rfp - reducing the hazard of losing balance while standing in ttc vehicles

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A request for proposal detailing the issue of balance while standing on TTC vehicles in the hope of improving passenger safety.

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Reducing the Hazard of Losing Balance While Standing in TTC VehiclesRequest for ProposalESC102 - Praxis II

ESC 102 Request for Proposal

Reducing the Hazard of Losing Balance While Standing in TTC VehiclesAbstractOn TTC vehicles there is a high risk of losing balance while standing and thereby sustaining injuries. The majority of injuries on these vehicles are not due to collisions - they occur because of the high levels of acceleration and deceleration that the vehicles regularly experience [1]. The threshold acceleration level that a passenger can sustain is often exceeded [2], and passengers can be destabilized if sufficient aids for support are not available, as is the case when boarding the vehicle. The problem is amplified by the fact that the interiors of the vehicles are poorly designed to reduce the severity of injuries once a passenger has lost balance and fallen. Seats are arranged in such a way that a person could hit them and be severely injured when falling, with the severity of injuries depending on the position of the passenger in the vehicle [3]. Three potential approaches to addressing the problem have been identified while taking into account the considerations of stakeholders, such as the community of standing commuters and TTC Administration. The solution could attempt to prevent the initial loss of balance, to improve the probability of balance recovery, or to reduce the severity of injury received.

[1] A. Kirk et al., Passenger casualties in non-collision incidents on buses and coaches in Great Britain, in Proceedings of the 18th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, Nagoya, Conf. 2003, pp. 1 - 10. [2] B. De Graaf and W. Van Weperen, (1997). The retention of balance: An exploratory study into the limits of acceleration the human body can withstand without losing equilibrium, Human Factors, 39 (1), pp. 111-118. [3] A. Palacio et al., Non-collision injuries in urban buses - Strategies for prevention, Electron. Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, Rep. 2009

Reducing the Hazard of Losing Balance While Standing in TTC Vehicles

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ESC 102 Request for Proposal

Table of ContentsSection 1 - Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 4 Section 2 Identifying the Community and their Needs .......................................................................... 4 2.1 The Community of Standing TTC Commuters ............................................................................... 4 2.2 Size of the Community .................................................................................................................... 4 2.3 Needs and Quality of Life of Standing Commuters......................................................................... 5 Section 3 Problem Definition ................................................................................................................. 5 3.1 Problem Statement ........................................................................................................................... 5 3.2 Validating the Problem .................................................................................................................... 6 3.3 Relation to Quality of Life ............................................................................................................... 6 Section 4 Scientific Analysis of Balance................................................................................................ 7 4.1 Defining Balance ............................................................................................................................. 7 4.2 Loss of Balance on Transit Vehicles ............................................................................................... 7 4.3 Human Reaction to Balance Loss .................................................................................................... 9 Section 5 Causes of Injury...................................................................................................................... 9 5.1 Positions of Injured Passengers ....................................................................................................... 9 5.2 Computer Simulations of Injuries .................................................................................................. 10 Section 6 Stakeholders ......................................................................................................................... 11 6.1 TTC Commuters ............................................................................................................................ 11 6.2 TTC Administrators ....................................................................................................................... 12 6.3 TTC Vehicle Operators.................................................................................................................. 12 6.4 Municipal and Provincial Governments ........................................................................................ 12 Section 7 Engineering Framing ............................................................................................................ 12 7.1 Objectives ...................................................................................................................................... 13 7.2 Constraints ..................................................................................................................................... 13 7.3 Criteria ........................................................................................................................................... 13 Section 8 Reference Designs and Design Space .................................................................................. 15 8.1 Potential Design Space .................................................................................................................. 15 8.2 Grooved Handgrip ......................................................................................................................... 15 8.3 Floor Materials and Floor Treads .................................................................................................. 16 Section 9 - Conclusion ............................................................................................................................ 16

Reducing the Hazard of Losing Balance While Standing in TTC Vehicles

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ESC 102 Request for Proposal

Appendix A Breakdown of Weekday TTC Ridership ......................................................................... 17 Appendix B Maslows Hierarchy of Needs.......................................................................................... 18 Appendix C Empirical TTC Vehicle Acceleration Data ...................................................................... 19 Appendix D Interviews with the Community ...................................................................................... 23 References ............................................................................................................................................... 25

Reducing the Hazard of Losing Balance While Standing in TTC Vehicles

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ESC 102 Request for Proposal

Section 1 - IntroductionStanding passengers on TTC vehicles are consistently at a risk of losing balance due to high accelerations. The resulting falls can lead to severe injuries, which directly impairs the quality of life of commuters. The purpose of this request for proposal (RFP) is to solicit solutions to reducing the hazard associated with loss of balance. This RFP begins by identifying the community, their needs, and the relation of the problem to their quality of life. It then addresses their needs by defining the problem thoroughly and examining its key factors. Finally, some reference designs and design guidelines are provided to help the designing team.

Section 2 Identifying the Community and their NeedsThis section will provide formal definitions of the key terms in this RFP - community, quality of life, and need, followed by an idea of the magnitude of the community that the problem affects.

2.1 The Community of Standing TTC CommutersFor the purposes of this RFP, a community is defined as a group of people who share a common aspect of their lives and interact with one another [1]. This document focuses on the community of standing TTC commuters. In general, all standing commuters share the experience of travelling from point A to point B and inevitably interact with each other. Thus, standing commuters can be considered as a legitimate community. Additionally, the existence of commuter organizations such as TTCriders and Rocket Riders that voice out the opinion of commuters, including standing commuters, justify the existence of the community [2] [3]. Furthermore, the TTC has a Customer Liaison Panel and holds Town Hall Meetings about three times per year with the public, showing how important the commuters are to them [4] [5]. Standing commuters make up a large portion of the community of commuters, as any commuter capable of standing could potentially be a standing commuter.

2.2 Size of the CommunityOn their respective planned capacities, 25% of people are standing on a bus, 38% are standing on a streetcar, and 63% are standing on a subway car [6], as shown in Table 1.Table 1 - Planned capacity of TTC Buses, Streetcars, and Toronto Rocket [6]

Capacity Seated Standing % Standing

Bus 48 36 12 25%

Streetcar 74 46 28 38%

Toronto Rocket 180 66 114 63%

Reducing the Hazard of Losing Balance While Standing in TTC Vehicles

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ESC 102 Request for Proposal

The TTC reports that passenger demand during AM peak ho