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Superhydrophobic Surface Coatings Against CorrosionAndrew K. Jones, Vinod Sikka, Ph.D, Michael Hurley, Ph.D.

June 2011

Technology is Confidential & Proprietary

Our ExpertsRoss Director of Research & Development Dr. Vinod K. Sikka Manager of Research & Development, Materials Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Over 43 patents Over 200 publications Inventor of the Year in 2007 (over 4,000 scientists) Scientist of the Year in 2007 1982-2010 14 R&D 100 Awards! 2006 TMS Application to Practice Award ORNL Corporate Fellow ASTM International Fellow Ph.D. in Material Science, University of Cincinnati M.S. in Materials Science, University of Cincinnati B.E. in Metallurgy, Indian Institute of Science, India B.S. in Chemistry, Delhi University, IndiaJune 2011 Technology is Confidential & Proprietary 2

Our ExpertsRoss Senior Chemist Dr. Michael F. Hurley Senior Development Scientist, Polyurethane Division, Bayer Material Science Senior Process Chemist, Mobay Chemical Over 12 patents Over 20 publications Post-Doctoral Scholar, University of Michigan Ph.D. in Organic Chemistry, University of Tennessee B.S. in Chemistry, Fairfield University Applied Rheology and Polymer Processing, Virginia Tech Polymer Chemistry: Principles and Practices, Virginia Tech

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Technology is Confidential & Proprietary

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Outline Background Attributes of Ross Coatings Recent Advances in Technology Examples of Coating Application Application Methods In-field Experience Testing Equipment at ROSS for these Coatings

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Technology is Confidential & Proprietary

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Hydrophobic/Hydrophillic Contact Angle

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Ross Superhydrophobic Coatings (NeverWet) Nearly perfect, spherical beads of water shown onAluminum-coated surface with NeverWet Water Bead is Nearly a Perfect Sphere Make a Contact Angle with Surface between 150-180 Water Bead Glides over the Surface like Gliding over Ice

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Technology is Confidential & Proprietary

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Superhydrophobic Contact AnglesThe contact angles of a Superhydrophobic surface is where the water droplet exceeds 150 and the roll-off angle is less than 10. This is also referred to as the Lotus effect.Here are the contact angles of water on various surfaces: June 2011

NeverWet Coatings: 160 to 175Teflon (cooking pan): 110 Rain-X: 95 Freshly waxed car: 90Technology is Confidential & Proprietary 7

Anti-acid, Alkali, Salts Aqueous Solutions of Acids, Alkalis, and SaltsBead Up Similar to Water and Cause No Wetting

Note: Pictures shown for 50% solution magnesium chloride salt.

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Technology is Confidential & Proprietary

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Anti-Heavy Oils Ross-coated Surfaces Resist Vegetable Oils, Mineral Oils,or Any Other Heavy Oils as well as they Resist Water

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Technology is Confidential & Proprietary

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Anti-Wetting Ross Coated Panel was Dry after beingSubmerged for 12 Months in Seawater

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Technology is Confidential & Proprietary

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Anti-Wetting and Breathable Fabric Ross coating produces a non-wetting andbreathable fabric

June 2011

Technology is Confidential & Proprietary

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Anti-Corrosion Ross has demonstrated in Salt-Fog testing that thesecoatings survive 4 to 10 times as long as similar coatings without Ross prior to showing any corrosion

NeverWet I Coating after 400 h Technology is Confidential & Proprietary

June 2011

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Anti-Corrosion 2000 hours of Salt Fog testing on Ross coatingas compared to Polyurethane, an 8x improvement

PolyurethaneTechnology is Confidential & Proprietary

NeverWet

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Anti-Corrosion In-field exposure of a coated plate after 24 months

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Technology is Confidential & Proprietary

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License Plate on Pick-up Truck(a) 1575 highway (b) (c) (d)miles 3458 highway plus town miles Oil droplets on SH plate Water droplets on SH plate

