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BRITAIN1Britons before the Roman invasions:
Lived in tribes, usually ruled by a king.
Religion was in the hand of the Druids,
and priests acted as judges.
The Druids encouraged fierce British
resistance to the Roman invasion.
Rome is now thecapital cityof Italy. 2,000 years ago it was the centre of the RomanEmpire.
How did Rome get its name?
Twin boys, Romulus and Remus, were the sons of Mars (the Roman god or war). An evil uncle took them as babies from their mother and threw them into the River Tiber to drown. The babies floated to land, and a mother wolf fed and cared for them. They grew up and were found by the shepherd Faustulus, who took them home and looked after them until they were grown up.
Years later, Mars told his sons to build a city where they had been found. They decided to build a city of their own because they could not agree where to build it. One day, Remus made fun of the wall Romulus had built around the city. The twins argued, fought, and Romulus killed Remus. The legend says that Romulus became the first King of Rome in 753BC and populated his new city with runaway slaves and convicted criminals. Today, historians and archaeologists agree that people were living in Rome long before 753 BC, but thelegendis one of the most famous in world history.
How was Rome ruled?
The people of Rome were farmers and shepherds. For a time, they were under the control of their neighbours, the Etruscans.
Rome became a rich city, ruled by kings.
In 509 BC, the Romans drove out their last king, Tarquin the Proud. Rome then became arepublic.
The republic was ruled by aSenate.
Senate: (Assembly of elders) Rich men, calledsenators,ran the government.
Poor men (called plebeians) had much less power.
A plebeian, who was a free man could be a Romancitizen.
People in lands conquered by the Romans could become citizens too.
Women and slaves though, could not be citizens .* Four magistrates were electedannually, two to act as judges and two to control finance and building.
* The Senate could not always control the Roman army.
* Armygenerals sometimes fought one another. * Rome's best general was Julius Caesar.
He lived in the 1st century BC and invaded Britain twice.
Caesar came close to being emperor of Rome, but he was murdered in 44 BC.
By then, Rome was more than a city. It was the capital of anempire.
The Romans ruled lands from France to North Africa.
Why did the Romans invade Britain?* The Romans ruled Gaul (Gallia). Today it's France. * In 55 B.C. Julius Caesar led his army across the sea from Gaul to Britain. He wanted to make Britain part of Rome'sempire and also wanted to rule and exploit the islands from the economic point of view.
* The British fought bravely.
* Finally Caesar went back to Rome.
Next year, in 54 B.C. the Romans came back. This time Caesar had 30,000 soldiers. (Five legions).
He won several battles against Briton armies but finally the Britons claimed for peace.
As Rome had some civil disturbances Caesar granted to the Britons a treaty in which they have to pay a tribute.
Romans then went back home.
In 44 BC, Julius Caesar was stabbed 23 times during a session of the Senate.
* In 43 A.D. Under Claudius, the Empire underwent its first major expansion. * The most far-reaching conquest was theconquest of Britannia. Name given by the Romans to the islands.
*Britain was an attractive target for Rome because of its material wealth particularly mines and slaves.
ROMAN EMPIRE UNDER CLAUDIUS RULEWho was in the Roman army?
Only men could be in the Roman Army.
Every soldier was a Roman citizen. He had to be at least 20 years old.
Most soldiers in the RomanEmpire came from countries outside Italy. (Citizenship could be granted by the emperor to anyone)
Soldiers had to stay in the army for at least 25 years. Then they could retire, with apensionor a gift of land to farm.
The army was organized in a very simple way:
5000 Legionaries (Roman Citizens who were in the army) would form a Legion, a hundred and twenty of those being cavalry, and each was commanded by a Roman Senator, a member of the governing body.
The Legion would be split into centuries (80 men) controlled by a Centurion or senior officer.
The centuries would then be divided into smaller groups with different jobs to perform.
There was a second group called the Auxiliaries.
They also could be from any part of the empire but an auxiliary was a soldier who was not a Romancitizen. He was paid a third as much as a legionary.
