Rhetorical Devices What are they and why are they used?

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Rhetorical Devices What are they and why are they used? </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Rhetorical Devices What is a rhetorical device? What is a rhetorical device? A technique an author uses to evoke an emotional response Why do authors use rhetorical devices? Why do authors use rhetorical devices? Emphasis, association, clarification, focus, organization, transition, arrangement, decoration, variety. In other words, works would be much more boring without them. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Rhetorical Devices Notice the difference. Notice the difference. "We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing-grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills." Winston Churchill "We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing-grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills." Winston Churchill Without rhetorical devices, this might be summarized as We will fight everywhere. Without rhetorical devices, this might be summarized as We will fight everywhere. What impact do the descriptions give you? What impact do the descriptions give you? </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Rhetorical Devices "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." Neil Armstrong "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." Neil Armstrong Think about these famous lines: Would it be more effective to say, We took a big step? Think about these famous lines: Would it be more effective to say, We took a big step? </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Rhetorical Devices Rhetorical devices add spark and interest to writing. Rhetorical devices add spark and interest to writing. They also function on different levels They also function on different levels Individual Sounds Level Individual Sounds Level Word Level Word Level Sentence/Phrase Level Sentence/Phrase Level All Others All Others </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Individual Sounds Level Alliteration: The same consonant sound repeated at the beginning of several words or syllables in close proximity Alliteration: The same consonant sound repeated at the beginning of several words or syllables in close proximity Mary sat musing on the lamp-flame at the table" from The Death of the Hired Man by Robert Frost Mary sat musing on the lamp-flame at the table" from The Death of the Hired Man by Robert Frost </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Individual Sound Level Assonance: The same or similar vowel sounds repeated in words within close proximity Assonance: The same or similar vowel sounds repeated in words within close proximity Slow things are beautiful: The closing of the day, The pause of the wave That curves downward to spray Slow things are beautiful: The closing of the day, The pause of the wave That curves downward to spray From Elizabeth Coatsworth Swift Things Are Beautiful From Elizabeth Coatsworth Swift Things Are Beautiful </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Individual Sounds Level Assonance Assonance But he grew old, But he grew old, This knight so bold, This knight so bold, And o'er his heart a shadow And o'er his heart a shadow Fell as he found Fell as he found No spot of ground No spot of ground That looked like Eldorado. That looked like Eldorado. From Eldorado by Edgar Allan Poe From Eldorado by Edgar Allan Poe </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Individual Level Sounds Onomatopoeia: The sound of the word imitates the sound of the object itself Onomatopoeia: The sound of the word imitates the sound of the object itself Baa Baa Black Sheep Baa Baa Black Sheep To the tintinnabulation that so musically wells From the bells, bells, bells, bells, Bells, bells, bells- From the jingling and the tinkling of the bells. From Edgar Allan Poe To the tintinnabulation that so musically wells From the bells, bells, bells, bells, Bells, bells, bells- From the jingling and the tinkling of the bells. From Edgar Allan Poe </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Individual Sounds Level Onomatopoeia Onomatopoeia The rusty spigot Sputters, Utters A splutter, Spatters a smattering of drops, Gashes wider; Slash, Splatters, Scatters, Spurts, Finally stops sputtering And plash! Gushes rushes splashes Clear water dashes. By: Eve Merriam The rusty spigot Sputters, Utters A splutter, Spatters a smattering of drops, Gashes wider; Slash, Splatters, Scatters, Spurts, Finally stops sputtering And plash! Gushes rushes splashes Clear water dashes. By: Eve Merriam </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Word Level Anaphora: A word or phrase is repeated at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses or lines Anaphora: A word or phrase is repeated at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses or lines How they are provided for upon the Earth, How they are provided for upon the Earth, How dear and dreadful they are to the Earth. How dear and dreadful they are to the Earth. From Walt Whitman From Walt Whitman </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Word Level Anaphora Anaphora Let us march to the realization of the American dream. Let us march on segregated hosuing. Let us march on segregated schools. Let us march on poverty. Let us march on ballot boxes. Let us march to the realization of the American dream. Let us march on segregated hosuing. Let us march on segregated schools. Let us march on poverty. Let us march on ballot boxes. Martin Luther King, Jr. Martin Luther King, Jr. