rwandan genocide

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Rwandan Genocide. 1994. Belgian Territory. Belgians used division of population to control colony Created Hutu and Tutsi definition Tutsi was minority, but ruled as aristocracy (in step with Belgian rule). Hutus and Tutsis. According to Belgian definitions: Hutus shorter, broad face - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • 1994

  • Belgians used division of population to control colony Created Hutu and Tutsi definition Tutsi was minority, but ruled as aristocracy (in step with Belgian rule)

  • According to Belgian definitions:

    Hutus shorter, broad face Tutsis taller, long, narrow face

  • 7 M people2 ethnic groupsHutu > majority > 70%Tutsi > minority Rwandan independence in 1962 Hutu majority reversed roles systematic discrimination acts of violence 200 K Tutsis fled the country formed rebel guerrilla army = Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)

  • 1990 RPF invaded RwandaForced Hutu Pres. Habyarimana to sign document that put into law > Hutu/Tutsis share powerAug. 93 U.N. peace keeping forces assigned to Rwanda to over see power sharing

    April 94RW pres Habyarimana and Burundi pres. Cyprian NtaryamiraHeld peace meetings w/ Tutsi rebels

    April 6Jet carrying the leaders shot down and killed by ground-fired missiles

  • Hutu Reaction Rwanda > deep political violence after assassinations Hutu extremists targeted moderate Hutu politicians Tutsi leaders

    Hutus went into countryside Tutsi civilians machetes, clubs, guns, grenades all Rwandans carried tribal cards > IDs Intl Reaction peacekeeping soldiers killed American, French, Belgian, and Italian personnel evacuated Rwanda U.S. and U.N. cautious to label genocide > to avoid emergency intervention U.N. Security Council voted unanimously to abandon Rwanda only 200 soldiers in entire country

  • No more global oppositionMurders increased rapidlyPropagandaState radio encouragedPrintTutsi > inyenzi for cockroachKangura state newspaper Tutsis refuge in churches, mission compounds hospitals > prime targets

  • Ten Hutu CommandmentsTutsi womenInferior, immoral, dishonestLess desirable than Hutu womenOnly useful as sex objects > RAPE

    Between 250 and 500 K raped, often in plain viewMany of the Hutu men had HIV/AIDS > mass rape is the main reason for the HIV/AIDS problem in present-day Rwanda

  • Over 1 M people in 100 days10 K daily400/hr7/minute300 K Tutsis survivedThousands of widowsRape victims > HIV positive400 K orphans

  • August 20, 1942Schenectady, NYIvy League educationHuman rights activistHistorian1999- published Leave None to Tell The Story: Genocide in RwandaDescribed organization of the genocideReceived many awardsDied February 12, 2009

  • Pressure from intl news depicting genocideU.N. sent 5 K soldiersToo lateNo time tableEnd of genocideTutsi rebelsInvaded from neighboring nationsDefeated Hutus

  • Approx. 2 M Hutus > refugees > feared Tutsi uprisingBurundi, Tanzania, Uganda, ZaireLarge prison pop.STDs > syphilis, gonorrhea, HIV/AIDSSocial isolation (rape victims)Lack of roads, bridges, telephone linesPoor education system > intelligentsiaWomen > responsible for food production > many are rape victims > psych/physical status > major issue in RwandaRwanda > 3rd poorest country in the worldSpread of AIDS fueled by povertyMutual ethnic hate stems from extremists on both sides

  • Small group of Rwandan officialsLed by Theoneste BagosoraRetired army colonelGenocide happened not of weakness, but immense strength > TOTALITARIANISM = FEARIntl Criminal Tribunal of Rwanda