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Roman Empire. Rome Day 2. Key dates . Republic period 700 BCE- 100 BCE Civil war period 100 BCE-50 BCE Early empire 50 BCE-100 CE High empire 100 CE-200 CE Late empire 200-400 CE. Themes. Previous. Now. Roman Republic = Pragmatism Work Aristocracy Ancestor worship Concrete! - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Roman Empire

Roman EmpireRome Day 2Key dates Republic period 700 BCE- 100 BCECivil war period 100 BCE-50 BCEEarly empire 50 BCE-100 CEHigh empire 100 CE-200 CELate empire 200-400 CEThemesPreviousMesopotamians= Power Military, power over enemiesEgyptians=Power over death, life after death, power of Pharaoh to maintain cosmic balanceMinoans= love of natureMycenaeans= power over enemiesArchaic Greeks=Quest for NaturalismClassical Greeks= Quest for the IdealHellenistic Greeks=Raw emotion

NowRoman Republic=Pragmatism Work Aristocracy Ancestor worship Concrete!Stoicism Roman Empire Epicureanism Conspicuous consumptionPower

Stoicism vs. EpicureanismStoicismStoics taught that destructive emotions resulted from errors in judgment, and that a sage, or person of "moral and intellectual perfection", would not suffer such emotionsthe belief that it is virtuous to maintain a will that is in accord with nature. Because of this, the Stoics presented their philosophy as a way of life, and they thought that the best indication of an individual's philosophy was not what a person said but how he behaved.emphasized that because "virtue is sufficient for happiness", a sage was immune to misfortune. This belief is similar to the meaning of the phrase "stoic calm"Epicureanismphilosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus, founded around 307 BCEEpicurus believed that pleasure is the greatest goodBut the way to attain pleasure was to live modestly and to gain knowledge of the workings of the world and the limits of one's desires. This led one to attain a state of tranquility and freedom from fear, as well as absence of bodily pain. The combination of these two states is supposed to constitute happiness in its highest form. Although Epicureanism is a form of hedonism, insofar as it declares pleasure to be the sole intrinsic good, its conception of absence of pain as the greatest pleasure and its advocacy of a simple life make it different from "hedonism" as it is commonly understood.Wait what?StoicismBasically, Zeno believed in being virtuous, and that virtue was a matter of submitting to Gods will. As usual for Greeks who postulated a single god, Zeno did not strongly differentiate God from nature. So another way of putting it is to live according to naturehe lectured his students on the value of apatheia, the absence of passion. By passion Zeno meant uncontrolled emotion or physical desire. Only by taking this attitude, he felt, could we develop wisdom and the ability to apply it. Let no one break your will! he said. Man conquers the world by conquering himself. Start by developing an indifference to pain and pleasure, through meditation. Wisdom occurs when reason controls passions; Evil occurs when passions control us.

EpicureanismVirtue for Epicurus was a means to an end. That end is happiness. It is good to feel pleasure and to avoid pain, but one needs to apply reason to life. Sometimes pain is necessary in order to gain happiness. Other times, pleasure leads to more suffering than it is worth. And there are levels of pain and pleasure, smaller and greater happinesses. Friendship, for example, is rated one of the highest pleasures. A sage loves his friends as he loves himself, he said, and It is better to give than to receive. And It is not possible to live pleasantly without living prudently, honorably, and justly; nor to live prudently, honorably, and justly without living pleasantly.

Mr. Eberly- Im so lostStoicismRationality over FeelingEpicureanismFeeling over rationalityNote the practical similarities between stoicism and epicureanism, despite their theoretical differences! Both were popular in the Roman era, stoicism in Romes early, more vigorous years and continuing among the rank and file of Roman citizenry, and epicureanism (even hedonism) behind closed doors, especially at the highest levels of the empire.What Virtues does this guy extol? Stoicism or Epicureanism?How can you tell?

What themes does this guy represent?

How does this temple demonstrate its derivative origins?