* Auxiliaries guarded forts and frontiers, but also fought in battles, often in the front lines, where it was the most dangerous.
What armour and weapons did the Romans have?
A Roman soldier wore an armour made from strips of iron and Leather (lorica segmentata in Latin).
He carried a shield (scutum), curved so it protected his body. The soldier's main weapons were a short sword for stabbing (gladius) and a long spear, or javelin (pilum) for throwing.
The javelin had a sharp iron point, and a thin, bendy shaft.
On his head was a metal helmet (galea).
In every place they conquered, they took their civilization withthem. Romans built cities that they could live in.
The Romans liked everything to be organized and orderly. The streets were laid out in a criss cross pattern. Usually they wouldhave two mainstreets that divide the town.
They did not push back the inhabitantsin the invasions, for the contrary, they taught them how tolive in this urban life.ROMAN CITY
* Every city had a governor, appointed directly by the emperor . He was chosen from among the most exceptional of the legionary commanders.
* The second in command but of almost equal power was the procurator, also appointed by the emperor. He was a civil servant in charge of finances.* Every Roman city contained barracks, hospitals, granaries, storerooms, baths, stables, basilica, forum, marketplace,amphitheatres, theatres, temples, etc.
Ancient Roman roadRoman soldiers needed to march from one part of the country to another quickly. So the Romans built roads. Roman roads were made from stones, and were better than muddy tracks for travel on foot or in carts. So they made travelling around Britain easier for everyone.
Trade benefited by the introduction of the roads by Giving merchants the ability to move goods between towns much faster and easier and with less risk of damage to their goods.
Appian Way:Begun in 312 BC and extending Almost 330 miles, it was the main road from Rome to southeast Italy and beyond.The forum was like a town square. Important government buildings like law courts and offices were built around it and market stalls were sometimes set up inside it. It was often the centre of the city where people met and did business.
The bath houses were not only places for washing but some people went to meet friends and spend their free time. Baths could be very hot or very cold. Men and women either had separatebath houses or used the same one at different times.
The amphitheatre was for sports and gladiator fights
Roman amphitheatre in Pula, Croatia
Colosseum Amphitheatre, Rome, Italy
The basilica was in the centre of the town and was like a town hall.
Important government buildings were built inside it.
TheLatinwordbasilica,derived fromGreek(thetribunal chamberof a king). The word was originally used to describe an open,Roman, public court building, usually located adjacent to theforumof a Roman town. By extension it was applied to Christian Buildings of the same form and continues to be used in an architectural sense to describe those buildings with a centralnaveandaisles.
Remains of theBasilica of Maxentiusand Constantine in Rome. The building's northern aisle is all that remains.The temple was where the Romans went to worship their gods. The Romans believed in many different gods. When they took over a new land they often took over the gods worshiped there as well. Some emperors were worshiped as gods after they died.
Later Christianity spread through the Roman Empire and became the official religion in 313 AD, when the Roman emperor Constantine declared tolerance of Christianity.
Temple of Augustus and LiviaRich people lived in houses (domus) but poor people lived in blocks of flats (insulae).
How did Romans heat their homes?
They had central heating at home, invillasand in public baths.
The heating system was kept going by slaves, who kept a fire blazing in a furnace to heat warm air. The warm air moved around the building through spaces under the floors and between the walls. The underfloor space was made by raising the floor on top of piles of tile or stone. The Roman heating system was called a hypocaust.
What is an aqueduct?Their towns had sewers and piped water supplies. Sometimes water had to be brought from far away.
An aqueduct was a kind of bridge that carried water across the valley and into the city.
On top was a stone channel to carry water to supply towns with it from springs, rivers or lakes.TheatresWere similiar in construction to the amphitheatre but D-shapped where citizens could enjoy plays, singing and recitation.
THE VILLASA Roman villais a term used to describe aRomancountry housebuilt for the upper class during the Roman republicand theRoman Empire.