Study of Opportunities and Vulner- abilities) ......................................................................................................... 872
Sharpe, Ralph E.: Testimony .......................................................................................................... 92 Prepared statement .......................................................................................... 1079
Small, Richard A.: Testimony .......................................................................................................... 96 Prepared statement .......................................................................................... 1101
EXHIBITS
Note: ‘‘Citibank PBG’’ refers to Citibank Private Bank Group, an organiza- tional unit within Citigroup
1. Chart: Structure of Trocca, Ltd. ...................................................................... 111 2. Chart: Flow of the Salinas Funds ................................................................... 112 3. Chart: Salinas Cashiers Checks Through Citicorp Mexico ............................ 113 4. 4/92 Citibank documentation policy ................................................................ 114 5. 5/92 Salinas account opening documentation ................................................. 123 6. 9/91 Citibank client acceptance policy ............................................................ 127 7. Excerpt from 3/1/95 Salinas client profile ...................................................... 133 8. 9/15/92 e-mail from Reynaldo Figueiredo on ‘‘Client Information—Policy
and Procedures’’ ................................................................................................ 134 9. 12/8/93 e-mail from G. Edward Montero on ‘‘Client Profile/Suitability/
Sales Practices’’ ................................................................................................. 136 10. ‘‘Rumors of Corruption Besiege Mexico’s President,’’ Sacramento Bee,
(8/11/93) ............................................................................................................. 138 11. a. Excerpts from transcript of 3/1/95 telephone conversations among
Citibank Private Bank personnel (Amy C. Elliott, Pedro Homen, and Sarah Bevan) ................................................................................................ 141
b. Excerpts from transcript of 3/1/95 telephone conversations between Citibank Private Bank personnel (Pedro Homen and Amy C. Elliott) ... 142
12. 1996 President Bongo’s client profile .............................................................. 143 13. 6/25/97 KYC [Know Your Client] Deficiencies review of Abacha sons’
client profile ...................................................................................................... 144 14. 4/28/97 e-mail to Alain Ober and others from Christopher L. Rogers
on President Bongo’s press clippings .............................................................. 145 15. 11/6/98 e-mail to Salim Raza from Christopher L. Rogers on closing
President Bongo’s accounts .............................................................................. 147 16. 9/15/98 Citibank Private Bank memorandum from Belma Kusoglu to
Credit Committee regarding $39.1 million overdraw .................................... 148 17. Excerpts from Citibank Private Bank brochure ............................................. 149 18. Excerpts from transcript of 3/1/95 telephone conversations among Citi-
bank Private Bank personnel (Hubertus Rukavina, Pedro Homen, Tom Salmon, Sarah Bevan, Joanne Sciortino) ....................................................... 151
19. 4/14/97 Citibank Private Bank memorandum to File from Alain Ober regarding source of funds in President Bongo’s accounts ............................. 154
20. 6/18/97 OCC memorandum to Bank File from Steven D. Lindsey, OCC National Bank Examiner regarding ‘‘Related files of El Hadj Omar Bongo, President of Gabon (Africa)’’ ............................................................................ 155
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21. U.S. General Accounting Office Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate, Private Banking: Raul Salinas, Citibank, and Al- leged Money Laundering, October 1998 .......................................................... 159
