Rhetoric and Logical Fallacies. Logos, Ethos, Pathos

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Rhetoric and Logical Fallacies </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Logos, Ethos, Pathos </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Argument that appeals to logic Examples: Statistics, arguments with proof, lists of features </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Argument based on the reputation of a person or expert Example: A doctor endorsed medicine Celebrity endorsement </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Argument based on emotion; tugs at the proverbial heartstrings Pathetic Example: The animal abuse commercials with pictures of sad eyed puppies and kittens. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Pathos </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Ethos </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Logos </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Pathos </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Look at the text given and answer the following questions: 1. Who is the author/speaker? For what is he/she known? 2. What is the main idea, or topic, of the text? 3. What is the time period? How do the events of the time influence the text and the speaker? 4. Who is the intended audience? 5. What is the authors point of view on the topic? What is he/she trying to get the audience to do or believe? 6. What persuasive strategies does the author use? (Logos, Ethos, Pathos) How do you know? 7. How does the author organize the text? (most important to least important, chronologically, etc.) How does this organization help the argument/persuasion? </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Locate print ads (magazines) or multimedia ads (TV/YouTube) Bring the ad to class (cut it out or bring on a flash drive) Due date: </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Rhetoric </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Fallacies are kinds of errors in logic or problems in reasoning They should not be persuasive, but they often are They may be created unintentionally, or intentionally in order to deceive people </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Definition Dismisses the facts, and attacks the person instead Hints Name calling Examples Muellers books on shark attacks are worthless because he is a convicted embezzler and forger. </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Definition appeal to emotions of the reader panders to popular passion or sentiment Hint To the people Think patriotism, virtues, values, and sometimes tradition </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Definition -its a form of ad populum - An appeal to peer pressure and group identity Hint Think: Everyone else is doing it </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Definition Plain Folks- someone rich, famous and/or well-known claims to be ordinary Snob Appeal- use/believe this and you'll be like the rich, famous, beautiful </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Hint Makes you relate (or want to relate) to someone because you are like them or want to be MORE like them </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Definition: It appeals to the emotions rather than the mind of the reader- stronger appeal than ad populum </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Example For only pennies a day, you can save this childs life (insert unhealthy, unhappy picture here) </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Definition an assumption that one step will inevitably lead to a second, usually undesirable step. Hint Watch for extreme assumptions </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7KQQc YEbMNM&amp;feature=relmfu </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Definition: one, therefore all OR If all, therefore one </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Examples: That high school student is so immature. All high school students are immature. Or- All the kids from that school are stuck up, so the kid who just transferred over must be stuck up too. </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Questionable Cause: Since event B followed event A, B must have been caused by A. Hasty Generalization: reaching a generalization based on insufficient evidence; without considering all of the variables Appeal to False Authority: either the authority is not a subject-matter expert or there is no consensus among the experts, or both </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Is the purpose to PERSUADE? YES look for fallacies NO probably does not contain fallacies Is the information TRUE and verifiable? YES probably does not contain fallacies NO text may contain fallacies </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Does the information contain FACTS TO BACK UP THE GENERALIZATIONS? YES probably does not contain fallacies NO text may contain fallacies Is the language LITERAL or FIGURATIVE? LITERAL? Text may contain fallacies FIGURATIVE? Text probably does not contain fallacies </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Using two ads (print or video) answer the following questions: 1. What is the product being sold? 2. What is happening in the ad? What is the layout or storyline? Is there a particular focus in the ad? (e.g. bold print, bright colors, a central character, etc.) 3. How does the advertiser use the items from #2 to help persuade the intended audience? 4. Who is the intended audience? (be specific: teenage girls worried about acne) 5. What is the authors point of view on the topic? What is he/she trying to get the audience to do or believe? 6. What fallacies are present in the ad? (give examples and name the fallacy) How do you know? 7. What persuasive strategies does the author use? (Logos, Ethos, Pathos) How do you know? </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Locate a print or video advertisement. With a partner or small group analyze and then recreate (remix) the ad to target a different audience. The original ad, the analysis and the remixed ad will be presented in front of the class. </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> 1. Describe and/or show the original ad. 2. Name the product/service being advertised. 3. Explain layout and fallacies in original ad. 4. Create remixed ad, present it, and explain changes made in order to target the new audience. 5. Use and explain at least two logical fallacies in the remixed ad. 6. Use and explain Logos, Ethos, or Pathos in the remixed ad. </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Men (dads, single men, etc.) Women (moms, single women, etc.) Teenagers (boys, girls, both) Children (babies, elementary) Elderly Texans Minnesotans Californians Soccer Moms Hipsters Fashionistas Tree-Huggers Affluent (rich) consumers Harvard Grad Jocks Celebrity/Socialite Teachers Etc. </li> </ul>