richard meier and john hejduk

Download Richard meier and john hejduk

Post on 24-Dec-2014




2 download

Embed Size (px)





2. Richard Meier was born in Newark, New Jersey in 1934 and graduated from Cornell University in 1957.Worked for Skidmore, Owings and Merrill briefly in 1959, and then for Marcel Breuer for three years, prior to starting his own practice in New York in 1963.Much of Meier's work builds on the work of architects of the early to mid-20th century, especially that of Le Corbusier and, in particular, Le Corbusier's early phase. Meier has built more using Corbusier's ideas than anyone, including Le Corbusier himself. Meier expanded many ideas evident in Le Corbusier's work, particularly the Villa Savoye and the Swiss Pavilion.Explaining his own roots, Meier says, "Le Corbusier was a great influence, but there are many influences and they are constantly changing. Frank Lloyd Wright was a great architect, and I could not have done my parent's house the way that I did, without being overwhelmed by Falling Water." Meier continued, "We are all affected by LeCorbusier, Frank Lloyd Wright, Alvar Aalto, and Mies van der Rohe. But no less than Bramante, Borromini and Bernini. Architecture is a tradition, a long continuum. Whether we break with tradition or enhance it, we are still connected to that past. White colour has extensively been used in his buildings, the incisiveness of colourlessness.In 1984, Meier was awarded the Pritzker Prize. In 2008, he won the gold medal in architecture from the Academy of Arts and Letters and his work Jesolo Lido Village was awarded the Dedalo Minosse International Prize for commissioning a building. Meier is a Senior Fellow of the Design Futures Council. He was awarded the AIA Gold Medal in 1997. 3. SMITH HOUSE "The house capitalizes on its dramatic 1.5-acre site. Beyond a dense cluster of evergreens, the land clears and rises to the center of the site, then drops sharply to the rugged shoreline and a small, sandy cove. The spatial organization of the house hinges on the programmatic separation between public and private areas. From the front walkway, visitors approach a mostly opaque white wood facade before crossing a ramp and entering on the houses second level to discover what Meier calls a "180-degree explosion" of light and space. The living room, dining area, and study embrace the waterfront views, pin-wheeling in a threelevel enclosure of glass on three sides. The familys private quarters, meanwhile, are stacked to hug the street-facing facade of the 2,800-square-foot building. Elements that would become Meier signatures are present as well: the pristine white exterior, expanses of plate glass framed by finely proportioned piers and mullions, and minimal interiors creating intersecting volumes. 4. : THE LIVING ROOM: THE HOUSE AS SEEN FROM BEHIND 5. DESIGN PROGRAM AND CONCEPT Meiers hyper-refinement of the modernist imagery has been inspired not by machines but by other architecture that was inspired by machines honoring his fathers and casting them off at the same time. Goldberger (1999) SITE STRUCTURING The house is developed over three levels. The entrance area and master bedroom are on the middle floor. The lower level is for dining, kitchen, laundry and domestic help. Both the living and dining areas open directly to outdoor terraces. The top floor contains childrens bedrooms, guest-room and library-play. The house is finally topped by an outdoor roof deck. The house itself appears to be a hyphenation of two canonical structures: the Citrohan house and the Domino house (Corbusier and Jeanneret 1937). The Citrohan zone is a series of closed cellular spaces and the Domino zone is leveled as three platforms within a single volume enclosed by a glass skin. Meier investigates a language of oppositions of a denied dialectic between the total transparency of the panoramic faade and the solid compartment of the entrance faade.DOMINO HOUSECITROHAN HOUSE 6. : DRAWINGS -PLANS AND SECTION 7. Different interpretations of rectangular prisms as Space volumes, perforated walls, or compositional planar partisThe principle applied at the elevations and sections of the house suggests somewhat similar and different interpretations. The most immediate finding is that the same root-2 rectangles that can be found in the plan can also be found in the elevations and the sections. That is not surprising given the abstract modernist vocabulary of the house and its exemplification of the organization of space through the abstract instruments of plan and section. What is more interesting is that the same trivalent condition (Tshape formation) of the intersection of the lines in the plan exist in the faade too but now it is even more celebrated in various ways constructing essentially grids in essential nested ways. 8. : Rectangular DivisionsSuccessive applications of such rules produce a modernist arrangement with grids formed by T-Shape intersections.: T-shape intersections found in the faade and the