22. Statement for the Record of Robert H. Hast, Acting Assistant Comptroller General for Investigations, Office of Special Investigation, U.S. General Accounting Office, Private Banking: Paul Salinas, Citibank, and Alleged Money Laundering, November 9, 1999 ........................................................... 171
23. Statement for the Record of Thomas J. McCool, Director, Financial Insti- tutions and Markets Issues, General Government Division, U.S. General Accounting Office, Money Laundering: Observations on Private Banking and Related Oversight of Selected Offshore Jurisdictions ............................. 182
24. Statement for the Record of Stuart E. Eizenstat, Treasury Deputy Sec- retary ................................................................................................................. 198
25. Supplemental questions and answers for the record of the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations’ Minority Staff ............................................ 204
26. Supplemental questions and answers for the record of John Reed, Chair- man, Citigroup, Inc. .......................................................................................... 206
27. Supplemental questions and answers for the record of Ralph Sharpe, Deputy Comptroller, Community and Consumer Policy, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency ............................................................................ 216
28. Supplemental questions and answers for the record of Richard A. Small, Assistant Director, Division of Banking Supervision and Regulation, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System ...................................... 224
29. Citibank comments on the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations’ Minority Staff Report on Private Banking and Money Laundering ............. 231
30. Documents relating to Raul Salinas: a. Citibank summary of Salinas account totals and client net revenue
[CB21344] ...................................................................................................... 238 b. 6/92 monthly business letter projecting Salinas account of $15–$20
million [CB24979–82] ................................................................................... 239 c. 6/16/92 memorandum from Jim Parker [CB24610–12] ............................. 243 d. 1992 client acceptance checklists with public figure designations
[CB24613–14; CB24572] .............................................................................. 246 e. Review memorandum for Trocca, Ltd. account [CB24483–84] ................. 249 f. 8/17/93 document on lunch with Salinas, Rhodes, Montero, Elliott
[CB9453] ......................................................................................................... 251 g. 7/11/94 memorandum from Ariana Fleischmann on meeting between
Confidas personnel and Mr. and Mrs. Salinas [CB24617–18] .................. 252 h. Memorandum from Amy C. Elliott on revealing client name [CB24907–
8] .................................................................................................................... 254 i. 3/1/95 memorandum from Sara Bevan regarding Salinas ‘‘Public Fig-
ure’’ classification and origin of wealth [CB23250] .................................... 256 j. 3/3/95 memorandum from Amy C. Elliott on accepting Mr. Salinas
as a client [CB7178–79] ................................................................................ 257 k. 11/14/95 memorandum from Clark Kall on Swiss meeting with Mrs.
Salinas [CB24607] ........................................................................................ 259 l. 9/18/95 memorandum from Clark Kall and Ariana Fleischmann on
closing accounts [CB24978] .......................................................................... 260 m. 11/21/94 memorandum from Robert D. Agosti on documents for re-
questing parties [CB9449] ........................................................................... 261 n. Minutes of Citibank Board of Directors meetings summarizing discus-
sions of the Salinas matter: ......................................................................... 262 11/21/95 [CB21345]; 12/19/95 [CB21347–8]
o. 11/18/97 communication from John Reed to Citibank Board, including discussion of the Salinas matter [CS7462–63] ........................................... 265
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p. Tape transcripts of Citibank employee conversations regarding man- agement and status of Salinas’ accounts: ................................................... 267