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Word Level Antimetabole: The repetition of certain words in reverse order Antimetabole: The repetition of certain words in reverse order Whether it is better to be loved rather than feared or feared rather than loved Whether it is better to be loved rather than feared or feared rather than loved Machiavelli Machiavelli </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Word Level Climax/Gradation: Arrangement of words or phrases in order of ascending power Climax/Gradation: Arrangement of words or phrases in order of ascending power Some men are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them. (Shakespeare, Twelfth Night) Some men are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them. (Shakespeare, Twelfth Night) </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Word Level Epistrophe: A word or expression is repeated at the end of successive phrases, clauses or lines. The reverse of anaphora. Epistrophe: A word or expression is repeated at the end of successive phrases, clauses or lines. The reverse of anaphora. Of the people, by the people, and for the people From Abe Lincoln Of the people, by the people, and for the people From Abe Lincoln "If ever two were one, then surely we. "If ever two were one, then surely we. If ever man were lov'd by wife, then thee; If ever man were lov'd by wife, then thee; If ever wife was happy in a man, Compare me If ever wife was happy in a man, Compare me with ye women if you can." From Anne with ye women if you can." From Anne Bradstreet Bradstreet </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Word Level Oxymoron: Similar to antithesis. Brings together two contradictory forms Oxymoron: Similar to antithesis. Brings together two contradictory forms Jumbo Shrimp Jumbo Shrimp Civil War Civil War </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Word Level Synonym: Use of words with the same or similar meanings Synonym: Use of words with the same or similar meanings I hate inconstancy-I loathe, detest, I hate inconstancy-I loathe, detest, Abhor, condemn, abujure, the mortal made Of such quicksilvery clay. From Lord Byron, Don Juan </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Sentence/Phrase Leve Anadiapolis: Repeat at the beginning of the sentence the last word or phrase of the preceding sentence. Anadiapolis: Repeat at the beginning of the sentence the last word or phrase of the preceding sentence. Joseph Mazzini said, And love, young men, love and venerate the ideal. The ideal is the word of God. Joseph Mazzini said, And love, young men, love and venerate the ideal. The ideal is the word of God. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Sentence/Phrase Level Chiasmus: The grammatical structure of the first clause or phrase reversed in the second, sometimes repeating the same words. Chiasmus: The grammatical structure of the first clause or phrase reversed in the second, sometimes repeating the same words. And so my fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country (John F. Kennedy, Jr.) And so my fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country (John F. Kennedy, Jr.) </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Sentence/Phrase Level Ellipsis: A word or phrase in a sentence is omitted though implied by the context Ellipsis: A word or phrase in a sentence is omitted though implied by the context A mighty maze! But not without a plan From Pope, An Essay on Man A mighty maze! But not without a plan From Pope, An Essay on Man </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Sentence/Phrase Level Epanalepsis: The repetition at the end of a clause of the word that occurred in the beginning. Epanalepsis: The repetition at the end of a clause of the word that occurred in the beginning. Blood hath brought blood, and blows answerd blows: Blood hath brought blood, and blows answerd blows: Strength matchd with strength, and power confronted power (Shakespeare, King John II.I) </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Sentence/Phrase Level Inversion: The usual word order is rearranged, often for the effect of emphasis or to maintain the meter Inversion: The usual word order is rearranged, often for the effect of emphasis or to maintain the meter Therell be dancing in the street Therell be dancing in the street A chance new folk to meet A chance new folk to meet From Martha and the Vandellas </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Sentence/Phrase Level Hyberbole: Obvious exaggeration for emphasis or effect Hyberbole: Obvious exaggeration for emphasis or effect There did not seem to be brains enough in the entire nursery, so to speak, to bait a fishhook with. From Mark