Note: Truck was driven at average speeds of 60-62 miles/h with peak speeds of 68 miles. Coating was not affected by those speeds, pouring down rains, and exhaust from other vehicles on the highways.Technology is Confidential & Proprietary

June 2011

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Anti-Icing While no testing has been done on air foils, Ross hasdemonstrated numerous other applications (mostly for utilities) where ice will not form on these surfaces

Coated

Uncoated

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Anti-Icing Antenna dish after a night of freezing rain

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Anti-Icing Close-up view of the coated dish area

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Anti-Icing Close-up view of the uncoated dish area

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Anti-CondensationA Steel Turbine Cascade Coated with Ross Superhydrophobic Coating was Tested in Wind Tunnel at 68 Miles/Hr under Water Condensing Conditions to Simulate Steam Turbine Condensing Conditions

Ross coating was the only one that showed no condensed water film formation as opposed to three other commercial coatings.

June 2011

Technology is Confidential & Proprietary

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Self-Cleaning While Solids can Set on theseSurfaces, Any Rain or Light Water Almost Always Cleans them Completely (a) Start up cleaning (b) Cleaning in progress (c) Cleaning continues

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Technology is Confidential & Proprietary

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Anti-BacterialBacteria are just about everywhere, but they team in impure water, where they have ample food.NeverWet surfaces are great for: Hospital applications Bathroom applications House siding where mold and fungus grows Very wet environments where bacteria thriveJune 2011 Technology is Confidential & Proprietary 22

Anti-BacterialOur first application of NeverWet coatings was with hospital applications (bed pans, toilet plungers, etc), and we did extensive bacterial testing as a part of this process. We tested our surfaces in extremely polluted waters. As virtually no water ever touches our surfaces, virtually no bacteria remain. As a result, these surfaces have proven to be extremely anti-bacterial.

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Technology is Confidential & Proprietary

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Anti-SpillHydrophilic/hydrophobic combination to dreate spill-proof glass sufrace

June 2011

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Anti-SpillSide view showing water height that is possible with hydrophilic/hydrophobic combination

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Anti-SpillRoss glass border technology is in commercial use through our licensee

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Other ApplicationsRoss SH coatings in electric motors

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Other Applications

Electrical emergency switches internally coated with Ross SH coating prevent arcing in food processor industry applicationsJune 2011 Technology is Confidential & Proprietary 28

Note: One switch has been in service for almost one year with no unexpected shutdown.

Other ApplicationsRoss SH coatings on submerged microelectronics

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Technology is Confidential & Proprietary

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Next Generation of Advances in Rub Durability of SH Technology at Ross

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Ross Yields 200X Improvement in Taber Cycles as Opposed to Competitive Data Generated at Ross

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Taber Cycles as a Function of Thickness for NeverWet-NuO SH Coating

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Durable NeverWet coatings have proven durable through avariety of tests: Salt-fog testing (> 1200 hours) Saltwater submersion (> 400 days) Aqueous solutions of acids, alkalis and salts (up to 50%) Extreme temperatures (> 1 year at 450F and transients of 550F) Bending (>120 degree bend after 400F thermal cycle) Drag reduction testing (30% drag reduction for < 10 ft/s) Taber

minimum 500 tabers for 25 micron coating minimum 1100 tabers for 50 micron coating minimum 1750 tabers for 75 micron coatingJune 2011 Technology is Confidential & Proprietary 33

Other Attributes Various color options are possible with RossSH/OP Coatings

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Other Attributes SH Coatings resistdebonding or flaking

Note: Dipped in liquid N2 and bent at room temperature with frequent dips.

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Other Attributes Aluminum-coated plates(NeverWet NuO and I) after 1 hour of thermal exposure

NeverWet-NuO

NeverWet-I

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Other Attributes Aluminum-coatedplates (NeverWet NuO and I) after 1 hour of thermal exposure at 550, 600 and 700 F

NeverWet-NuO

NeverWet-I

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Simple and Complex Shapes can be CoatedMounting

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