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  • vi

    ABSTRAK

    Perubahan dari perkapalan konvensional ke kontena laju melibatkan

    perubahan dalam banyak aspek pengurusan. Belajar dan membangunkan pengurusan

    rantaian pembekalan berdasarkan risiko membantu memahami faktor kritical yang

    mempunyai pengaruh secara langsung terhadap kejayaan idea perkapalan kontena

    laju. Kajian ini mewujudkan hubungan antara elemen di dalam proses pengurusan

    rantaian pembekalan kepada risiko. Empat elemen yang dikaji ialah pembungkusan,

    dokumentasi, pengangkutan darat dan pemindahan dari jeti ke kapal. Soalan kaji

    selidik diedarkan dan data yang dikumpul, dianalisa menggunakan Pakej Statistikal

    untuk Sains Sosial (SPSS) dan MINITAB. Keputusan menunjukkan bahawa

    kesemua empat elemen yang dikaji adalah berisiko. Pengangkutan darat merupakan

    proses yang paling berisiko (nilai Pearson r2 0.437 dan nilai-p 0.104) di dalam

    pengurusan rantaian pembekalan untuk perkapalan kontena laju. Ianya diikuti oleh

    pembungkusan (nilai Pearson r2 0.409 dan nilai-p 0.073), pemindahan dari jeti ke

    kapal (nilai Pearson r2 0.407 dan nilai-p 0.075), dan akhir sekali dokumentasi (nilai

    Pearson r2 0.328 dan nilai-p 0.158). Kajian berjaya mewujudkan diagram

    perhubungan antara risiko dan keempat-empat elemen yang dikaji.

  • vii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    CHAPTER TITLE PAGE

    DECLARATION

    DEDICATION

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    ABSTRACT

    ABSTRAK

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    LIST OF TABLES

    LIST OF FIGURES

    LIST OF APPENDICE

    ii

    iii

    iv

    v

    vi

    vii

    xii

    xiii

    xv

    1 INTRODUCTION 1

    1.1. Research Background

    1.1.1. Purpose of Study

    1.1.2. The Role of Supply Chain Management

    in Container Shipping

    1.1.3. Supply Chain Management

    1.1.4. Container Shipping

    1.1.4.1. Containerization

    1.1.4.2. Sea Shipping

    1.1.5. Fast Container Shipping

    1.1.6. Risk-Based Management

    1.1.7. Missing Component

    1.2. Research Objective

    1.3. Research Statement

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    5

    6

    7

    7

    8

    8

    9

  • viii

    1.4. Research Questions

    1.5. Scope of Research

    1.6. Organization of Thesis

    9

    10

    10

    2 LITERATURE REVIEW 12

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Fast Container Shipping and Its Transportation

    Chain

    2.2.1 Factors to Consider in Transportation

    Decisions

    2.2.2 Multimodalism and the Concept of Fast

    Container Shipping

    2.2.2.1 Multimodal Transportation

    2.2.2.2 Fast Container Shipping

    2.3 Supply Chain management

    2.3.1 Supply Chain

    2.3.2 Supply Chain Management

    2.3.2.1 Goals

    2.3.2.2 Factors Contribute to

    Uncertainty in Supply Chain

    2.3.2.3 Elements of Supply Chain

    2.4 Risk Factors in Supply Chain Management

    2.4.1 Risk

    2.4.2 Risk Management

    2.4.2.1 Importance of Risk

    Management

    2.4.2.2 Integration of Risk

    Management

    2.4.2.3 Key Roles

    2.4.2.4 Risk Factors

    12

    13

    13

    14

    15

    16

    17

    17

    17

    18

    18

    18

    19

    20

    20

    22

    22

    22

    22

    3

    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    3.1 Introduction

    25

    25

  • ix

    3.2 Research Methodology

    3.2.1 Identification of Transportation Chain

    Process

    3.2.1.1 Elements of Container Shipping

    Transport System

    3.2.1.2 The Sequence of Transporting

    Cargo

    3.2.1.3 Relation between Elements

    3.3 Identification of Links between Elements

    3.4 Identification and Assignment of Risk Factors to

    Elements

    3.5 Methods of Analysis

    3.5.1 Research Instrument

    3.5.2 Pilot Study

    3.5.3 Data Analysis

    3.6 Development of Preliminary Risk Factors

    Relationship Diagram

    3.7 Summary

    25

    27

    27

    28

    29

    30

    31

    31

    32

    34

    36

    37

    37

    4

    RESULTS

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Demographic Data

    4.3 Survey result

    4.3.1 Groups 1 Packaging Process (R1) is

    Risky to Supply Chain Management

    4.3.2 Groups 2 Types of Risk in

    Packaging Process (R1)

    4.3.3 Groups 3 Documentation Process

    (R2) is Risky to Supply Chain

    Management

    4.3.4 Group 4 Types of Risk in

    Documentation Process (R2)