Twain, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court There did not seem to be brains enough in the entire nursery, so to speak, to bait a fishhook with. From Mark Twain, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court Why does a boy whos fast as a jet Why does a boy whos fast as a jet Take all dayand sometimes two Take all dayand sometimes two To get to school? To get to school? John Ciardi, "Speed Adjustments" John Ciardi, "Speed Adjustments" </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Sentence/Phrase Level Imagery: Sensory pictures that a piece of literature evokes Imagery: Sensory pictures that a piece of literature evokes Can be tactile words (relating to touch, smell, sight, hearing, and taste) Can be tactile words (relating to touch, smell, sight, hearing, and taste) Can be similes and metaphors that evoke pictures Can be similes and metaphors that evoke pictures A red wheelbarrow A red wheelbarrow glazed with rainwater glazed with rainwater beside the white chickens beside the white chickens From William Carlos Williams </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Sentence/Phrase Level Parallelism: The repetition of identical or similar elements Parallelism: The repetition of identical or similar elements The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and that they should do some warm-up exercises before the game. The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and that they should do some warm-up exercises before the game. </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Sentence/Phrase Level Tricolon: Division of an idea into three harmonious parts, usually of increasing power. Tricolon: Division of an idea into three harmonious parts, usually of increasing power. In a larger sense, we cannot didicatewe cannot consecratewe cannot hallow this ground. (Abe Lincoln) In a larger sense, we cannot didicatewe cannot consecratewe cannot hallow this ground. (Abe Lincoln) </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Sentence/Phrase Level Paradox: A daring statement which unites seemingly contradictory words but which upon closer examination proves to have unexpected meaning and truth Paradox: A daring statement which unites seemingly contradictory words but which upon closer examination proves to have unexpected meaning and truth He worked hard at being lazy. He worked hard at being lazy. </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Sentence/Phrase Level Personification: Animals, ideas, abstractions or inanimate objects are endowed with human characteristics Personification: Animals, ideas, abstractions or inanimate objects are endowed with human characteristics To fit its sides, and crawl between, Complaining all the while In horrid, hooting stanza; Then chase itself down hill To fit its sides, and crawl between, Complaining all the while In horrid, hooting stanza; Then chase itself down hill The Train by Emily Dicksinson The Train by Emily Dicksinson </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> All Others Diction: Word Choice Diction: Word Choice Denotation/Connotation Denotation/Connotation Words in unusual combinations Words in unusual combinations Degree of difficulty or complexity of a word Degree of difficulty or complexity of a word Level of formality of a word Level of formality of a word Tone of a word (emotional charge it carries) Tone of a word (emotional charge it carries) </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> All Others Syntax: Sentence arrangement or word order Syntax: Sentence arrangement or word order Type of Sentence: Simple or complex Type of Sentence: Simple or complex Type of Sentence: Questions, exclamations, declarative, commands, rhetorical questions Type of Sentence: Questions, exclamations, declarative, commands, rhetorical questions Length of sentence Length of sentence Subtle shifts of abrupt changes in sentence lengths and patterns Subtle shifts of abrupt changes in sentence lengths and patterns Punctuation Use Punctuation Use Use of repetition Use of repetition Language patterns/cadence/rhyme Language patterns/cadence/rhyme The use of active or passive voice The use of active or passive voice </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> All Others Allusion: A reference in a work of literature to something outside the work of literature, especially to a well-known historical or literary event, person or work Allusion: A reference in a work of literature to something outside the work of literature, especially to a well-known historical or literary event, person or work In the room the women come and go Talking of Michelangelo. In the room the women come and go Talking of Michelangelo. From T.S. Eliot The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> All Others Antithesis: Opposition or contrast of ideas or words in a parallel construction; explores and then refutes Antithesis: Opposition or contrast of ideas or words in a parallel construction; explores and then refutes Not that I have loved Caesar less, but that I love Rome more Not that I have loved Caesar less, but that I love Rome more From Shakespeares Julius...</li></ul>

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