3/1/95 11:07 AM [CB22428–54]; 3/1/95 1:59 PM [CB22319–27]; 3/1/95 2:38 PM [CB22328–32]; 3/1/95 2:47 PM [CB22079–81]; 3/1/95 2:51 PM [CB22467–72]; 3/1/95 3:02 PM [CB22456–57]; 3/1/95 3:11 PM [CB22458–60]; 3/1/95 4:31 PM [CB24655–64]; 3/2/95 11:41 AM [CB22336–40]; 11/14/95 3:08 PM [CB24640–41]
q. Undated memorandum from Bob Fox on management of Salinas’ ac- counts in Mexico City [CB4584–85] ............................................................ 339
r. Chart entitled, ‘‘Preliminary list of FX and Funds Transfers,’’ describ- ing transfers of Salinas’ funds from Citibank’s Mexico City branch to a concentration account in New York [CB25018] .................................. 341
s. Documents related to cash flows and balances in Salinas’ accounts: ....... 342 Two 1-page memoranda on 1993 and 1994 cash flows [CB23079, CB1128]; 6/29/93 memorandum from Amy C. Elliott [CB22908]; 1/95 documents on sending Salinas’ funds through another bank [CB23412–14]; 11/15/95 memorandum from Amy C. Elliott detailing certain fund transfers from Salinas’ accounts [CB7180–83]; 2/2/96 document prepared by Scotland Yard on transactions in Sali- nas’ accounts
t. Documents related to due diligence policies and implementation: ........... 355 1992 concentration account memos [CB24896–903]; 9/25/92 memorandum from Edward J. Kowalcyk on client profiles [CB14628–30]; 1/22/93 memorandum from Albert Misan on due diligence [CB15410]; 3/11/93 memorandum from Edward J. Kowalcyk on BR&C review [CB15836–39]; 12/8/93 memorandum from G. Edward Montero on client profiles [CB14626–27]; One page summary of deadlines and required reviews established in 12/8/93 memorandum [CB11455]; 1/94 review of Mexico team client profiles in New York [CB24909– 49; CB7236]; 5/6/94 memorandum from Albert Misan on client profile audit [CB18311–21]; 2/21/95 memorandum from Albert Misan with 9/30/94 memo on pro- files [CB14631–39]; 6/1/95 memorandum from G. Edward Montero on client profiles [CB16534–36]; 9/7/95 memorandum from Albert Misan on cash deposits [CB11909]; 12/22/95 memorandum from Edward J. Kowalcyk on Mexico-New York team BR&C review [CB24904]; 4/10/96 memorandum from Albert Misan with 4/9/96 memorandum from G. Edward Montero on client profiles [CB15398–400]
u. Citibank Client Account Management System [CAMS] Screen profiles of Raul Salinas: ............................................................................................ 416
3/1/95 [CB17293]; 3/8/95 [CB17286]; 3/15/95 [CB17281]; 11/22/95—includes handwritten edits [CB21433]; 11/29/95 [CB7196]
v. List of meetings that Citibank personnel had with Mr. and Mrs. Sali- nas, prepared by Citibank [CB23814–16A] ................................................ 421
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w. Documents related to corruption allegations involving Raul Salinas: .... 425 ‘‘Rumors of Corruption Besiege Mexico’s President,’’ Sacramento Bee (8/11/93); ‘‘Raul’s Shady Business at CONASUPO,’’ Proceso (12/4/95); Este Pais excerpts (8/1/92); ‘‘Agricultural trade—big business for U.S. and Mexico,’’ U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (3/92)
x. Documents related to the structure of Salinas’ Trust and PICs: ............. 435 Diagram of Trust-PIC structure [CB2418]; UK Non-Residence Declaration Form for Trocca, Ltd. [CB24579]; Register of Directors and Officers of Trocca, Ltd. [CB23446]; 7/22/92 Declaration of Trust, Brennan Ltd. [CB23686]; 6/30/93 Declaration of Trust, Brennan Ltd. [CB23677]; 11/24/92 memorandum from Carlos Gomez forwarding a request from Amy C. Elliott for documentation confirming to Raul Salinas that he is the beneficial owner of Trocca, Ltd. [CB23361]; 2/16/95 memorandum from Arthur Vogt regarding another Salinas PIC, Birchwood Heights Ltd. [CB23901]; Register of Shareholders of Birchwood Heights Ltd. [CB23976]
y. 6/5/96 memorandum from Alvaro de Souza on Citibank’s position on a Salinas matter [CB16996–97] .................................................................. 443
31. Documents relating to Asif Ali Zardari: a. 2/27/95 Swiss Form A identifying Asif Ali Zardari as the beneficial
owner of the Capricorn Trading S.A. account in the Citibank Private Bank in Switzerland [600] ........................................................................... 445
b. Wire transfer records documenting transfers of $18 million into Mr. Zardari’s Capricorn Trading S.A. account in Dubai and transfers of $18.3 million out of the Dubai account into the Capricorn Trading S.A. account in Citibank Private Bank in Switzerland: ............................ 446