Typical Roman house How does it incorporate the display of power?Vestibule (entrance)Atrium (central reception area)Impluvium-(caught rain water)Cubiculum (bedrooms)Tablinium (home office)Triclinium (dining room)Peristyle garden area

Roman Frescos/ Murals- how do they begin to incorporate Epicureanism and conspicuous consumption?The frescoes come from PompeiiThe wall painting styles have allowed art historians to delineate the various phases of interior decoration in the centuries leading up to the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD, which both destroyed the city and preserved the paintings, and between stylistic shifts in Roman art. The paintings also tell a great deal about the prosperity of the area and specific tastes during the times.The main purpose of these frescoes was to reduce the claustrophobic interiors of Roman rooms, which were windowless and dark. The paintings, full of color and life, brightened up the interior and made the room feel more spacious.1st style of Roman wall paintingRoman1st Century CE

The First style, also referred to as structural, incrustation or masonry style, was most popular from 200 BCE until 80 BCE.This style was a replica of that found in the Ptolemaic palaces of the near east, where the walls were inset with real stones and marbles, and also reflects the spread of Hellenistic culture as Rome interacted and conquered other Greek and Hellenistic states in this period. This trompe l'oeil effect created flat areas of color and 'faux" finishes (like a fake marble or oak finish)This style divided the wall into various, multi-colored patterns that took the place of extremely expensive cut stone. The First Style was also used with other styles for decorating the lower sections of walls that were not seen as much as the higher levels.

Trompe l'oeil

2nd StyleThe Second style, architectural style, or 'illusionism' dominated the 1st century BCE, where walls were decorated with architectural features and trompe l'oeil (trick of the eye) compositions.It is characterized by use of relative perspective (not precise linear perspective)Images and landscapes began to be introduced to the first style around 90 BCE, and gained ground from 70 BCE onwards, along with illusionistic and architectonic motifs. Decoration had to give the greatest possible impression of depth. Imitations of images appeared, at first in the higher section, then (after 50 BCE) in the background of landscapes which provided a stage for mythological stories, theatrical masks, or decorations.Much of the depth of the mature Second Style comes from the use of aerial (atmospheric) perspective that blurred the appearance of objects further away. Thus, the foreground is rather precise while the background is somewhat indistinctly purple, blue, and gray.Fashionable particularly from the 40s BCE onwards, it began to wane in the final decades BCE.

3rd StyleCalled the Ornamental styleThese paintings were decorated with delicate linear fantasies, predominantly monochromatic, that replaced the three-dimensional worlds of the Second Style.This style is typically noted as simplistically elegant.Emphasis on the surface of the wall (no illusion)Impossible columns/architectural featuresThese often involve a delicate architectural frame over a blank, monochromatic background with only a small scene located in the middle, like a tiny floating landscape.It was found in Rome until 40 CE and in the Pompeii area until 60 CE.

4th StyleCombines elements of all the previous styles(ca. 6079 AD) is generally less ornamented than its predecessor. The style was, however, much more complex. It revives large-scale narrative painting and panoramic vistas while retaining the architectural details of the Second and First Styles.The overall feeling of the walls typically formed a mosaic of framed pictures that took up entire walls. The lower zones of these walls tended to be composed of the First Style. Panels were also used with floral designs on the walls.Contributes the still life to art

Domus Aurea of NeroRoman75 BCE4th Style-Literally means the "Golden House of Nero"-Monochromatic background (Third Style)-Animals and figures are placed throughout the pattern (Second Style)-See glimpses of architectural structures that extend past the wall (Second and Third Styles)

OK guess the style

Can you identify the first 3 styles in this 4th style wall?1st2nd3rd

Still life w/ PeachesRoman early empire50 BCEarrangement of peaches, stems, and half-filled pitcher of water-Concentration on the different textures of the surfaces, roundness of the peaches, and the pitcher-Reflective surface of the glass emphasized -Composition emphasizes curves and arcs-Delight in showing how light plays on a given surface-Made popular by Octavian Augustuss wife

Art of the EmpireBegins with Caesar but in reality it is with the rise of Augustus in 31 BCE that the Empire really gets going

Augustus of Primaporta Roman early Empirec. 20 BCEKey Piece-Copy of original, many many copies were distributed around the empire-Augustus was the son of Octavian who defeated Antony and Cleopatra thus making him the First Among Equals; not an Emperor.-Depicted as a young leader even when he was near death-Very subtle cues about his power and abilities-The small cupid gives reference to Augustus' divinity. His heritage could be traced back to Venus who was the mother of Cupid.-Idealized-no longer realistic-Similar stance to "Doryphorus" (the Spear Bearer)-no weapon but armor -barefooted=god -on the armor the story of the retrieving of a standardThemes- Peace, Propaganda, Emperor as Rome

Ara Pacis or Altar of PeaceRoman Early Empire20 BCEThemes-PeaceOrderProsperity

Family values- have kids!!!Look at all that Peace has given us!

In the summer of 13 BCE Augustu