section of the Smith house: A derivation of a typical nested T-shape grid 9. GETTY CENTRE Meier has exploited the two naturally-occurring ridges (which diverge at a 22.5 degree angle) by overlaying two grids along these axes. These grids serve to define the space of the campus while dividing the import of the buildings on it. Along one axis lie the galleries and along the other axis lie the administrative buildings. Meier emphasized the two competing grids by constructing strong view lines through the campusThe main axes of the museum grid that is offset by 22.5 degrees begins with the arrival plaza, carries through the edge of the stairs up to the main entrance, aligns with the columns supporting the rotunda as well as the center point of the rotunda, aligns with travertine benches in the courtyard between the pavilions, includes a narrow walkway between the west and south pavilions, a staircase down to the cactus garden and ends in the garden. The corresponding cross axis starts with the center point of the circle forming the library garden, then passing to the center of the entrance rotunda, and aligning with the south wall of the rotunda building. The primary grid structure is a 30-inch (760 mm) square; most wall and floor elements are 30-inch (760 mm) squares or some derivative thereof. The buildings at the Getty Center are made from concrete and steel with either travertine or aluminium cladding. Around 1,200,000 square feet (110,000 m2) of travertine was used to build the center. 10. : AERIAL VIEW: VIEWS - MUSEUM: ARRIVAL TRAM STATION 11. DESIGN PROGRAM AND STUDY Since the building program had not been formulated, Meier was also involved in the process, the team travelled around the world, in 1985 , they visited the National Gallery of Art in Washington, Freer Gallery of Art, Yale Univ. Art Gallery and the Mellon Center for British Art. Kurk Foster emphasized the fact that none of art galleries and museum had addressed what Getty had to, Meier and others where looking what shouldnt have been done. He also visited the Glyptothek, Alte Pinakothek and Neue Pinakothek. He also studied the Certosa del Galluzzo, as Corbusier had, to understand the organisation of courtyards and the relationship between interior and exterior spaces. He finally visited the Villa d Este, Tivoli and Villa Lante to study the spectacular gardens, paying attention to the details, but the Central Garden and the other landscape features were designed by the artist, Robert Irwin, who came with the a sculptural garden, using plants as the medium. The form was never appreciated by the architect but it was approved by the Getty Trust. A walk through the garden is a kinesthetic and sensual experience. The sculpture is essentially in three parts: the first is called the stream garden, where a visitor begins walking down a slope to what looks like the terminus of the garden and a sweeping vista of Los Angeles. The stream garden is essentially a canyon of tumbling green chert boulders sliced by running water. Visitors walk in a zigzag pattern down the canyon, on a stone path laid in herringbone design The stream garden spills out to a second overlook, a transition space, or plaza, marked by seating areas with umbrellas of bougainvillea and metal fifteen feet overhead, the bougainvillea tumbling out of bouquets of the unexpected industrial rebar. Finally the waterbody takes a plunge of 20 ft into a carnelian granite wall lined basin, which has the bowl garden with the azalea maze.Certosa Galluzo 12. JOHN HEJDUK John Quentin Hejduk (19 July 1929 3 July 2000), was an American architect, artist and educator who spent much of his life in New York City, USA. Hejduk is noted for his use of attractive and often difficult-toconstruct objects and shapes; also for a profound interest in the fundamental issues of shape, organization, representation, and reciprocity. Hejduk studied at the Cooper Union School of Art and Architecture, the University of Cincinnati, and the Harvard Graduate School of Design, from which he graduated with a Masters in Architecture in 1953. He worked in several offices in New York including that of I. M. Pei and Partners and the office of A.M. Kinney and Associates. He established his own practice in New York in 1965 Hejduk was Professor of Architecture at The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, School of Architecture from 1964 to 2000 and Dean of the School of Architecture from 1975 to 2000. His arrival including the cooperation of many other influential professors ( including Daniel Shapiro )His early work and curriculum grew from a set of exercises exploring cubes, grids, and frames, through an examination of square grids placed within diagonal containers set against an occasional curving wall, towards a series of experiments with flat planes and curved masses in various combinations and colors. For research he was awarded a grant from the Graham Foundation in 1967. Eventually, John Hejduk's "hard-line" modernist space-making exercises,