10/5/94 transfer of $5 million from A.R.Y. International Exchange into the Capricorn Trading S.A. account in Citibank in Dubai [X6903–4]; 10/6/94 transfer of $5 million from A.R.Y. International Exchange into the Capricorn Trading S.A. account in Citibank in Dubai [X6900–2]; 2/24/95 transfer of $8 million from Morgan NYC into the Capricorn Trading S.A. account in Citibank in Dubai [X6905–8]; 3/6/95 transfer of $8.1 million from the Capricorn Trading S.A. ac- count in Citibank in Dubai into the Capricorn Trading S.A. account in Citibank Private Bank in Switzerland [X6894–99]; 5/3/95 transfer of $10.2 million from the Capricorn Trading S.A. account in Citibank in Dubai into the Capricorn Trading S.A. account in Citibank Private Bank in Switzerland [X6890–93]; 5/4/94 record of Citibank Private Bank in Switzerland credit of $10.2 million to account of Capricorn Trading S.A. [599]
c. Mandate Agreement between Asif Ali Zardari and Jens Schlegelmilch concerning Bomer Finance, Inc. [601–2] ..................................................... 466
d. Mandate Agreement between Begum Nusrat Bhutto and Jens Schlegelmilch concerning Mariston Securities, Inc. [603–4] ..................... 468
e. British Virgin Islands Certificate of Incorporation for Capricorn Trad- ing S.A. [605] ................................................................................................. 470
f. 6/29/94 letter from Cotecna Inspection S.A., stating that if it receives a contract from the government of Pakistan for the inspection and price verification of imported goods, it will pay Mariston Securities, Inc., 6 percent of the payments made under the contract [597] ................ 471
g. 12/11/97 communication from John Reed to Citibank Board, including a discussion of the Zardari matter [CS7464–5] .......................................... 472
h. List of meetings between Mr. Zardari and Citibank personnel, provided by Citibank ................................................................................................... 474
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32. Documents relating to El Hadj Omar Bongo: a. Attachment A to 9/23/99 letter to Subcommittee from Citibank legal
counsel, summarizing accounts related to Omar Bongo, President of Gadon, referred to as ‘‘Client 1a,’’ and his offshore corporation, Tendin Investments, Ltd., referred to as ‘‘Client 1b’’ ............................................. 478
b. 15-year record, 1985–1999, of Tendin account funds, prepared by Citibank Private Bank [X2557] ................................................................... 479
c. 5/95 Tendin Investments Ltd. 1-page document [X4318] .......................... 480 d. Excerpts from client profiles prepared by Citibank PBG for President
Bongo’s accounts: .......................................................................................... 481 New York PBG profile, 1996 [X2444, 2448, 2450, 2451, 2454]; New York PBG profile, prepared before or on 2/13/97 [X4328]; New York PBG ‘‘Full Profile’’ prepared after 10/31/97 [X6695–98]; London PBG KYC Client Acceptance Checklist, 1998 [X6320–21, 6326]; London PBG ‘‘Extended Entity Profile,’’ 1999 [X6301–3]
e. Excerpts from OS account documentation: ................................................. 497 New York PBG ‘‘Client File’’ [X3340–43]; 10/24/95 OS account opening documentation [X3353–56, 3358, 3360– 61]; 2/9/96 letter from President Bongo to New York PBG [739]; 2/9/96 Security Agreement [737–38]; 2/12/96 memorandum to ‘‘Credit’’ from Luella A. Gentles, senior ac- count officer [736]
f. 3/9/95 memorandum to Donnelle Knowles from Alain Ober on using codes [X2374] ................................................................................................. 512
g. 6/92 documents on $100,000 cash withdrawal [734] ................................. 513 h. 5/94 documents on $69,035 check [714] ...................................................... 514 i. Excerpts from documentation related to extensions of credit to Presi-