    4.3.5 Group 5 Inland Transporting (R3) is

    38

    38

    39

    41

    41

    44

    46

    49

    51

  • x

    Risky to Supply Chain Management

    4.3.6 Group 6 Types of Risk in Inland

    Transporting (R3)

    4.3.7 Group 7 Shore-to-Ship Cargo

    Transferring Process (R4) is Risky to

    Supply Chain Management

    4.3.8 Group 8 Types of Risk in Shore-to-

    Ship Cargo Transferring Process (R4)

    4.4 Comparison between Groups of Respondents

    4.4.1 ANOVA Execution

    4.4.2 Correlation between Supply Chain

    Management Elements and Risk Types

    53

    55

    57

    59

    59

    64

    5

    DISCUSSION

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Risk Factors for Supply Chain Management

    5.3 Pilot Study

    5.3.1 Validity of Question

    5.3.2 Data Distribution

    5.4 Analysis of Means and Standard Deviation

    5.4.1 Distribution

    5.4.2 Discussion on Groups Detail

    5.4.2.1 Group 1: Packaging is Risky

    to Supply Chain Management

    5.4.2.2 Group 2: Types of Risks in

    Packaging Process

    5.4.2.3 Group 3: Documentation is

    Risky to Supply Chain

    Management

    5.4.2.4 Group 4: Types of Risk in

    Documentation Process

    5.4.2.5 Group 5: Inland Transporting

    is Risky to Supply Chain

    67

    67

    67

    68

    68

    68

    68

    69

    73

    73

    74

    74

    74

    75

  • xi

    Management

    5.4.2.6 Group 6: Types of Risk in

    Inland Transporting Process

    5.4.2.7 Group 7: Shore-to-Ship

    Cargo Transfer is Risky to

    Supply Chain Management

    5.4.2.8 Group 8: Types of Risk in

    Shore-to-Ship Cargo Transfer

    5.4.3 ANOVA & Correlation

    5.5 Summary

    75

    75

    76

    76

    79

    6 CONCLUSION

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Overview of the Study

    6.3 Restatement of the Objective

    6.4 Review of the Findings

    6.5 Recommendation for Future Work

    80

    80

    81

    81

    82

    84

    REFERENCES

    Appendices A

    85

    86

  • xii

    LIST OF TABLES

    TABLE NO. TITLE PAGE

    3.1

    3.2

    Scale to determine the degree of believing on the

    proposed hypothesis

    Reliability Statistics

    34

    35

    4.1 Group / Position of Respondents 39

    4.2 Status of Demographic 40

    4.3 Group 1 Packaging (R1) is Risky to Supply Chain

    Management

    42

    4.4 Group 2 Types of Risk in Packaging Process (R1) 44

    4.5 Group 3 Documentation (R2) is Risky to Supply

    Chain Management

    47

    4.6 Group 4 Types of Risk in Documentation Process

    (R2)

    49

    4.7 Group 5 Inland Transporting (R3) is Risky to

    Supply Chain Management

    51

    4.8 Group 6 Types of Risk in Inland Transporting

    Process (R3)

    53

    4.9 Group 7 Shore-to-Ship Cargo Transfer (R4) is

    Risky to Supply Chain Management

    55

    4.10

    Group 8 Types of Risk in Shore-to-Ship Cargo

    Transfer Process (R4)

    57

  • xiii

    LIST OF FIGURES

    FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE

    2.1 Typical Steps in the Transportation Chain 16

    3.1 Detail Research Plans Flowchart for the Preliminary

    Diagram

    26

    3.2 Main Elements of Transporting Cargo 29

    3.3 Preliminary Risk Factors Relationship Diagram 30

    3.4 Methodology used to Check the Model 33

    4.1

    4.2

    4.3

    4.4

    4.5

    4.6

    4.7

    4.8

    4.9

    4.10

    4.11

    4.12

    4.13

    Pie Chart for Status of Demographic

    Summary for Packaging Process R1 is Risky

    Probability Plot of Packaging Process R1 is Risky

    Summary for Types of Risk in Packaging Process R1

    Probability Plot of Types of Risk in Packaging

    Process R1

    Summary for Documentation Process R2 is Risky

    Probability Plot of Documentation Process R2 is

    Risky

    Summary for Types of Risk in Documentation

    Process R2

    Probability Plot of Types of Risk in Documentation

    Process R2

    Summary of Inland Transporting Process R3 is Risky

    Probability Plot of Inland Transporting Process R3 is

    Risky

    Summary for Types of Risk in Inland Transporting

    Process R3

    Probability Plot for Types of Risk in Inland

    40

    43

    43

    495

    46

    48

    48

    50

    50

    52

    52

    54

    54

  • xiv

    4.14

    4.15

    4.16

    4.17

    4.18

    4.19

    4.20

    4.21

    4.22

    4.23

    4.24

    4.25

    Transporting Process R3

    Summary for Shore to Ship Cargo Transfer R4 is

    Risky

    Probability Plot for Shore to Ship Cargo Transfer R4

    is Risky