dent Bongo, 1986–1998: ................................................................................ 515 1986 credit approval recommendation [851]; 1/9/90 e-mail to William Owen from C.O. Grant [769]; 8/30/90 e-mail to Christopher L. Rogers from Len Maestra [770]; 7/92 credit approval document for $24.4 million [757]; 8/92 credit approval document for $27.5 million [756]; 2/16/93 e-mail to Angelica De Robien from Rudolph Thomson on overdraft facility [847]; 2/17/93 letter to Angelica De Robien from Tendin Investments, Ltd., on overdraft facility [848]; 2/18/93 document by William P. Owen on Tendin overdraft facilities and loans [755]; 11/93 credit approval document for $47.7 million [751–52]; 2/94 credit approval document for $50.1 million [750]; 4/94 credit approval/annual review [X2536–37]; 4/95 credit approval/annual review [X2528, 2530]; 4/95 facility renewal recommendation, Paris PBG [X7043–44]; 6/20/95 e-mail to Salim Raza from Alain Ober on Product Suitability [X2286]; 2/96 facility memorandum [X2525]; 4/96 credit approval/annual review [X2522, 2524]; 6/96 and 7/96 e-mails related to overdraft facilities [X7059–60]; 10/97 credit approval/annual review [X2504]; 10/98 credit approval/annual review [X2418]
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j. Excerpts from documents related to internal Citibank PBG inquiries into President Bongo’s accounts: .................................................................. 540
1996 Sensitivity Hot Sheet [X6887]; 10/21/96 memorandum to Alain Ober from Angelo Fusaro regarding Tendin accounts, with an attachment [835–43]; 12/4/96 handwritten reply from Alain Ober with an attachment [X6874, 6876]; 6/12/98 PBG call report from Alain Ober with reference to attempted fraud [X2479]
k. Documents related to Federal Examiners review of President Bongo’s accounts: ........................................................................................................ 553
12/10/96 memorandum to Christopher L. Rogers from Alain Ober on $52 million [X2283]; 12/11/96 reply from Christopher L. Rogers to Alain Ober [X7056]; 2/26/97 memorandum to Nuhad Saliba from Alain Ober on credit extensions [X7066]
l. Documents related to 1996 and 1997 deposits into President Bongo’s accounts: ......................................................................................................... 556
12/96 e-mails on transfer from Gabon treasury to Tendin accounts [X7063]; 1/7/97 e-mail to Donnelle Knowles from Alain Ober on Gabon treas- ury funds deposit [X7064]; 2/97 e-mails on deposits into President Bongo’s accounts [X7065]; 2/25/97 facsimile to Donnelle Knowles from Alain Ober on failure to invest deposited funds [X7067–68]; 2/26/97 e-mail to Donnelle Knowles from Alain Ober on deposits to ‘‘OS’’ and Tendin accounts [X4314]
m. Documents related to OCC review of President Bongo’s accounts: ......... 562 4/9/97 memorandum to Alain Ober from Christopher L. Rogers on source of funds [X4315–17]; 4/11/97 memorandum to File from Alain Ober on source of funds [X6694]; 4/14/97 memorandum to File from Alain Ober on source of funds [693]; 4/28/97 e-mail to Alain Ober from Christopher L. Rogers on France- Gabon Paris Press Clippings [X7054–55]; 6/18/97 memorandum to Bank File from OCC National Bank Exam- iner Steven D. Lindsey on President Bongo’s accounts [689–92] (Also printed above in Exhibit 20.)
n. 1998 Quality Assurance—KYC Scorecards: ............................................... 573 Tendin accounts [X2477–78]; OS accounts [X3414–15]
o. Documents related to closing President Bongo’s accounts: ....................... 577 11/6/98 e-mail to Salim Raza from Christopher L. Rogers [X7045]; 12/24/98 e-mail to Salim Raza from Christopher L. Rogers [X7048]; 1/15/99 e-mail to Anjum Z. Iqbal from Christopher L. Rogers [X7049]; 2/1/99 e-mails on closing accounts [X7051]; 3/1/99 e-mail to Salim Raza and Anjum Z. Iqbal from Christopher L. Rogers [X7052]; 6/99 Transaction monitoring report, London PBG, on Tendin with- drawal [X6284]; 7/27/99 letter from President Bongo to Citibank PBG, Paris on clos- ing Leontine Ltd. account [CS2150]; 8/99 e-mails on closing President Bongo’s accounts [CS2156–57]; 8/99 e-mails on closing accounts and Bongo nephew [CS2158]; 8/99 document with figures related to President Bongo’s accounts [CS2149]
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p. Documents related to French criminal investigation of Elf Aquitaine and Elf Gabon: .............................................................................................. 588
‘‘Brief History and Current Status of the French Investigation of the Elf Money Laundering Scheme,’’ The Library of Congress Law Library (No. 99–7539, 10/99); ‘‘Relations Between France and Gabon Worsened over the Elf Affair,’’ Le Monde (4/2/97, translated by The Library of…